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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223376/bactericidal-and-fungicidal-activity-of-n-chlorotaurine-is-enhanced-in-cystic-fibrosis-sputum-medium
#1
Martina Gruber, Ivan Moser, Markus Nagl, Michaela Lackner
Lung infections with multiresistant pathogens are a major problem of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). N-chlorotaurine (NCT), a microbicidal active chlorine compound with no resistance development, is well tolerated upon inhalation. The aim of this study was to investigate NCT on its bactericidal and fungicidal activity in vitro in artificial sputum medium (ASM) mimicking the composition of cystic fibrosis mucus.The medium was inoculated with bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus including some MRSA strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) or spores of fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium boydii, Lomentospora prolificans, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium minutisporum, Exophiala dermatitidis, Geotrichum sp...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#2
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213022/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-listeria-monocytogenes-isolated-from-fresh-and-smoked-fish-in-poland
#3
Kinga Wieczorek, Jacek Osek
A total of 57 out of 301 (18.9%) fresh and smoked fish samples in Poland were positive for Listeria monocytotgenes. The bacteria were most frequently identified in fresh and smoked salmon (32.0% and 33.8% respectively) as well as in fresh cod (31.8%). Only three samples of smoked salmon were contaminated with the bacteria above 100 CFU/g. Four molecular serogroups were identified and the most prevalent, 1/2a-3a (40 isolates; 70.2%), was present in samples from both marine (33 strains; 71.7%) and freshwater fish (7 isolates; 63...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196696/patients-hospitalized-abroad-as-importers-of-multiresistant-bacteria-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Tamim Khawaja, Juha Kirveskari, Sara Johansson, Juuso Väisänen, Aurora Djupsjöbacka, Annika Nevalainen, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria poses a threat to healthcare worldwide, with highest prevalence in indigent regions of the (sub)tropics. As hospitalization constitutes a major risk factor for colonization, infection control management in low-prevalence countries urgently needs background data on patients hospitalized abroad. METHODS: We collected data on 1122 patients who, after hospitalization abroad, were treated at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2010 and 2013...
February 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190441/neurologic-complications-of-sepsis
#5
E Schmutzhard, B Pfausler
Over the past decades, the incidence of sepsis and resultant neurologic sequelae has increased, both in industrialized and low- or middle-income countries, by approximately 5% per year. Up to 300 patients per 100 000 population per year are reported to suffer from sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Mortality is up to 30%, depending on the precision of diagnostic criteria. The increasing incidence of sepsis is partially explained by demographic changes in society, with aging, increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients, dissemination of multiresistant pathogens, and greater availability of supportive medical care in both industrialized and middle-income countries...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186774/quantitative-map-of-%C3%AE-lactone-induced-virulence-regulation
#6
Joanna Krysiak, Matthias Stahl, Jan Vomacka, Christian Fetzer, Markus Lakemeyer, Anja Fux, Stephan A Sieber
β-Lactones have recently been introduced as the first selective ClpP inhibitors that attenuate virulence of both sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant strains (MRSA). Although previous knockout studies showed that ClpP is essential for S. aureus alpha-toxin production, a link between β-lactone inhibition and molecular virulence mechanisms has been lacking so far. We here perform a chemical-proteomic approach to elucidate antivirulence pathways. First, we demonstrate by gel-free activity-based protein profiling that ClpP is the predominant target of β-lactones...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154184/bax-bak-independent-mitochondrial-depolarization-and-reactive-oxygen-species-induction-by-sorafenib-overcome-resistance-to-apoptosis-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
Bernhard Gillissen, Anja Richter, Antje Richter, Robert Preissner, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff, Frank Essmann, Peter T Daniel
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is polyresistant to chemo- and radiotherapy or biologicals including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of RCC, has been shown to sensitize cancer cells toward TRAIL-induced apoptosis, in particular by downregulation of the Bak-inhibitory Bcl 2 family protein Mcl 1. Here, we demonstrate that sorafenib overcomes TRAIL resistance in RCC by a mechanism that does not rely on Mcl 1 downregulation. Instead, sorafenib induces a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) that is accompanied by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137933/genomic-analysis-of-urogenital-and-rectal-neisseria-meningitidis-isolates-reveals-encapsulated-hyperinvasive-meningococci-and-coincident-multidrug-resistant-gonococci
#8
Odile B Harrison, Kevin Cole, Joanna Peters, Fiona Cresswell, Gillian Dean, David W Eyre, John Paul, Martin Cj Maiden
OBJECTIVE: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) outbreaks in men who have sex with men (MSM) have been associated with meningococcal colonisation of the urethra and rectum, but little is known about this colonisation or co-colonisation with the closely related gonococcus. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was employed to explore these phenomena. METHODS: Meningococci isolated from the urogenital tract and rectum (n=23) and coincident gonococci (n=14) were analysed by WGS along with contemporary meningococci from IMD (n=11)...
