keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

evolutionary theory

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153398/maximizing-power-in-phylogenetics-and-phylogenomics-a-perspective-illuminated-by-fungal-big-data
#1
Alex Dornburg, Jeffrey P Townsend, Zheng Wang
Since its original inception over 150 years ago by Darwin, we have made tremendous progress toward the reconstruction of the Tree of Life. In particular, the transition from analyzing datasets comprised of small numbers of loci to those comprised of hundreds of loci, if not entire genomes, has aided in resolving some of the most vexing of evolutionary problems while giving us a new perspective on biodiversity. Correspondingly, phylogenetic trees have taken a central role in fields that span ecology, conservation, and medicine...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153324/the-paradox-of-environmental-symbiont-acquisition-in-obligate-mutualisms
#2
Aaron C Hartmann, Andrew H Baird, Nancy Knowlton, Danwei Huang
Mutually beneficial interactions between species (mutualisms) shaped the evolution of eukaryotes and remain critical to the survival of species globally [1, 2]. Theory predicts that hosts should pass mutualist symbionts to their offspring (vertical transmission) [3-8]. However, offspring acquire symbionts from the environment in a surprising number of species (horizontal acquisition) [9-12]. A classic example of this paradox is the reef-building corals, in which 71% of species horizontally acquire algal endosymbionts [9]...
November 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152178/the-genetics-of-phenotypic-plasticity-xv-genetic-assimilation-the-baldwin-effect-and-evolutionary-rescue
#3
Samuel M Scheiner, Michael Barfield, Robert D Holt
We used an individual-based simulation model to examine the role of phenotypic plasticity on persistence and adaptation to two patterns of environmental variation, a single, abrupt step change and continual, linear change. Our model tested the assumptions and predictions of the theory of genetic assimilation, explored the evolutionary dynamics of the Baldwin effect, and provided expectations for the evolutionary response to climate change. We found that genetic assimilation as originally postulated is not likely to occur because the replacement of plasticity by fixed genetic effects takes much longer than the environment is likely to remain stable...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148042/comparative-anatomy-of-zebrafish-paired-and-median-fin-muscles-basis-for-functional-developmental-and-macroevolutionary-studies
#4
Natalia Siomava, Rui Diogo
In the last decades, Danio rerio became one of the most used model organisms in various evo-devo studies devoted to the fin skeletal anatomy and fin-limb transition. Surprisingly, there is not even a single paper about the detailed anatomy of the adult muscles of the five fin types of this species. To facilitate more integrative developmental, functional, genetic, and evolutionary studies of the appendicular musculoskeletal system of the zebrafish and to provide a basis for further comparisons with other fishes and tetrapods, we describe here the identity, overall configuration, and attachments of appendicular muscles in a way that can be easily understood and implemented by non-anatomist researchers...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146901/genome-driven-evolutionary-game-theory-helps-understand-the-rise-of-metabolic-interdependencies-in-microbial-communities
#5
Ali R Zomorrodi, Daniel Segrè
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#6
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144130/structural-phase-transitions-in-ptin2-at-high-pressure-a-theoretical-investigation
#7
P Modak, Ashok K Verma
A study of the bonding and electronic properties of intermetallics under pressure is crucial in the design and development of novel materials for useful applications. These properties are largely controlled by the underlying crystal structures. Here we investigated the high-pressure structural behavior of PtIn2 using crystal structure search calculations, which efficiently combine evolutionary algorithms and state-of-the-art density functional theory. Three new crystal structures, namely, Fe2B-type (I4/mcm, Z = 2), cotunnite-type (Pnma, Z = 4), and monoclinic (C2/m, Z = 2), are proposed at about 9...
November 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143184/measuring-the-unmeasurable-the-psychometrics-of-life-history-strategy
#8
Stefan L K Gruijters, Bram P I Fleuren
Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Behavioral scientists have recently begun to conceptualize such strategies as a within-species individual characteristic that is predictive of behavior. Although life history theory provides an important framework for behavioral scientists, the psychometric approach to life-history strategy measurement-as operationalized by K-factors-involves conceptual entanglements...
