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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339418/an-evolutionary-biochemical-connection-between-promoter-and-primer-dependent-polymerases-revealed-by-selective-evolution-of-ligands-by-exponential-enrichment-selex
#1
Katherine J Fenstermacher, Vasudevan Achuthan, Thomas D Schneider, Jeffrey J DeStefano
DNA polymerases (DNAPs) recognize 3' recessed termini on duplex DNA and carry out nucleotide catalysis. Unlike promoter-specific RNA polymerases (RNAPs), no sequence specificity is required for binding or initiation of catalysis. Despite this, previous results indicate that viral reverse transcriptases bind much more tightly to DNA primers that mimic the polypurine tract. In the current report, primer sequences that bind with high affinity to Taq and Klenow polymerases were identified using a modified Selective Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) approach...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336511/differential-visual-ornamentation-between-brood-parasitic-and-parental-cuckoos
#2
Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai
The evolution of brood parasitism should affect adult phenotypic traits due to sexual selection as well as the parasite-host interactions, though it is rarely focused on. Sexual selection theory predicts extravagant secondary sexual characteristics in brood parasites while immature-like modest sexual characteristics in parental species. This is because juvenile-like immature traits can attract mates by exploiting parental care for young (i.e. attraction to young), and because the good parent process, which favors traits that signal parental care ability, would constrain the evolution of costly secondary sexual characteristics due to evolutionary tradeoffs between parental investment and sexually selected traits...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336023/bridging-evolutionary-biology-and-developmental-psychology-toward-an-enduring-theoretical-infrastructure
#3
REVIEW
Willem E Frankenhuis, Leonid Tiokhin
Bjorklund synthesizes promising research directions in developmental psychology using an evolutionary framework. In general terms, we agree with Bjorklund: Evolutionary theory has the potential to serve as a metatheory for developmental psychology. However, as currently used in psychology, evolutionary theory is far from reaching this potential. In evolutionary biology, formal mathematical models are the norm. In developmental psychology, verbal models are the norm. In order to reach its potential, evolutionary developmental psychology needs to embrace formal modeling...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336015/a-metatheory-for-cognitive-development-or-piaget-is-dead-revisited
#4
REVIEW
David F Bjorklund
In 1997, I argued that with the loss of Piaget's theory as an overarching guide, cognitive development had become disjointed and a new metatheory was needed to unify the field. I suggested developmental biology, particularly evolutionary theory, as a candidate. Here, I examine the increasing emphasis of biology in cognitive development research over the past 2 decades. I describe briefly the emergence of evolutionary developmental psychology and examines areas in which proximal and distal biological causation have been particularly influential...
January 16, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334414/cryptic-species-as-a-window-into-the-paradigm-shift-of-the-species-concept
#5
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333059/innate-food-aversions-and-culturally-transmitted-food-taboos-in-pregnant-women-in-rural-southwest-india-separate-systems-to-protect-the-fetus
#6
Caitlyn D Placek, Purnima Madhivanan, Edward H Hagen
Pregnancy increases women's nutritional requirements, yet causes aversions to nutritious foods. Most societies further restrict pregnant women's diet with food taboos. Pregnancy food aversions are theorized to protect mothers and fetuses from teratogens and pathogens or increase dietary diversity in response to resource scarcity. Tests of these hypotheses have had mixed results, perhaps because many studies are in Westernized populations with reliable access to food and low exposure to pathogens. If pregnancy food aversions are adaptations, however, then they likely evolved in environments with uncertain access to food and high exposure to pathogens...
November 2017: Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326983/detecting-reciprocity-at-a-global-scale
#7
Morgan R Frank, Nick Obradovich, Lijun Sun, Wei Lee Woon, Brad L LeVeck, Iyad Rahwan
Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324932/the-neurophysiological-and-evolutionary-considerations-of-close-combat-a-modular-approach
#8
Kostas Dervenis, Evangelos Tsialogiannis
Close Combat may be identified as a physical confrontation involving armed or unarmed fighting, lethal and/or non-lethal methods, or even simply escape from and/or de-escalation of the confrontation. Our model hypothesizes that distinct areas of the brain are utilized for specific levels of violence, based on evolutionary criteria, and that these levels of violence bring into effect distinct physiological criteria and kinesiology. This model is outlined similar to Paul D. MacLean's triune brain theory, but incorporates distinct processes inherent to the autonomic nervous system (i...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324850/generalization-of-the-ewens-sampling-formula-to-arbitrary-fitness-landscapes
#9
Pavel Khromov, Constantin D Malliaris, Alexandre V Morozov
In considering evolution of transcribed regions, regulatory sequences, and other genomic loci, we are often faced with a situation in which the number of allelic states greatly exceeds the size of the population. In this limit, the population eventually adopts a steady state characterized by mutation-selection-drift balance. Although new alleles continue to be explored through mutation, the statistics of the population, and in particular the probabilities of seeing specific allelic configurations in samples taken from the population, do not change with time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321506/interference-of-chemical-defence-and-sexual-communication-can-shape-the-evolution-of-chemical-signals
#10
Lisa Pfeiffer, Joachim Ruther, John Hofferberth, Johannes Stökl
According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones can originate from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer. This is exemplified by females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma whose defensive secretion consisting mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin has evolved secondary functions as cue to avoid other females during host search and as female sex pheromone. To promote our understanding of pheromone evolution from defensive secretions we studied the chemical ecology of Leptopilina clavipes...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319892/role-of-cytochrome-p450-2b-sequence-variation-and-gene-copy-number-in-facilitating-dietary-specialization-in-mammalian-herbivores
#11
Smiljka Kitanovic, Teri J Orr, Daniel Spalink, Granger B Cocke, Katharina Schramm, P Ross Wilderman, James R Halpert, M Denise Dearing
Theory postulates that dietary specialization in mammalian herbivores is enabled by a specialized set of liver enzymes that process the high concentrations of similar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in the diets of specialists. To investigate whether qualitative and quantitative differences in detoxification mechanisms distinguish dietary specialists from generalists, we compared the sequence diversity and gene copy number of detoxification enzymes in two woodrat species: a generalist, the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), and a juniper specialist, Stephens' woodrat (N...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310539/a-chemical-reaction-to-the-historiography-of-biology
#12
Angela N H Creager
This article examines the often-overlooked role of chemical ideas and practices in the history of modern biology. The first section analyses how the conventional histories of the life sciences have, through the twentieth century, come to focus nearly exclusively on evolutionary theory and genetics, and why this storyline is inadequate. The second section elaborates on what the restricted neo-Darwinian history of biology misses, noting a variety of episodes in the history of biology that relied on developments in - or tools from - chemistry, including an example from the author's own work...
