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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337898/melanin-of-the-nipple-areola-complex
#1
A Goren, M Kovacevic, T Lotti
Biological pigments or biochromes are ubiquitous in animals, plants, and simpler organisms such as fungi and bacteria. They serve a wide spectrum of functions from photosynthesis, camouflage, mimicry, photo protection from the environment to attracting mates. The human female nipple areola complex (NAC) is a highly-pigmented area. Currently, the prevailing theory as to the evolution of the pigmented human NAC is based on infant recognition of breast feeding latching zone; however, due to the protruding shape of the nipple and surrounding breast, the authors of this letter believe that the evolutionary advantage of the pigmented NAC has a direct physiological function, namely the initiation of involution at the end of the infant lactation period...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334603/the-cb1-receptor-as-the-cornerstone-of-exostasis
#2
REVIEW
Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Daniela Cota, Giovanni Marsicano
The type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the main effector of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in most brain and body functions. In this Perspective, we provide evidence indicating that CB1 receptor functions are key determinants of bodily coordinated exostatic processes. First, we will introduce the concepts of endostasis and exostasis as compensation or accumulation for immediate or future energy needs and discuss how exostasis has been necessary for the survival of species during evolution...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334310/different-from-trees-more-than-metaphors-branching-silhouettes-corals-cacti-and-the-oaks
#3
János Podani
There has long been ambiguity in the use of the term tree in phylogenetic systematics, which is a continuous source of misinterpretation of evolutionary relationships. The basic problem is that while many trees with phylogenetic or evolutionary relevance, such as cladograms, are consistent with graph theory, tree-like visualization of phylogeny may also be done via other types of graphics, especially botanical (or literal) tree drawings. As a consequence, the meaning of such diagrams is not always clear: a given picture may have multiple interpretations in its different parts and two figures that look similar may actually carry quite different information...
March 11, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333289/the-role-of-daf-21-hsp90-in-mouth-form-plasticity-in-pristionchus-pacificus
#4
Bogdan Sieriebriennikov, Gabriel V Markov, Hanh Witte, Ralf J Sommer
Phenotypic plasticity is increasingly recognized to facilitate adaptive change in plants and animals, including insects, nematodes and vertebrates. Plasticity can occur as continuous or discrete (polyphenisms) variation. In social insects, e.g. in ants, some species have workers of distinct size classes while in other closely related species variation in size may be continuous. Despite the abundance of examples in nature, how discrete morphs are specified remains currently unknown. In theory, polyphenisms might require robustness, whereby the distribution of morphologies would be limited by the same mechanisms that execute buffering from stochastic perturbations, a function attributed to heat-shock proteins of the Hsp90 family...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333215/genetic-diversity-and-the-efficacy-of-purifying-selection-across-plant-and-animal-species
#5
Jun Chen, Sylvain Glémin, Martin Lascoux
A central question in evolutionary biology is why some species have more genetic diversity than others and a no less important question is why selection efficacy varies among species. Although these questions have started to be tackled in animals, they have not been addressed to the same extent in plants. Here, we estimated nucleotide diversity at synonymous, πS, and nonsynonymous sites, πN, and a measure of the efficacy of selection, the ratio πN/πS, in 34 animal and 28 plant species using full genome data...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327253/the-wolf-will-live-with-the-lamb
#6
Richard Ronay, Joshua M Tybur
Maestripieri et al. pit evolutionary psychology against social psychological and economic perspectives in a winner-take-all empirical battle. In doing so, they risk positioning evolutionary psychology as an antagonistic subdisciplinary enterprise. We worry that such a framing may exacerbate tensions between "competing" scientific perspectives and limit evolutionary psychology's potential to serve as a unifying core theory.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327246/evolutionary-explanations-for-financial-and-prosocial-biases-beyond-mating-motivation
#7
Anthony C Little
Mating motivation likely plays a role in bias to attractive individuals, but there are other complementary theories drawn from the evolutionary literature related to competition, friendship, and leadership selection that also make relevant predictions concerning biases towards attractive individuals. The relative balance of these factors will be context dependent and so help explain why the pattern of bias is sometimes variable.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327243/what-does-evolutionary-theory-add-to-stereotype-theory-in-the-explanation-of-attractiveness-bias
#8
Kirby Q Maguire, Timothy P Racine
Maestripieri et al. seem to put forth an argument in which they become vulnerable to some of the same criticisms that they level against stereotype theory As a result, the explanatory utility of their account of attractiveness bias comes into question, and it is unclear whether it offers anything superior to stereotype theory in conceptual soundness.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327229/explanations-for-attractiveness-related-positive-biases-in-an-evolutionary-perspective-of-life-history-theory
#9
Bin-Bin Chen
The mating-related evolutionary explanation that Maestripieri et al. offer does not apply to (1) infants' positive biases toward attractive individuals and (2) adults' positive biases toward attractive infants and children. They are best understood when integrated into an evolutionary life history framework. I argue that the life history of positive biases toward attractive individuals is driven by fundamental trade-offs made throughout development.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326540/a-life-history-approach-to-delineating-how-harsh-environments-and-hawk-temperament-traits-differentially-shape-children-s-problem-solving-skills
#10
Jennifer H Suor, Melissa L Sturge-Apple, Patrick T Davies, Dante Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325887/a-laboratory-test-of-evolutionary-aging-theories
#11
