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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634295/population-genomic-inference-of-the-strength-and-timing-of-selection-against-gene-flow
#1
Simon Aeschbacher, Jessica P Selby, John H Willis, Graham Coop
The interplay of divergent selection and gene flow is key to understanding how populations adapt to local environments and how new species form. Here, we use DNA polymorphism data and genome-wide variation in recombination rate to jointly infer the strength and timing of selection, as well as the baseline level of gene flow under various demographic scenarios. We model how divergent selection leads to a genome-wide negative correlation between recombination rate and genetic differentiation among populations...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633194/moving-forward-in-circles-challenges-and-opportunities-in-modelling-population-cycles
#2
REVIEW
Frédéric Barraquand, Stilianos Louca, Karen C Abbott, Christina A Cobbold, Flora Cordoleani, Donald L DeAngelis, Bret D Elderd, Jeremy W Fox, Priscilla Greenwood, Frank M Hilker, Dennis L Murray, Christopher R Stieha, Rachel A Taylor, Kelsey Vitense, Gail S K Wolkowicz, Rebecca C Tyson
Population cycling is a widespread phenomenon, observed across a multitude of taxa in both laboratory and natural conditions. Historically, the theory associated with population cycles was tightly linked to pairwise consumer-resource interactions and studied via deterministic models, but current empirical and theoretical research reveals a much richer basis for ecological cycles. Stochasticity and seasonality can modulate or create cyclic behaviour in non-intuitive ways, the high-dimensionality in ecological systems can profoundly influence cycling, and so can demographic structure and eco-evolutionary dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630354/not-all-cells-are-equal-effects-of-temperature-and-sex-on-the-size-of-different-cell-types-in-the-madagascar-ground-gecko-paroedura-picta
#3
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Zuzana Starostová, Anna Sikorska, Elżbieta Bonda-Ostaszewska, Katarzyna Woch, Lukáš Kubička, Lukáš Kratochvíl, Jan Kozlowski
Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta) reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30 °C). Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but the pattern of this variance depends on the cell type. We identified three groups of cell types, and the cell sizes changed in a coordinated manner within each group...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630332/evolutionary-strata-on-young-mating-type-chromosomes-despite-the-lack-of-sexual-antagonism
#4
Sara Branco, Hélène Badouin, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jérôme Gouzy, Fantin Carpentier, Gabriela Aguileta, Sophie Siguenza, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Marco A Coelho, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Sex chromosomes can display successive steps of recombination suppression known as "evolutionary strata," which are thought to result from the successive linkage of sexually antagonistic genes to sex-determining genes. However, there is little evidence to support this explanation. Here we investigate whether evolutionary strata can evolve without sexual antagonism using fungi that display suppressed recombination extending beyond loci determining mating compatibility despite lack of male/female roles associated with their mating types...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625087/the-ex-pat-effect-presence-of-recent-western-immigrants-is-associated-with-changes-in-age-at-first-birth-and-birth-rate-in-a-maya-population-from-rural-guatemala
#5
Luseadra McKerracher, Mark Collard, Rachel Altman, Michael Richards, Pablo Nepomnaschy
BACKGROUND: Economic transitions expose indigenous populations to a variety of ecological and cultural challenges, especially regarding diet and stress. These kinds of challenges are predicted by evolutionary ecological theory to have fitness consequences (differential reproduction) and, indeed, are often associated with changes in fertility dynamics. It is currently unclear whether international immigration might impact the nature of such an economic transition or its consequences for fertility...
June 18, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624821/on-the-social-life-and-motivational-changes-of-aging-monkeys
#6
Julia Fischer
Although nonhuman primates have been used in biomedical research to develop a better understanding of physiological aging processes, their value as models for studying age-related differences in motivation, cognition, and decision-making has only recently been appreciated. This paper reviews the state of the art, with a focus on a recent study on Barbary macaques. A number of studies reported that with increasing age, Old World monkeys spend more time resting, have fewer social partners, and/or spend less time in social interactions, though other studies found no such effects...
