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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650078/genetic-diversity-of-human-metapneumovirus-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-respiratory-infections-in-croatia
#1
M Jagušić, A Slovic, S Ljubin Sternak, G Mlinarić-Galinović, D Forčić
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is recognized as a global and frequent cause of acute respiratory tract infections among people of all ages. The objectives of this study were molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of HMPV strains which produced moderate and severe acute respiratory tract infections in children in Croatia during four consecutive seasons (2011-2014). A total of 117 HMPV-positive samples collected from hospitalized paediatric patients presenting with acute respiratory tract infections and tested by direct immunofluorescence assay were first analyzed by amplifying a part of the F gene...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649779/an-integrated-framework-to-identify-wildlife-populations-under-threat-from-climate-change
#2
Orly Razgour, John B Taggart, Stephanie Manel, Javier Juste, Carlos Ibáñez, Hugo Rebelo, Antton Alberdi, Gareth Jones, Kirsty Park
Climate change is a major threat to global biodiversity that will produce a range of new selection pressures. Understanding species responses to climate change requires an interdisciplinary perspective, combining ecological, molecular and environmental approaches. We propose an applied integrated framework to identify populations under threat from climate change based on their extent of exposure, inherent sensitivity due to adaptive and neutral genetic variation and range shift potential. We consider intraspecific vulnerability and population-level responses, an important but often neglected conservation research priority...
June 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649402/evolutionary-adaptations-of-biofilms-infecting-cystic-fibrosis-lungs-promote-mechanical-toughness-by-adjusting-polysaccharide-production
#3
Kristin Kovach, Megan Davis-Fields, Yasuhiko Irie, Kanishk Jain, Shashvat Doorwar, Katherine Vuong, Numa Dhamani, Kishore Mohanty, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D Gordon
Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649358/postglacial-dispersal-patterns-and-mitochondrial-genetic-structure-of-the-pyrenean-desman-galemys-pyrenaicus-in-the-northwestern-region-of-the-iberian-peninsula
#4
Marina Querejeta, Angel Fernández-González, Rafael Romero, Jose Castresana
The genetic structure of small semiaquatic animals may be influenced by dispersal across both rivers and land. The relative importance of these two modes of dispersal may vary across different species and with ecological conditions and evolutionary periods. The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is an endemic mammal of the Iberian Peninsula with a strong phylogeographic structure and semiaquatic habits, thus making it an ideal model to study the effects of river and overland dispersal on its genetic structure...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649355/resequencing-and-comparison-of-whole-mitochondrial-genome-to-gain-insight-into-the-evolutionary-status-of-the-shennongjia-golden-snub-nosed-monkey-snj-r-roxellana
#5
Yanyun Hong, Hairui Duo, Juyun Hong, Jinyuan Yang, Shiming Liu, Lianghui Yu, Tuyong Yi
Shennongjia Rhinopithecus roxellana (SNJ R. roxellana) is the smallest geographical population of R. roxellana. The phylogenetic relationships among its genera and species and the biogeographic processes leading to their current distribution are largely unclear. To address these issues, we resequenced and obtained a new, complete mitochondrial genome of SNJ R. roxellana by next-generation sequencing and standard Sanger sequencing. We analyzed the gene composition, constructed a phylogenetic tree, inferred the divergence ages based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, and analyzed the genetic divergence of 13 functional mtDNA genes...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649353/genetic-identification-of-source-and-likely-vector-of-a-widespread-marine-invader
#6
Stacy A Krueger-Hadfield, Nicole M Kollars, Allan E Strand, James E Byers, Sarah J Shainker, Ryuta Terada, Thomas W Greig, Mareike Hammann, David C Murray, Florian Weinberger, Erik E Sotka
The identification of native sources and vectors of introduced species informs their ecological and evolutionary history and may guide policies that seek to prevent future introductions. Population genetics provides a powerful set of tools to identify origins and vectors. However, these tools can mislead when the native range is poorly sampled or few molecular markers are used. Here, we traced the introduction of the Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) into estuaries in coastal western North America, the eastern United States, Europe, and northwestern Africa by genotyping more than 2,500 thalli from 37 native and 53 non-native sites at mitochondrial cox1 and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649335/early-events-in-speciation-cryptic-species-of%C3%A2-drosophila-aldrichi
#7
