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evolutionary theory

Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Sarah Paganini, Irena Schank, Paul Enck, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
Objective: Problems in emotion processing potentially contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Theories focusing on attentional processing have suggested that dysfunctional attention deployment toward emotional information, i.e., attentional biases for negative emotions, might entail one potential developmental and/or maintenance factor of chronic pain. Methods: We assessed self-reported alexithymia, attentional orienting to and maintenance on emotional stimuli using eye tracking in 17 patients with chronic pain disorder (CP) and two age- and sex-matched control groups, 17 healthy individuals (HC) and 17 individuals who were matched to CP according to depressive symptoms (DC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jan O Haerter, Namiko Mitarai, Kim Sneppen
When food webs are exposed to species invasion, secondary extinction cascades may be set off. Although much work has gone into characterizing the structure of food webs, systematic predictions on their evolutionary dynamics are still scarce. Here we present a theoretical framework that predicts extinctions in terms of an alternating sequence of two basic processes: resource depletion by or competitive exclusion between consumers. We first propose a conceptual invasion extinction model (IEM) involving random fitness coefficients...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Chen Zhu, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiran Zhao, Qihui Chen
In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis)...
February 19, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Marcin Maździarz, Adam Mrozek, Wacław Kuś, Tadeusz Burczyński
A potentially new, single-atom thick semiconducting 2D- graphene -like material, called Anisotropic-cyclicgraphene , has been generated by the two stage searching strategy linking molecular and ab initio approach. The candidate was derived from the evolutionary-based algorithm and molecular simulations was then profoundly analysed using first-principles density functional theory from the structural, mechanical, phonon, and electronic properties point of view. The proposed polymorph of graphene ( rP16 -P1m1) is mechanically, dynamically, and thermally stable and can achieve semiconducting with a direct band gap of 0...
March 16, 2018: Materials
A G Ramos, V J García-Garrido, A M Mancho, S Wiggins, J Coca, S Glenn, O Schofield, J Kohut, D Aragon, J Kerfoot, T Haskins, T Miles, C Haldeman, N Strandskov, B Allsup, C Jones, J Shapiro
Transoceanic Gliders are Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for which there is a developing and expanding range of applications in open-seas research, technology and underwater clean transport. Mature glider autonomy, operating depth (0-1000 meters) and low energy consumption without a CO2 footprint enable evolutionary access across ocean basins. Pursuant to the first successful transatlantic glider crossing in December 2009, the Challenger Mission has opened the door to long-term, long-distance routine transoceanic AUV missions...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Edward J Steele, Shirwan Al-Mufti, Kenneth A Augustyn, Rohana Chandrajith, John P Coghlan, S G Coulson, Sudipto Ghosh, Mark Gillman, Reginald M Gorczynski, Brig Klyce, Godfrey Louis, Kithsiri Mahanama, Keith R Oliver, Julio Padron, Jiangwen Qu, John A Schuster, W E Smith, Duane P Snyder, Julian A Steele, Brent J Stewart, Robert Temple, Gensuke Tokoro, Christopher A Tout, Alexander Unzicker, Milton Wainwright, Jamie Wallis, Daryl H Wallis, Max K Wallis, John Wetherall, D T Wickramasinghe, J T Wickramasinghe, N Chandra Wickramasinghe, Yongsheng Liu
We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H- W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Henkjan Honing
In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
François Vasseur, Moises Exposito-Alonso, Oscar J Ayala-Garay, George Wang, Brian J Enquist, Denis Vile, Cyrille Violle, Detlef Weigel
Seed plants vary tremendously in size and morphology; however, variation and covariation in plant traits may be governed, at least in part, by universal biophysical laws and biological constants. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) posits that whole-organismal metabolism and growth rate are under stabilizing selection that minimizes the scaling of hydrodynamic resistance and maximizes the scaling of resource uptake. This constrains variation in physiological traits and in the rate of biomass accumulation, so that they can be expressed as mathematical functions of plant size with near-constant allometric scaling exponents across species...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Dominika Dragosz-Kluska, Tomasz Pis, Katarzyna Pawlik, Filip Kapustka, Wincenty M Kilarski, Jan Kozłowski
Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Kirsty S Lee, Heather Brittain, Tracy Vaillancourt
We investigated the longitudinal associations between self-reported aggression, self-perceived social status, and dating in adolescence using an intrasexual competition theoretical framework. Participants consisted of 536 students in Grade 9 (age 15), recruited from a community sample, who were assessed on a yearly basis until they were in Grade 11 (age 17). Adolescents self-reported their use of direct and indirect aggression, social status, and number of dating partners. A cross-lagged panel model that controlled for within-time covariance and across-time stability while examining cross-lagged pathways was used to analyze the data...