January 30, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129822/-antimicrobial-spectrum-of-dalbavancin-mechanism-of-action-and-in-vitro-activity-against-gram-positive-microorganisms
#9
Emilia Cercenado
Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. Dalbavancin is a semisynthetic glycopeptide that inhibits the late stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis in the same way as vancomycin, but in addition, its lipophilic side chain anchors dalbavancin to the cellular membrane and allows enhanced activity compared with that of vancomycin. Dalbavancin possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, being 4-8 times more potent than vancomycin...
January 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129819/-evaluation-of-clinical-evidence-for-dalbavancin
#10
Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo
Gram-positive infections are currently a therapeutic challenge because of the emergence of strains resistant to first-line antibiotics. Consequently, in the last few years, new antibiotics have been developed with activity against multiresistant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and strains with intermediate sensitivity to vancomycin. Among the new antibiotics approved for the treatment of these microorganisms, dalbavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide derived from teicoplanin, but has a superior efficacy profile to the latter...
January 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129818/-analysis-of-dalbavancin-in-animal-models
#11
Óscar Murillo, Cristina El-Haj
Multiresistant Gram-positive infections continue to pose a major clinical challenge and the development of new antibiotics is always desirable. Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with a prolonged half-life that allows long dosing intervals. In experimental models, its activity has been evaluated in distinct models and microorganisms, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn; however, the largest number of studies have been conducted in Staphylococcus aureus infection. Overall, dalbavancin has shown concentration-dependent efficacy and the parameters best explaining its activity are maximal pharmacodynamic concentration/minimal inhibitory concentration and the area under the curve/minimal inhibitory concentration...
January 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125588/comparison-of-serotype-prevalence-of-pneumococci-isolated-from-middle-ear-lower-respiratory-tract-and-invasive-disease-prior-to-vaccination-in-iceland
#12
Martha Á Hjálmarsdóttir, Sigríður Júlía Quirk, Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Ásgeir Haraldsson, Karl G Kristinsson
BACKGROUND: Information on pneumococcal serotype distribution before vaccination is a prerequisite for evaluation of vaccine effect. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from middle ear (ME), lower respiratory tract (LRT) and from invasive disease (IPD) in Iceland prior to implementation of ten-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV-10) into the infant vaccination program (April 2011). METHODS AND FINDINGS: All isolates cultured 2007-2011 from ME, LRT and IPD identified as pneumococci were serotyped and tested for susceptibility at the Clinical Microbiology Department, Landspitali University Hospital that serves approximately 85% of the Icelandic population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124861/nosocomial-blood-stream-infections-in-patients-treated-with-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-at-the-croatian-referral-center-for-respiratory-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#13
Marko Kutleša, Marija Santini, Vladimir Krajinović, Neven Papić, Anđa Novokmet, Renata Josipović Mraović, Bruno Baršić
BACKROUND: The incidence of complication rates in patients treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) remains substantial and impacts the results of any future trial dealing with ECMO efficacy. Of these complications blood stream infections (BSI) are less well studied. Our objective was to report influence of BSI in ARDS patients treated with VV ECMO. METHODS: 100 adult patients with ARDS treated with VV ECMO at the tertiary care hospital in Zagreb, Croatia between the October of 2009 and the June of 2016 were prospectively included in the study...