Cynthia Castro Vargas, Maxi Polihronakis Richmond, Mariana Ramirez Loustalot Laclette, Therese Ann Markow
Understanding the earliest events in speciation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Thus identifying species whose populations are beginning to diverge can provide useful systems to study the process of speciation. Drosophila aldrichi, a cactophilic fruit fly species with a broad distribution in North America, has long been assumed to be a single species owing to its morphological uniformity. While previous reports either of genetic divergence or reproductive isolation among different D. aldrichi strains have hinted at the existence of cryptic species, the evolutionary relationships of this species across its range have not been thoroughly investigated...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649256/evolutionary-insights-based-on-snp-haplotypes-of-red-pericarp-grain-size-and-starch-synthase-genes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice
#8
Nisha Singh, Balwant Singh, Vandna Rai, Sukhjeet Sidhu, Ashok K Singh, Nagendra K Singh
The origin and domestication of rice has been a subject of considerable debate in the post-genomic era. Rice varieties have been categorized based on isozyme and DNA markers into two broad cultivar groups, Indica and Japonica. Among other well-known cultivar groups Aus varieties are closer to Indica and Aromatic varieties including Basmati are closer to Japonica, while deep-water rice varieties share kinship to both Indica and Japonica cultivar groups. Here, we analyzed haplotype networks and phylogenetic relationships in a diverse set of genotypes including Indian Oryza nivara/Oryza rufipogon wild rice accessions and representative varieties of four rice cultivar groups based on pericarp color (Rc), grain size (GS3) and eight different starch synthase genes (GBSSI, SSSI, SSIIa, SSIIb, SSIIIa, SSIIIb, SSIVa, and SSIVb)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649238/clostridium-chauvoei-an-evolutionary-dead-end-pathogen
#9
Lorenz Rychener, Saria InAlbon, Steven P Djordjevic, Piklu R Chowdhury, Rosangela E Ziech, Agueda C de Vargas, Joachim Frey, Laurent Falquet
Full genome sequences of 20 strains of Clostridium chauvoei, the etiological agent of blackleg of cattle and sheep, isolated from four different continents over a period of 64 years (1951-2015) were determined and analyzed. The study reveals that the genome of the species C. chauvoei is highly homogeneous compared to the closely related species C. perfringens, a widespread pathogen that affects human and many animal species. Analysis of the CRISPR locus is sufficient to differentiate most C. chauvoei strains and is the most heterogenous region in the genome, containing in total 187 different spacer elements that are distributed as 30 - 77 copies in the various strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648806/the-evolutionary-consequences-of-stepwise-infection-processes
#10
REVIEW
Matthew D Hall, Gilberto Bento, Dieter Ebert
Molecular and cellular studies reveal that the resistance of hosts to parasites and pathogens is a cascade-like process with multiple steps required to be passed for successful infection. By contrast, much of evolutionary reasoning is based on strongly simplified, one- or two-step infection processes with simple genetics or on resistance being a quantitative trait. Here we attempt a conceptual unification of these two perspectives with the aim of cross-fostering research and filling some of the gaps in our concepts of the ecology and evolution of disease...
June 22, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647618/genetic-and-ecological-processes-promoting-early-diversification-in-the-lowland-mesoamerican-bat-sturnira-parvidens-chiroptera-phyllostomidae
#11
Giovani Hernández-Canchola, Livia León-Paniagua
With 22 species, Sturnira is the most speciose genus of frugivorous Neotropical bats. Sturnira parvidens inhabits lowland tropical areas from Mexico to Central America. The elevation of this taxon to species level was recent, and discrepancies with respect to its geographic limits and phylogenetic position continue to exist. In order to identify genetic and ecological processes likely involved in the diversification and current distribution of S. parvidens, we evaluated relationships, researched phylogeographic and demographic history, and tested the divergence/conservatism of the climatic niche of this bat...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646625/fluctuating-effects-of-genetic-and-plastic-changes-in-body-mass-on-population-dynamics-in-a-large-herbivore
#12
Gabriel Pigeon, Thomas H G Ezard, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W Coltman, Fanie Pelletier
Recent studies suggest that evolutionary changes can occur on a contemporary time scale. Hence, evolution can influence ecology and vice-versa. To understand the importance of eco-evolutionary dynamics in population dynamics, we must quantify the relative contribution of ecological and evolutionary changes to population growth and other ecological processes. To date, however, most eco-evolutionary dynamics studies have not partitioned the relative contribution of plastic and evolutionary changes in traits on population, community and ecosystem processes...