Tatiana Iouk, Vladimir I Titorenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325881/probabilistic-models-of-species-discovery-and-biodiversity-comparisons
#12
Stewart M Edie, Peter D Smits, David Jablonski
Inferring large-scale processes that drive biodiversity hinges on understanding the phylogenetic and spatial pattern of species richness. However, clades and geographic regions are accumulating newly described species at an uneven rate, potentially affecting the stability of currently observed diversity patterns. Here, we present a probabilistic model of species discovery to assess the uncertainty in diversity levels among clades and regions. We use a Bayesian time series regression to estimate the long-term trend in the rate of species description for marine bivalves and find a distinct spatial bias in the accumulation of new species...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318539/a-revival-of-the-homo-loquens-as-a-builder-of-labeled-structures-neurocognitive-considerations
#13
REVIEW
T Goucha, E Zaccarella, A D Friederici
The core capacity of human language is described as the faculty to combine words into hierarchical structures. This review aims to isolate the fundamental computation behind the language faculty together with its neural implementation. First, we present our central hypothesis by confronting recent linguistic theory with evolutionary arguments: linguistic humaniqueness is reflected in the labeling of word combinations forming asymmetric hierarchical structures. Second, we review the neurolinguistic literature, especially focusing on dual-stream connectivity models...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316367/is-friendship-network-weight-status-associated-with-one-s-own-psychological-well-being-it-depends-on-one-s-own-weight-status
#14
Paul T Fuglestad, Melanie M Wall, Jin Joo Shim, Marla E Eisenberg, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
Drawing on multiple theoretical perspectives (e.g., social comparison theory, reward theory, evolutionary theory), the present research examined the relations of self and friendship network weight status to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression. A diverse, population-based sample of adolescents completed measures of well-being and were measured for height and weight. Boys had greater self-esteem if their male friendship networks' weight status mismatched, versus matched, their own weight status (d = ...
May 2016: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301766/biophysical-models-of-protein-evolution-understanding-the-patterns-of-evolutionary-sequence-divergence
#15
Julian Echave, Claus O Wilke
For decades, rates of protein evolution have been interpreted in terms of the vague concept of functional importance. Slowly evolving proteins or sites within proteins were assumed to be more functionally important and thus subject to stronger selection pressure. More recently, biophysical models of protein evolution, which combine evolutionary theory with protein biophysics, have completely revolutionized our view of the forces that shape sequence divergence. Slowly evolving proteins have been found to evolve slowly because of selection against toxic misfolding and misinteractions, linking their rate of evolution primarily to their abundance...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298346/population-structure-reduces-benefits-from-partner-choice-in-mutualistic-symbiosis
#16
Erol Akçay
Mutualistic symbioses are key drivers of evolutionary and ecological processes. Understanding how different species can evolve to interact in mutually beneficial ways is an important goal of evolutionary theory, especially when the benefits require costly investments by the partners. For such costly investments to evolve, some sort of fitness feedback mechanism must exist that more than recoups the direct costs. Several such feedback mechanisms have been explored both theoretically and empirically, yet we know relatively little of how they might act together, as they probably do in nature...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285083/gould-on-species-metaphysics-and-macroevolution-a-critical-appraisal
#17
Sandy C Boucher
Stephen Jay Gould's views on the ontology of species were an important plank of his revisionist program in evolutionary theory. In this paper I cast a critical eye over those views. I focus on three central aspects of Gould's views on species: the relation between the Darwinian and the metaphysical notions of individuality, the relation between the ontology of species and macroevolution, and the issue of contextualism and conventionalism about the metaphysics of species.
March 8, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284795/coordinating-associative-and-ecological-accounts-of-learning-in-the-garden-snail-cornu-aspersum
#18
I Loy, B Álvarez, E C Strempler-Rubio, M Rodríguez
Pavlovian conditioning of tentacle lowering in the snail, Cornu aspersum, as an instance of associative learning, has proven effective to show evidence of paradigmatic associative phenomena (e.g., blocking) explained by current models of conditioning. Nevertheless, the available literature questions the biological function of the conditioned response (i.e., tentacle lowering) in snails since no advantages in terms of food finding had been observed. Ecological accounts of learning claim that learning abilities contribute to the adaptation to the environmental demands, and there is experimental evidence supporting this reported in several species (e...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282463/family-based-association-study-of-drd4-gene-in-methylphenidate-responded-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Patrick Wing-Leung Leung, Janice Ka Yan Chan, Lu Hua Chen, Chi Chiu Lee, Se Fong Hung, Ting Pong Ho, Chun Pan Tang, Robert K Moyzis, James M Swanson
The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280990/parenting-strategies-in-modern-and-emerging-economies-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#20
Kermyt G Anderson, Kathrine E Starkweather
Independent of ecology, subsistence strategy, social complexity, or other aspects of socioecology, the altricial nature of young humans requires mothers to have help raising their offspring. What seems to be context-dependent, however, is who the helpers are, how they invest, and what the impacts of that investment are. In a series of papers that focus on parental and alloparental investment across five populations, this special issue of Human Nature uses evolutionary theory to examine how socioecological context influences modes of direct parental investment among the boat-dwelling Shodagor of Bangladesh (Starkweather), modes of indirect paternal investment in the modern United States (Anderson), and the biological outcome of paternal investment for men in Jamaica (Gray et al...
March 9, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
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