January 25, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124027/bacterial-lysis-through-interference-with-peptidoglycan-synthesis-increases-biofilm-formation-by-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#14
Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Alexandra Merlos, Miguel Viñas, Marien I de Jonge, Josefina Liñares, Carmen Ardanuy, Jeroen D Langereis
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in this process are poorly elucidated. In this study, we used a transposon mutant library to identify bacterial genes involved in biofilm formation...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122910/environmental-emission-of-multiresistant-escherichia-coli-carrying-the-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-from-german-swine-farms
#15
Sebastian Guenther, Linda Falgenhauer, Torsten Semmler, Can Imirzalioglu, Trinad Chakraborty, Uwe Roesler, Nicole Roschanski
OBJECTIVES: Pigs have been the focus of the worldwide spread of colistin resistance. However, there is little information on the transmission of mcr-1-containing bacteria into the environment of pig farms. We therefore rescreened environmental Escherichia coli isolates from the surrounding farm areas of three previously mcr-1-positive swine herds in Germany. METHODS: Thirty-five mixed bacterial cultures obtained from boot swabs, flies, dog faeces and manure from three pig farms in Germany in 2011-12 were non-selectively recultivated and the presence of the mcr-1 gene was checked by real-time PCR...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119479/diversity-and-functionality-of-plasmid-borne-vagcd-toxin-antitoxin-systems-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Marion Duprilot, Dominique Decre, Nathalie Genel, Laurence Drieux, Wladimir Sougakoff, Guillaume Arlet
OBJECTIVES: To explore the VagCD toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems encoded on plasmids in multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. METHODS: Previously sequenced K. pneumoniae plasmids were used for in silico analysis and a collection of 63 resistant K. pneumoniae strains was used for epidemiological study. Functional analysis was done after separate cloning of the toxin gene under the control of the arabinose-inducible promoter of pBAD43 and of the antitoxin gene under the control of the constitutive promoter of pUC19...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118090/identifying-components-required-for-omp-biogenesis-as-novel-targets-for-antiinfective-drugs
#17
Johanna Weirich, Cornelia Bräutigam, Melanie Mühlenkamp, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Boris Macek, Ina Meuskens, Mikael Skurnik, Katarzyna Leskinen, Erwin Bohn, Ingo Autenrieth, Monika Schütz
The emergence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria requires new therapies for combating bacterial infections. Targeting the biogenesis of virulence factors could be an alternative strategy instead of killing bacteria with antibiotics. The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria acts as a physical barrier. At the same time it facilitates the exchange of molecules and harbors a multitude of proteins associated with virulence. In order to insert proteins into the OM, an essential oligomeric membrane-associated protein complex, the ß-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) is required...
January 24, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115042/-septic-arthritis
#18
Niels Christian Kromann, Maria Egede Johansen, Jesper Hvolris
Septic arthritis (SA) is a rare, but crucial differential diagnosis in any patient with acute arthritis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many chronic diseases predispose for the development of SA and poor prognosis. Reports speak of increasing rates of SA due to multiresistant bacteria, but the development in Denmark is uncertain. Diagnosis is difficult, and absence of positive microbiological findings does not disprove the diagnosis. In addition, evidence supporting one regiment of treatment over another is scarce...
January 16, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112334/-copper-activity-against-multiresistant-gram-positive-cocci-isolated-in-chilean-hospitals
#19
Tomás Kappes, Mariana Domínguez, Helia Bello-Toledo, Sergio Mella Montecinos, Gisella Riedel Molina, Gerardo González-Rocha
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections caused by multiresistant Gram-positive cocci are a serious problem for public health systems worldwide. The use of copper surfaces in hospital environments has proven to be an effective alternative for the control of various microorganisms, including multiresistant nosocomial pathogens. AIM: To determine the association between antibiotic multiresistance and higher levels of copper tolerance in Gram-positive cocci isolated from Chilean hospitals, which might confer a selective advantage in environments with copper...
October 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096365/unlocking-tn3-family-transposase-activity-in-vitro-unveils-an-asymetric-pathway-for-transposome-assembly
#20
Emilien Nicolas, Cédric A Oger, Nathan Nguyen, Michaël Lambin, Amandine Draime, Sébastien C Leterme, Michael Chandler, Bernard F J Hallet
The Tn3 family is a widespread group of replicative transposons that are notorious for their contribution to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant pathogens worldwide. The TnpA transposase of these elements catalyzes DNA breakage and rejoining reactions required for transposition. It also is responsible for target immunity, a phenomenon that prevents multiple insertions of the transposon into the same genomic region. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby TnpA acts in both processes remain unknown...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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