November 15, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142333/approaches-to-macroevolution-1-general-concepts-and-origin-of-variation
#9
David Jablonski
Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142112/give-one-species-the-task-to-come-up-with-a-theory-that-spans-them-all-what-good-can-come-out-of-that
#10
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko
Does the progress in understanding evolutionary theory depend on the species that is doing the investigation? This question is difficult to answer scientifically, as we are dealing with an n = 1 scenario: every individual who has ever written about evolution is a human being. I will discuss, first, whether we get the correct answer to questions if we begin with ourselves and expand outwards, and second, whether we might fail to ask all the interesting questions unless we combat our tendencies to favour taxa that are close to us...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140727/population-genomics-of-herbicide-resistance-adaptation-via-evolutionary-rescue
#11
Julia M Kreiner, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright
The evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations is a highly replicated example of adaptation surmounting the race against extinction, but the factors determining its rate and nature remain poorly understood. Here, we explore theory and empirical evidence for the importance of population genetic parameters-including effective population size, dominance, mutational target size, and gene flow-in influencing the probability and mode of herbicide resistance adaptation and its variation across species. We compiled data on the number of resistance mutations across populations for 79 herbicide-resistant species...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137950/linking-race-cancer-outcomes-and-tissue-repair
#12
REVIEW
Jung S Byun, Samson Park, Ambar Caban, Alana Jones, Kevin Gardner
The burden of cancer in the United States is unevenly spread across its different populations, with stark differences in both disease prevalence and outcome based on race and ethnicity. Although a large portion of these differences can be explained by a variety of socio-behavioral and socio-economic factors, even after these exposures are taken into consideration, significant disparities persist. In this review, we explore a conceptual framework of biological theories and unifying concepts, based on an evolutionary perspective, that may help better define common guiding principles for exploration of underlying etiologies of cancer health disparities...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136020/evolutionary-dynamics-of-group-formation
#13
Marco Alberto Javarone, Daniele Marinazzo
Group formation is a quite ubiquitous phenomenon across different animal species, whose individuals cluster together forming communities of diverse size. Previous investigations suggest that, in general, this phenomenon might have similar underlying reasons across the interested species, despite genetic and behavioral differences. For instance improving the individual safety (e.g. from predators), and increasing the probability to get food resources. Remarkably, the group size might strongly vary from species to species, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132934/the-evolution-of-pathogen-virulence-effects-of-transitions-between-host-types
#14
Paul David Williams, Stephanie Jill Kamel
Much of evolutionary epidemiology theory is derived from a perspective in which all hosts, and all parasites, are epidemiologically equivalent. This stands in contrast to the well-documented existence of the numerous processes generating heterogeneity among hosts and parasites that can profoundly influence evolutionary/epidemiological dynamics. Age-related immunological changes, inequities in nutritional status, and interactions between parasites via coinfection are just a few of the many factors that generate heterogeneity among hosts in the ways they express susceptibility to, and respond to infection by, a focal pathogen...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127336/intermediate-levels-of-network-heterogeneity-provide-the-best-evolutionary-outcomes
#15
Flávio L Pinheiro, Dominik Hartmann
Complex networks impact the diffusion of ideas and innovations, the formation of opinions, and the evolution of cooperative behavior. In this context, heterogeneous structures have been shown to generate a coordination-like dynamics that drives a population towards a monomorphic state. In contrast, homogeneous networks tend to result in a stable co-existence of multiple traits in the population. These conclusions have been reached through the analysis of networks with either very high or very low levels of degree heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125186/evolutionary-dynamics-of-interactions-between-plants-and-their-enemies-comparison-of-herbivorous-insects-and-pathogens
#16
REVIEW
Kerry Wininger, Nathan Rank
Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. These traits generate selection pressures on enemies. Coevolution between terrestrial plants and their enemies is an important element of the evolutionary history of both groups. However, coevolutionary studies of plant-pathogen interactions have tended to focus on different research topics than plant-herbivore interactions...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#17
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117125/the-small-and-the-dead-a-review-of-ancient-dna-studies-analysing-micromammal-species
#18
REVIEW
Roseina Woods, Melissa M Marr, Selina Brace, Ian Barnes
The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) has recently been in a state of exponential growth, largely driven by the uptake of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. Much of this work has focused on the mammalian megafauna and ancient humans, with comparatively less studies looking at micromammal fauna, despite the potential of these species in testing evolutionary, environmental and taxonomic theories. Several factors make micromammal fauna ideally suited for aDNA extraction and sequencing. Micromammal subfossil assemblages often include the large number of individuals appropriate for population level analyses, and, furthermore, the assemblages are frequently found in cave sites where the constant temperature and sheltered environment provide favourable conditions for DNA preservation...
November 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#19
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109228/connecting-theory-and-data-to-understand-recombination-rate-evolution
#20
REVIEW
Amy L Dapper, Bret A Payseur
Meiotic recombination is necessary for successful gametogenesis in most sexually reproducing organisms and is a fundamental genomic parameter, influencing the efficacy of selection and the fate of new mutations. The molecular and evolutionary functions of recombination should impose strong selective constraints on the range of recombination rates. Yet, variation in recombination rate is observed on a variety of genomic and evolutionary scales. In the past decade, empirical studies have described variation in recombination rate within genomes, between individuals, between sexes, between populations and between species...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
keyword
keyword
36723
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"