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Christoph Klinger, Berrett Dengler, Thomas Bauer, Ralf S Mueller
A 4-year-old ball python was presented 3 weeks after multiple bite wounds from a prey rat with large skin lesions, a concurrent deep bacterial pyoderma and clinical signs for septicemia, including neurolo -gical symptoms. Affected tissue separated from the underlying muscular layer revealing parts of the muscles. Clinical examination and cyto -logy was consistent with bacterial pyoderma; septicemia was an additional tentative clinical diagnosis. Empirical lincomycin and marbo -floxacin (bacterial culture revealed a multi-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptible to fluoroquinolones) treatment improved the patient's general condition but skin wounds deteriorated to multifocal eschars with intracellular rods...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Demosthenes Makris, Efi Petinaki, Vasssiliki Tsolaki, Efstratios Manoulakas, Konstantinos Mantzarlis, Olimpia Apostolopoulou, Dimitrios Sfyras, Epaminondas Zakynthinos
Background: Retrospective studies have reported good clinical success rates using colistin as monotherapy to treat Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), comparable to that obtained with colistin combined with other antibiotics. However, inadequate penetration into the pulmonary parenchyma for colistin has been shown in animal models. Aim: The aim of the study was to study prospectively the outcome, measured as clinical response and survival, of intravenously administered colistin versus colistin combined with high-dose ampicillin-sulbactam in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with multiresistant A...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Herbert Galler, Gebhard Feierl, Christian Petternel, Franz F Reinthaler, Doris Haas, Juliana Habib, Clemens Kittinger, Josefa Luxner, Gernot Zarfel
Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens-extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)-were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Peter M Hawkey, Roderic E Warren, David M Livermore, Cliodna A M McNulty, David A Enoch, Jonathan A Otter, A Peter R Wilson
The Working Party makes more than 100 tabulated recommendations in antimicrobial prescribing for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and suggest further research, and algorithms for hospital and community antimicrobial usage in urinary infection. The international definition of MDR is complex, unsatisfactory and hinders the setting and monitoring of improvement programmes. We give a new definition of multiresistance. The background information on the mechanisms, global spread and UK prevalence of antibiotic prescribing and resistance has been systematically reviewed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
I A Vasiliadou, R Molina, F Martinez, J A Melero, P M Stathopoulou, G Tsiamis
Micropollutants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals can significantly affect the performance of secondary biological processes in wastewater treatment plants. The present study is aimed to evaluate the toxicity and inhibition of three pharmaceutical compounds (caffeine, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine) on two cultures of microbial consortia enriched from wastewater aerobic activated sludge. One of them was acclimated to pharmaceuticals and the other was non-acclimated as control bioassay. The toxic and inhibitory effects on these cultures were assessed by respirometric tests through the oxygen uptake rate as an indicator of their capacity to degrade a readily available carbon source...
February 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Silvia Forni, Giulio Toccafondi, Bruno Viaggi, Maddalena Grazzini, Sara D'Arienzo, Fabrizio Gemmi, Andrea Vannucci, Giorgio Tulli
Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat caused by the rapid spread of multiresistant microorganisms. Antimicrobial stewardship (AS) is a coordinated intervention designed to improve the appropriate use of antimicrobials by promoting the selection of the optimal drug regimen, dose, duration of therapy and route of administration. AS programs have proved effective in reducing antimicrobial resistance, inappropriate antimicrobial use and in improving patient outcomes. Recently developed rapid diagnostic technologies in microbiology (RDTM) allows a faster and etiological diagnosis of infection and a reduction in the use of unnecessary empirical therapies...
February 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Costas C Papagiannitsis, Ergina Malli, Katerina Tsilipounidaki, Stela Sarrou, Matej Medvecky, Jaroslav Hrabak, George C Fthenakis, Efi Petinaki
The aim of the present study was to describe the first mphC-positive staphylococci, including two Staphylococcus lentus (Sle-087lar and Sle-091lar) and one Staphylococcus xylosus (Sxy-228lar), isolated from samples of animal origin, in Greece. Isolates Sle-087lar and Sxy-228lar were resistant to erythromycin, whereas Sle-091lar was resistant to erythromycin and lincomycin. All three isolates were susceptible to the remaining antibiotics. PCR screening showed that isolate Sle-091lar carried also ermB. For Sxy-228lar, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and de novo assembly obtained an mphC-positive contig of 57...
February 28, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Flavio G Lipari, Abel H Zárate, Juan J García, Ana L Basquíera, Juan P Caeiro
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection is a common complication, which can be life-threatening for hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of bloodstream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational, retrospective study. We reviewed the records of 451 patients (autologous and allogeneic transplants) from January 2009 to October 2015. RESULTS: 99 positive blood cultures in 73 patients with bloodstream infection (16%) were found...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Martti Vaara
Polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E) are bactericidal pentacationic lipopeptides that act specifically on Gram-negative bacteria, first by disrupting their outermost permeability barrier, the outer membrane (OM), and then damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. The discovery of both polymyxin B and colistin was published independently by three laboratories as early as in 1947. They were subsequently used in intravenous therapy. Unfortunately, they also exhibit significant and dose-limiting nephrotoxicity. Therefore, polymyxins were reserved as agents of last-line defense...