January 8, 2018: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302272/evolution-with-a-seed-bank-the-population-genetic-consequences-of-microbial-dormancy
#13
REVIEW
William R Shoemaker, Jay T Lennon
Dormancy is a bet-hedging strategy that allows organisms to persist through conditions that are suboptimal for growth and reproduction by entering a reversible state of reduced metabolic activity. Dormancy allows a population to maintain a reservoir of genetic and phenotypic diversity (i.e., a seed bank) that can contribute to the long-term survival of a population. This strategy can be potentially adaptive and has long been of interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. However, comparatively little is known about how dormancy influences the fundamental evolutionary forces of genetic drift, mutation, selection, recombination, and gene flow...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#14
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302050/demographic-analysis-of-cyanobacteria-based-on-the-mutation-rates-estimated-from-an-ancient-ice-core
#15
Takahiro Segawa, Nozomu Takeuchi, Koji Fujita, Vladimir B Aizen, Eske Willerslev, Takahiro Yonezawa
Despite the crucial role of cyanobacteria in various ecosystems, little is known about their evolutionary histories, especially microevolutionary dynamics, because of the lack of knowledge regarding their mutation rates. Here we directly estimated cyanobacterial mutation rates based on ancient DNA analyses of ice core samples collected from Kyrgyz Republic that dates back to ~12,500 cal years before present. We successfully sequenced the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Two cyanobacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected from the ancient ice core samples, and these OTUs are shared with those from the modern glacier surface...
January 5, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301967/demography-and-mating-system-shape-the-genome-wide-impact-of-purifying-selection-in-arabis-alpina
#16
Benjamin Laenen, Andrew Tedder, Michael D Nowak, Per Toräng, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, Kim A Steige, Yiannis Kourmpetis, Thomas Odong, Andreas D Drouzas, Marco C A M Bink, Jon Ågren, George Coupland, Tanja Slotte
Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested this prediction using genomic data. Here, we study the effect of mating system on purifying selection by conducting population-genomic analyses on whole-genome resequencing data from 38 European individuals of the arctic-alpine crucifer Arabis alpina We find that outcrossing and mixed-mating populations maintain genetic diversity at similar levels, whereas highly self-fertilizing Scandinavian A...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300810/the-enigma-of-sex-allocation-in-selaginella
#17
Kurt B Petersen, Martin Burd
Background and Aims: The division of resource investment between male and female functions is poorly known for land plants other than angiosperms. The ancient lycophyte genus Selaginella is similar in some ways to angiosperms (in heterospory and in having sex allocation occur in the sporophyte generation, for example) but lacks the post-fertilization maternal investments that angiosperms make via fruit and seed tissues. One would therefore expect Selaginella to have sex allocation values less female-biased than in flowering plants and closer to the theoretical prediction of equal investment in male and female functions...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299956/-great-is-darwin-and-bergson-his-poet-julian-huxley-s-other-evolutionary-synthesis
#18
Emily Herring
In 1912, Julian Huxley published his first book The Individual in the Animal Kingdom which he dedicated to the then world-famous French philosopher Henri Bergson. Historians have generally adopted one of two attitudes towards Huxley's early encounter with Bergson. They either dismiss it entirely as unimportant or minimize it, deeming it a youthful indiscretion preceding Huxley's full conversion to Fisherian Darwinism. Close biographical study and archive materials demonstrate, however, that neither position is tenable...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299300/an-integrative-mating-system-assessment-of-a-nonmodel-economically-important-pacific-rockfish-sebastes-melanops-reveals-nonterritorial-polygamy-and-conservation-implications-for-a-large-species-flock
#19
Kurt W Karageorge, Raymond R Wilson
Characterizing the mating systems of long-lived, economically important Pacific rockfishes comprising the viviparous Sebastes species flock is crucial for their conservation. However, direct assignment of mating success to sires is precluded by open, offshore populations and high female fecundity. We addressed this challenge by integrating paternity-assigned mating success of females with the adult sex ratio (ASR) of the population, male evolutionary responses to receptive females, and reproductive life history traits-in the framework of sexual selection theory-to assess the mating system of Sebastes melanops...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289605/spatial-patterns-generated-by-simultaneous-cooperation-and-exploitation-favour-the-evolution-of-altruism
#20
Atsushi Yamauchi, Minus van Baalen, Maurice Sabelis
In kin selection theory in the evolution of social behaviours, the relatedness between interacting individuals is influenced by the spatial structure of the population. It is generally considered that in the 'viscous' population competition among individuals tends to suppress the evolution of altruism. We consider that more complex interactions produce specific spatial patterns in the presence of competitive interaction, which could alter the process of kin selection in a given space. Here, we theoretically studied the joint evolution of altruism and resource exploitation in a spatially structured population...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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