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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#1
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#2
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904145/older-fathers-children-have-lower-evolutionary-fitness-across-four-centuries-and-in-four-populations
#3
Ruben C Arslan, Kai P Willführ, Emma M Frans, Karin J H Verweij, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Mikko Myrskylä, Eckart Voland, Catarina Almqvist, Brendan P Zietsch, Lars Penke
Higher paternal age at offspring conception increases de novo genetic mutations. Based on evolutionary genetic theory we predicted older fathers' children, all else equal, would be less likely to survive and reproduce, i.e. have lower fitness. In sibling control studies, we find support for negative paternal age effects on offspring survival and reproductive success across four large populations with an aggregate N > 1.4 million. Three populations were pre-industrial (1670-1850) Western populations and showed negative paternal age effects on infant survival and offspring reproductive success...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904133/comparing-physical-and-social-cognitive-skills-in-macaque-species-with-different-degrees-of-social-tolerance
#4
Marine Joly, Jérôme Micheletta, Arianna De Marco, Jan A Langermans, Elisabeth H M Sterck, Bridget M Waller
Contemporary evolutionary theories propose that living in groups drives the selection of enhanced cognitive skills to face competition and facilitate cooperation between individuals. Being able to coordinate both in space and time with others and make strategic decisions are essential skills for cooperating within groups. Social tolerance and an egalitarian social structure have been proposed as one specific driver of cooperation. Therefore, social tolerance is predicted to be associated with enhanced cognitive skills that underpin communication and coordination...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901568/shared-decision-making-in-the-paediatric-field-a-literature-review-and-concept-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Eun Sook Park, In Young Cho
AIM: The concept of shared decision-making is poorly defined and often used interchangeably with related terms. The aim of this study was to delineate and clarify the concept of shared decision-making in the paediatric field. METHOD: Rodgers and Knafl's evolutionary concept analysis was used to delineate and clarify the concept. Following a search of the CINAHL, PubMed and MEDLINE databases and online journals between 1995 and 2016, we included a total of 42 articles that referred to shared decision-making in the paediatric field...
September 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894462/a-novel-strategy-for-minimum-attribute-reduction-based-on-rough-set-theory-and-fish-swarm-algorithm
#6
Yuebin Su, Jin Guo
For data mining, reducing the unnecessary redundant attributes which was known as attribute reduction (AR), in particular, reducts with minimal cardinality, is an important preprocessing step. In the paper, by a coding method of combination subset of attributes set, a novel search strategy for minimal attribute reduction based on rough set theory (RST) and fish swarm algorithm (FSA) is proposed. The method identifies the core attributes by discernibility matrix firstly and all the subsets of noncore attribute sets with the same cardinality were encoded into integers as the individuals of FSA...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894206/caring-cooperators-and-powerful-punishers-differential-effects-of-induced-care-and-power-motivation-on-different-types-of-economic-decision-making
#7
G Chierchia, F H Parianen Lesemann, D Snower, M Vogel, T Singer
Standard economic theory postulates that decisions are driven by stable context-insensitive preferences, while motivation psychology suggests they are driven by distinct context-sensitive motives with distinct evolutionary goals and characteristic psycho-physiological and behavioral patterns. To link these fields and test how distinct motives could differentially predict different types of economic decisions, we experimentally induced participants with either a Care or a Power motive, before having them take part in a suite of classic game theoretical paradigms involving monetary exchange...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890670/a-phenomenological-and-dynamic-view-of-homology-homologs-as-persistently-reproducible-modules
#8
Daichi G Suzuki, Senji Tanaka
Homology is a fundamental concept in biology. However, the metaphysical status of homology, especially whether a homolog is a part of an individual or a member of a natural kind, is still a matter of intense debate. The proponents of the individuality view of homology criticize the natural kind view of homology by pointing out that homologs are subject to evolutionary transformation, and natural kinds do not change in the evolutionary process. Conversely, some proponents of the natural kind view of homology argue that a homolog can be construed both as a part of an individual and a member of a natural kind...
2017: Biological Theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889019/psychotraumatology-what-researchers-and-clinicians-can-learn-from-an-evolutionary-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Alfonso Troisi
This review outlines the contribution of evolutionary science to experimental and clinical psychotraumatology. From an evolutionary perspective, traumatic and psychosocial stressors are conceived of as events or circumstances that thwart the achievement of biological goals. The more important is the adaptive value of the goal, the more painful is the emotional impact of the life event that endangers goal achievement. Life history theory and sexual selection theory help to explain why goal priorities differ between the sexes and across age groups...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887468/the-network-of-plants-volatile-organic-compounds
#10
Gianna Vivaldo, Elisa Masi, Cosimo Taiti, Guido Caldarelli, Stefano Mancuso
Plants emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to provide an alternative classification of plants species. In particular, by using bipartite networks methodology from Complex Network Theory, and through the application of community detection algorithms, we show that is possible to classify species according to chemical classes such as terpenes and sulfur compounds...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886591/predictors-of-early-dropout-in-treatment-for-gambling-disorder-the-role-of-personality-disorders-and-clinical-syndromes
#11
G Maniaci, C La Cascia, F Picone, A Lipari, C Cannizzaro, D La Barbera
Several treatment options for gambling disorder (GD) have been tested in recent years; however dropout levels still remain high. This study aims to evaluate whether the presence of psychiatric comorbidities predicts treatment outcome according to Millon's evolutionary theory, following a six-month therapy for GD. The role of severity, duration of the disorder, typology of gambling (mainly online or offline) and pharmacological treatment were also analysed. The recruitment included 194 pathological gamblers (PGs) to be compared with 78 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884795/assortment-and-the-analysis-of-natural-selection-on-social-traits
#12
Grant C McDonald, Damien R Farine, Kevin R Foster, Jay M Biernaskie
A central problem in evolutionary biology is to determine whether and how social interactions contribute to natural selection. This can be addressed with selection analyses that relate individual fitness to individual and social phenotypes. One such approach, known as social selection analysis, leads to the intuitive result that fitness effects from social partners will contribute to selection only if there is a correlation between the traits of individuals and their social partners (non-random phenotypic assortment)...