June 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622590/can-evolutionary-theory-explain-the-slow-development-of-knowledge-about-the-level-of-safety-built-into-roads
#7
Rune Elvik
In several papers, Hauer (1988, 1989, 2000a, 2000b, 2016) has argued that the level of safety built into roads is unpremeditated, i.e. not the result of decisions based on knowledge of the safety impacts of design standards. Hauer has pointed out that the development of knowledge about the level of safety built into roads has been slow and remains incomplete even today. Based on these observations, this paper asks whether evolutionary theory can contribute to explaining the slow development of knowledge. A key proposition of evolutionary theory is that knowledge is discovered through a process of learning-by-doing; it is not necessarily produced intentionally by means of research or development...
June 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617639/genetic-correlations-among-developmental-and-contextual-behavioral-plasticity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Julia B Saltz, Seana Lymer, Jessica Gabrielian, Sergey V Nuzhdin
Correlations among traits, including behaviors, are important because traits that are genetically correlated may not evolve independently. Recently, behavioral-correlations research has expanded to include correlations not only in mean-level behaviors but also in behavioral plasticity, that is, the degree to which individuals change their behavior in response to environmental stimuli. Positive correlations among behavioral plasticities would imply that individuals or genotypes that are behaviorally plastic in one way may also be plastic in other ways; negative correlations could imply trade-offs...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617633/when-predators-help-prey-adapt-and-persist-in-a-changing-environment
#9
Matthew M Osmond, Sarah P Otto, Christopher A Klausmeier
To persist in a changing world, populations must adapt. The ability to adapt is influenced by interactions with other species, such as predators. Recent experiments and theory suggest that selective pressures arising from predation may help prey adapt phenotypically to changing environments, but how this influences persistence remains unclear. In particular, it has not yet been shown whether predator-induced adaptation can outweigh predator-imposed reductions in population size, allowing prey to persist when they would otherwise go extinct...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617632/evolutionary-determinants-of-morphological-polymorphism-in-colonial-animals
#10
Carl Simpson, Jeremy B C Jackson, Amalia Herrera-Cubilla
Colonial animals commonly exhibit morphologically polymorphic modular units that are phenotypically distinct and specialize in specific functional tasks. But how and why these polymorphic modules have evolved is poorly understood. Across colonial invertebrates, there is wide variation in the degree of polymorphism, from none in colonial ascidians to extreme polymorphism in siphonophores, such as the Portuguese man-of-war. Bryozoa are a phylum of exclusively colonial invertebrates that uniquely exhibit almost the entire range of polymorphism, from monomorphic species to others that rival siphonophores in their polymorphic complexity...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615504/biological-markets-in-cooperative-breeders-quantifying-outside-options
#11
Lena Grinsted, Jeremy Field
A major aim in evolutionary biology is to understand altruistic help and reproductive partitioning in cooperative societies, where subordinate helpers forego reproduction to rear dominant breeders' offspring. Traditional models of cooperation in these societies typically make a key assumption: that the only alternative to staying and helping is solitary breeding, an often unfeasible task. Using large-scale field experiments on paper wasps (Polistes dominula), we show that individuals have high-quality alternative nesting options available that offer fitness payoffs just as high as their actual chosen options, far exceeding payoffs from solitary breeding...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615498/antagonistically-pleiotropic-allele-increases-lifespan-and-late-life-reproduction-at-the-cost-of-early-life-reproduction-and-individual-fitness
#12
Alexei A Maklakov, Hanne Carlsson, Philip Denbaum, Martin I Lind, Brian Mautz, Andrea Hinas, Simone Immler
Evolutionary theory of ageing maintains that increased allocation to early-life reproduction results in reduced somatic maintenance, which is predicted to compromise longevity and late-life reproduction. This prediction has been challenged by the discovery of long-lived mutants with no loss of fecundity. The first such long-lived mutant was found in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans Specifically, partial loss-of-function mutation in the age-1 gene, involved in the nutrient-sensing insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway, confers longevity, as well as increased resistance to pathogens and to temperature stress without appreciable fitness detriment...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611437/reproductive-isolation-through-experimental-manipulation-of-sexually-antagonistic-coevolution-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Zeeshan Ali Syed, Martik Chatterjee, Manas Arun Samant, Nagaraj Guru Prasad