March 14, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Israel Pagán, Fernando García-Arenal
The two major mechanisms of plant defense against pathogens are resistance (the host's ability to limit pathogen multiplication) and tolerance (the host's ability to reduce the effect of infection on its fitness regardless of the level of pathogen multiplication). There is abundant literature on virtually every aspect of plant resistance to pathogens. Although tolerance to plant pathogens is comparatively less understood, studies on this plant defense strategy have led to major insights into its evolution, mechanistic basis and genetic determinants...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
John Jarrell
Historically, the evolutionary origins of menstruation have been based on two theories: the ability to eliminate infectious agents carried to the uterus with spermatozoa and the comparative conservation of energy with menstruation compared to its absence. In the menstruating species, more recent theories have identified spontaneous decidualization as the key adaptive mechanism. Spontaneous decidualization is seen as a mechanism to provide the mother with protection from the invasive characteristics of the embryo...
February 8, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Nathan Cofnas
MacDonald argues that a suite of genetic and cultural adaptations among Jews constitutes a "group evolutionary strategy." Their supposed genetic adaptations include, most notably, high intelligence, conscientiousness, and ethnocentrism. According to this thesis, several major intellectual and political movements, such as Boasian anthropology, Freudian psychoanalysis, and multiculturalism, were consciously or unconsciously designed by Jews to (a) promote collectivism and group continuity among themselves in Israel and the diaspora and (b) undermine the cohesion of gentile populations, thus increasing the competitive advantage of Jews and weakening organized gentile resistance (i...
March 10, 2018: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Renée C Firman
Males and females rarely have identical evolutionary interests over reproduction, and when the fitness of both sexes is dependent upon paternity outcomes, sexual conflict over fertilization is inevitable. In internal fertilizers, the female tract is a formidable selective force on the number and integrity of sperm that reach the egg. Selection on sperm quality is intensified when females mate multiply and rival males are forced to compete for fertilizations. While male adaptations to sperm competition have been well documented (e...
March 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yael Lahav, Alana Siegel, Zahava Solomon
Spouses of traumatized war veterans might suffer from distress following indirect exposure to combat and direct exposure to domestic abuse. Yet the effect of this twofold trauma exposure is far from being fully understood. Theory views attachment security as a personal resource mitigating adversity, whereas attachment insecurities intensify distress. Nevertheless, there are mixed results concerning the effects of attachment in the aftermath of trauma. Furthermore, the role of trauma exposure levels regarding the effects of attachment remains largely uninvestigated...
March 9, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Saras Henderson, Maria Horne, Ruth Hills, Elizabeth Kendall
This study aims to conduct a concept analysis on cultural competence in community healthcare. Clarification of the concept of cultural competence is needed to enable clarity in the definition and operation, research and theory development to assist healthcare providers to better understand this evolving concept. Rodgers' evolutionary concept analysis method was used to clarify the concept's context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes and consequences and to determine implications for further research...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Andrea Baronchelli
The origin of population-scale coordination has puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries. Recently, game theory, evolutionary approaches and complex systems science have provided quantitative insights on the mechanisms of social consensus. However, the literature is vast and widely scattered across fields, making it hard for the single researcher to navigate it. This short review aims to provide a compact overview of the main dimensions over which the debate has unfolded and to discuss some representative examples...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jussi Lehtonen, Lisa E Schwanz
Sex ratio evolution has been one of the most successful areas of evolutionary theory. Pioneered by Düsing and Fisher under panmixia, and later extended by Hamilton to cover local mate competition (LMC), these models often assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that all females are fertilized. Here, we examine the effects of relaxing this assumption, under both panmictic and LMC models with diploid genetics. We revisit the question of the mathematical relationship between sex ratio and probability of fertilization, and use these results to model sex ratio evolution under risk of incomplete fertilization...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Samuel P L Veissière, Moriah Stendel
We present a deflationary account of smartphone addiction by situating this purportedly antisocial phenomenon within the fundamentally social dispositions of our species. While we agree with contemporary critics that the hyper-connectedness and unpredictable rewards of mobile technology can modulate negative affect, we propose to place the locus of addiction on an evolutionarily older mechanism: the human need to monitor and be monitored by others. Drawing from key findings in evolutionary anthropology and the cognitive science of religion, we articulate a hypernatural monitoring model of smartphone addiction grounded in a general social rehearsal theory of human cognition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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