September 8, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882507/stochastic-noncooperative-and-cooperative-evolutionary-game-strategies-of-a-population-of-biological-networks-under-natural-selection
#13
REVIEW
Bor-Sen Chen, Chin-Hsun Yeh
We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective...
September 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881442/many-to-one-form-to-function-mapping-weakens-parallel-morphological-evolution
#14
Cole J Thompson, Newaz I Ahmed, Thor Veen, Catherine L Peichel, Andrew P Hendry, Daniel I Bolnick, Yoel E Stuart
Evolutionary ecologists aim to explain and predict evolutionary change under different selective regimes. Theory suggests that such evolutionary prediction should be more difficult for biomechanical systems in which different trait combinations generate the same functional output: "many-to-one mapping". Many-to-one mapping of phenotype to function enables multiple morphological solutions to meet the same adaptive challenges. Therefore, many-to-one mapping should undermine parallel morphological evolution, and hence evolutionary predictability, even when selection pressures are shared among populations...
September 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878990/human-altruism-evolution-and-moral-philosophy
#15
William J FitzPatrick
This paper has two central aims. The first is to explore philosophical complications that arise when we move from (i) explaining the evolutionary origins of genetically influenced traits associated with human cooperation and altruism, to (ii) explaining present manifestations of human thought, feeling and behaviour involving cooperation and altruism. While the former need only appeal to causal factors accessible to scientific inquiry, the latter must engage also with a distinctive form of explanation, i.e. reason-giving explanation, which in turn raises important philosophical questions, the answers to which will affect the nature of the ultimate explanations of our moral beliefs and related actions...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878023/maximal-aggregation-of-polynomial-dynamical-systems
#16
Luca Cardelli, Mirco Tribastone, Max Tschaikowski, Andrea Vandin
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with polynomial derivatives are a fundamental tool for understanding the dynamics of systems across many branches of science, but our ability to gain mechanistic insight and effectively conduct numerical evaluations is critically hindered when dealing with large models. Here we propose an aggregation technique that rests on two notions of equivalence relating ODE variables whenever they have the same solution (backward criterion) or if a self-consistent system can be written for describing the evolution of sums of variables in the same equivalence class (forward criterion)...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876999/how-children-solve-the-two-challenges-of-cooperation
#17
Felix Warneken
In this review, I propose a new framework for the psychological origins of human cooperation that harnesses evolutionary theories about the two major problems posed by cooperation: generating and distributing benefits. Children develop skills foundational for identifying and creating opportunities for cooperation with others early: Infants and toddlers already possess basic skills to help others and share resources. Yet mechanisms that solve the free-rider problem-critical for sustaining cooperation as a viable strategy-emerge later in development and are more sensitive to the influence of social norms...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874728/unpredictability-of-escape-trajectory-explains-predator-evasion-ability-and-microhabitat-preference-of-desert-rodents
#18
Talia Y Moore, Kimberly L Cooper, Andrew A Biewener, Ramanarayan Vasudevan
Mechanistically linking movement behaviors and ecology is key to understanding the adaptive evolution of locomotion. Predator evasion, a behavior that enhances fitness, may depend upon short bursts or complex patterns of locomotion. However, such movements are poorly characterized by existing biomechanical metrics. We present methods based on the entropy measure of randomness from Information Theory to quantitatively characterize the unpredictability of non-steady-state locomotion. We then apply the method by examining sympatric rodent species whose escape trajectories differ in dimensionality...
September 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874264/evolutionary-processes-shaping-diversity-across-the-homo-lineage
#19
Lauren Schroeder, Rebecca Rogers Ackermann
Recent fossil finds have highlighted extensive morphological diversity within our genus, Homo, and the co-existence of a number of species. However, little is known about the evolutionary processes responsible for producing this diversity. Understanding the action of these processes can provide insight into how and why our lineage evolved and diversified. Here, we examine cranial and mandibular variation and diversification from the earliest emergence of our genus at 2.8 Ma until the Late Pleistocene (0.126-0...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874059/a-tale-of-two-concepts-harmonizing-the-free-radical-and-antagonistic-pleiotropy-theories-of-aging
#20
Alexey Golubev, Andrew D Hanson, Vadim N Gladyshev
The two foremost concepts of aging are the mechanistic free radical theory (FRT) of how we age, and the evolutionary antagonistic pleiotropy theory (APT) of why we age. Both date from the late 1950s. The FRT holds that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the principal contributors to the lifelong cumulative damage suffered by cells, whereas the APT is generally understood as positing that genes that are good for young organisms can take over a population even if they are bad for the old ones. Being related to two sides of the same phenomenon, these theories should be compatible...
September 6, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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