February 27, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Andrés E Marcoleta, Macarena A Varas, Javiera Ortiz-Severín, Leonardo Vásquez, Camilo Berríos-Pastén, Andrea V Sabag, Francisco P Chávez, Miguel L Allende, Carlos A Santiviago, Octavio Monasterio, Rosalba Lagos
Multiresistant and invasive hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have become one of the most urgent bacterial pathogen threats. Recent analyses revealed a high genomic plasticity of this species, harboring a variety of mobile genetic elements associated with virulent strains, encoding proteins of unknown function whose possible role in pathogenesis have not been addressed. K. pneumoniae virulence has been studied mainly in animal models such as mice and pigs, however, practical, financial, ethical and methodological issues limit the use of mammal hosts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Christiane Adrielly Alves Ferraz, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Raphaël Grougnet, Valérie Thiéry, Laurent Picot
PURPOSE: Tumor cells are spontaneously or adaptively resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, eventually leading to the selection of multiresistant cells responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. Chemosensitization of tumor cells to conventional drugs using non-toxic natural products is a recent and innovative strategy aiming to increase the cytotoxic efficiency of anticancer drugs, limit their toxic side effects and delay the appearance of acquired chemoresistance. This systematic review summarizes data obtained from preclinical studies reporting the use of natural products to sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents...
February 21, 2018: Fitoterapia
Robert Häsler, Christian Kautz, Ateequr Rehman, Rainer Podschun, Volker Gassling, Pius Brzoska, Jon Sherlock, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Gesine Hoppenstedt, Sabine Schubert, Astrid Ferlinz, Wolfgang Lieb, Matthias Laudes, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Jens Scholz, Dag Harmsen, Andre Franke, Swantje Eisend, Thomas Kunze, Helmut Fickenscher, Stephan Ott, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant bacteria represent a substantial global burden for human health, potentially fuelled by migration waves: in 2015, 476,649 refugees applied for asylum in Germany mostly as a result of the Syrian crisis. In Arabic countries, multiresistant bacteria cause significant problems for healthcare systems. Currently, no data exist describing antibiotic resistances in healthy refugees. Here, we assess the microbial landscape and presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in refugees and German controls...
February 20, 2018: Microbiome
Assèta Kagambèga, Taru Lienemann, Jonathan G Frye, Nicolas Barro, Kaisa Haukka
Background: Multidrug-resistant Salmonella is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from patients and poultry feces. Methods: Salmonella strains were isolated from poultry and patients using standard bacteriological methods described in previous studies. The strains were serotype according to Kaufmann-White scheme and tested for antibiotic susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion method...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Paulo Durão, Roberto Balbontín, Isabel Gordo
Antibiotics target essential cellular functions but bacteria can become resistant by acquiring either exogenous resistance genes or chromosomal mutations. Resistance mutations typically occur in genes encoding essential functions; these mutations are therefore generally detrimental in the absence of drugs. However, bacteria can reduce this handicap by acquiring additional mutations, known as compensatory mutations. Genetic interactions (epistasis) either with the background or between resistances (in multiresistant bacteria) dramatically affect the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance and its compensation, therefore shaping dissemination of antibiotic resistance mutations...
February 10, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Liang-Xing Fang, Xing-Ping Li, Guo-Hui Deng, Shu-Min Li, Run-Shi Yang, Zuo-Wei Wu, Xiao-Ping Liao, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu
We report a novel fusion plasmid pP2-3T co-integrating ST3-IncHI2 with IncFII plasmid backbone mediating multidrug resistance and virulence. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative genomic revealed that pP2-3T and other MDR ST3-IncHI2 plasmids clustered together representing a unique IncHI2 lineage that exhibited high conservation in backbones of plasmid, but possessed highly genetic plasticity in variable regions via acquiring numerous ARGs and fusing with other plasmids. Surveillance studies should be taken to monitor multiresistance IncHI2 plasmids among Enterobacteriaceae...
February 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
E Launay, C Gras-Le Guen, J Caillon, C Flamant, D Navas, P Ovetchkine
Rational use of antibiotic has become a national and international health priority to fight against the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. Neonates are particularly exposed to antibiotic treatments because of their high susceptibility to severe infection and the lack of specificity of sepsis signs that make diagnosis difficult. This population is also particularly susceptible to microbiota disruption due to antibiotic treatment. Implementation of antibiotic stewardship in neonate is then an urgent need. According to a literature review, principles of antibiotic stewardship implementation in neonate are based on: (i) a multidisciplinary team comprising infectious disease specialists and aware of neonatal specificities (diagnosis, bacterial epidemiology, pharmacology) ; (ii) clear and easy-to-evaluate goals discussed a priori with neonatologists ; (iii) short-term assessment of the impact on antibiotic consumption and antimicrobial resistance ; (iv) enablement of the healthcare professionals within the ward to enhance the sustainability and (v) support from the institution...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
André Birgy, Fouad Madhi, Julien Hogan, Catherine Doit, Jean Gaschignard, Marion Caseris, Philippe Bidet, Robert Cohen, Stéphane Bonacorsi
Horizontally transferable plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene encoding a phosphoethanolamine transferase conferring resistance to colistin in multiresistant pathogen may lead to therapeutic impasse.….
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sally R Partridge, Guy Tsafnat
Background: Multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria is often due to acquisition of several different antibiotic resistance genes, each associated with a different mobile genetic element, that tend to cluster together in complex conglomerations. Accurate, consistent annotation of resistance genes, the boundaries and fragments of mobile elements, and signatures of insertion, such as DR, facilitates comparative analysis of complex multiresistance regions and plasmids to better understand their evolution and how resistance genes spread...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Innocent Kouamé Kouadio, Nathalie Guessennd, Adjéhi Dadié, Eugène Koffi, Mireille Dosso
OBJECTIVES: The uses of antimicrobials contribute an important selection of multiresistant bacteria in the digestive microbiota of pigs. Alternative use for antibiotics to reduce bacterial resistance in the digestive flora of animals is recommended. AIMS: of study was to evaluate by comparative study the level of selection of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the digestive microbiota of piglets when using amoxicillin and Algo-bio®. METHODS: Administration was carried out over a period of five days at the dose of 1ml/10kg/of body weight...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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