Promiscuity can drive the evolution of sexual conflict before and after mating occurs. Post mating, the male ejaculate can selfishly manipulate female physiology, leading to a chemical arms race between the sexes. Theory suggests that drift and sexually antagonistic coevolution can cause allopatric populations to evolve different chemical interactions between the sexes, thereby leading to postmating reproductive barriers and speciation. There is, however, little empirical evidence supporting this form of speciation...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610834/the-evolution-of-ecosystem-ascendency-in-a-complex-systems-based-model
#14
Katharina Brinck, Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen
General patterns in ecosystem development can shed light on driving forces behind ecosystem formation and recovery and have been of long interest. In recent years, the need for integrative and process oriented approaches to capture ecosystem growth, development and organisation, as well as the scope of information theory as a descriptive tool has been addressed from various sides. However data collection of ecological network flows is difficult and tedious and comprehensive models are lacking. We use a hierarchical version of the Tangled Nature Model of evolutionary ecology to study the relationship between structure, flow and organisation in model ecosystems, their development over evolutionary time scales and their relation to ecosystem stability...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608982/high-reproductive-effort-is-associated-with-decreasing-mortality-late-in-life-in-captive-ruffed-lemurs
#15
Morgane Tidière, Jean-François Lemaître, Guillaume Douay, Mylisa Whipple, Jean-Michel Gaillard
Evolutionary theories of senescence predict that a high allocation to reproduction during early life should have long-term deleterious consequences on future reproduction or survival because individuals have to face an energy allocation trade-off between reproductive effort and the maintenance of body condition. Using a high-quality dataset from 1,721 red ruffed lemurs (RRL, Varecia rubra) and 3,637 black and white ruffed lemurs (BWRM, V. variegata) living in captivity, we tested the existence of a trade-off between reproductive effort and late-life survival after accounting for possible confounding effects of natal environmental conditions...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607061/when-the-appeal-of-a-dominant-leader-is-greater-than-a-prestige-leader
#16
Hemant Kakkar, Niro Sivanathan
Across the globe we witness the rise of populist authoritarian leaders who are overbearing in their narrative, aggressive in behavior, and often exhibit questionable moral character. Drawing on evolutionary theory of leadership emergence, in which dominance and prestige are seen as dual routes to leadership, we provide a situational and psychological account for when and why dominant leaders are preferred over other respected and admired candidates. We test our hypothesis using three studies, encompassing more than 140,000 participants, across 69 countries and spanning the past two decades...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592430/relativistic-deflection-of-background-starlight-measures-the-mass-of-a-nearby-white-dwarf-star
#17
Kailash C Sahu, Jay Anderson, Stefano Casertano, Howard E Bond, Pierre Bergeron, Edmund P Nelan, Laurent Pueyo, Thomas M Brown, Andrea Bellini, Zoltan G Levay, Joshua Sokol, Martin Dominik, Annalisa Calamida, Noé Kains, Mario Livio
Gravitational deflection of starlight around the Sun during the 1919 total solar eclipse provided measurements that confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the analogous process of astrometric microlensing caused by a nearby star, the white dwarf Stein 2051 B. As Stein 2051 B passed closely in front of a background star, the background star's position was deflected. Measurement of this deflection at multiple epochs allowed us to determine the mass of Stein 2051 B-the sixth-nearest white dwarf to the Sun-as 0...
June 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590557/declines-in-plant-palatability-from-polar-to-tropical-latitudes-depend-on-herbivore-and-plant-identity
#18
Alyssa M Demko, Charles D Amsler, Mark E Hay, Jeremy D Long, James B McClintock, Valerie J Paul, Erik E Sotka
Long-standing theory predicts that the intensity of consumer-prey interactions declines with increasing latitude, yet for plant-herbivore interactions, latitudinal changes in herbivory rates and plant palatability have received variable support. The topic is of growing interest given that lower-latitude species are moving poleward at an accelerating rate due to climate change, and predicting local interactions will depend partly on whether latitudinal gradients occur in these critical biotic interactions. Here, we assayed the palatability of 50 seaweeds collected from polar (Antarctica), temperate (northeastern Pacific; California), and tropical (central Pacific; Fiji) locations to two herbivores native to the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, the generalist crab Mithraculus sculptus and sea urchin Echinometra lucunter...
June 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588130/lateral-gene-transfer-dynamics-in-the-ancient-bacterial-genus-streptomyces
#19
Bradon R McDonald, Cameron R Currie
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576881/assessing-elements-of-an-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-for-plant-domestication-and-agricultural-origin-research
#20
Dolores R Piperno
The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000-10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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