June 24, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646171/a-new-type-of-homodiploid-fish-derived-from-the-interspecific-hybridization-of-female-common-carp%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-male-blunt-snout-bream
#13
Shi Wang, Xiaolan Ye, Yude Wang, Yuting Chen, Bowen Lin, Zhenfeng Yi, Zhuangwen Mao, Fangzhou Hu, Rurong Zhao, Juan Wang, Rong Zhou, Li Ren, Zhanzhou Yao, Min Tao, Chun Zhang, Jun Xiao, Qinbo Qin, Shaojun Liu
It is commonly believed that hybridization might lead to the formation of new polyploidy species, but it is unclear whether hybridization can produce a new homodiploid species. Here, we report the spontaneous occurrence of a new crucian carp-like homodiploid fish (2n = 100) that originated from the interspecific hybridization of female common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × male blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, Cultrinae, 2n = 48). The phenotype and reproductive traits of this new crucian carp-like homodiploid fish were found to be very similar to those of the existing diploid species (diploid crucian carp; Carassius auratus)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646131/insights-on-the-drivers-of-genetic-divergence-in-the-european-anchovy
#14
Gaetano Catanese, Romain Watteaux, Iratxe Montes, Marco Barra, Paola Rumolo, Diego Borme, Bruno Buongiorno Nardelli, Vincenzo Botte, Maria Grazia Mazzocchi, Simona Genovese, Iole Di Capua, Mikel Iriondo, Andone Estonba, Paolo Ruggeri, Valentina Tirelli, Vincenzo Caputo-Barucchi, Gualtiero Basilone, Angelo Bonanno, Daniele Iudicone, Gabriele Procaccini
Anchovies represent the largest world's marine fish catches and the current threats on their populations impose a sustainable exploitment based on sound scientific information. In the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), the existence of several populations has been proposed but a global view is missing. Using a multidisciplinary approach, here we assessed the divergence among different ecotypes and its possible causes. SNPs have revealed two functionally distinct ecotypes overlapping in the Central Mediterranean, with one ecotype confined near the river estuaries...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645486/adaptive-genetic-exchange-a-tangled-history-of-admixture-and-evolutionary-innovation
#15
REVIEW
Michael L Arnold, Krushnamegh Kunte
Genetic exchange between divergent evolutionary lineages, from introgressive hybridization between locally adapted populations to insertion of retroviral sequences into eukaryotic genomes, has now been documented. The detection of frequent divergence-with-gene-flow contrasts the neo-Darwinian paradigm of largely allopatric diversification. Nevertheless, of even greater significance is the growing wealth of data suggesting that the recipients of the transferred genomic material gain adaptive phenotypes from the donor lineages...
June 20, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645249/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-evolution-and-development-of-flower-size-in-saltugilia-polemoniaceae
#16
Jacob B Landis, Douglas E Soltis, Pamela S Soltis
BACKGROUND: Flower size varies dramatically across angiosperms, representing innovations over the course of >130 million years of evolution and contributing substantially to relationships with pollinators. However, the genetic underpinning of flower size is not well understood. Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae) provides an excellent non-model system for extending the genetic study of flower size to interspecific differences that coincide with variation in pollinators. RESULTS: Using targeted gene capture methods, we infer phylogenetic relationships among all members of Saltugilia to provide a framework for investigating the genetic control of flower size differences via RNA-Seq de novo assembly...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644542/the-conservation-significance-of-natural-hybridisation-in-mediterranean-plants-from-a-case-study-on-cyclamen-primulaceae-to-a-general-perspective
#17
John D Thompson, Perrine Gauthier, Guillaume Papuga, Virginie Pons, Max Debussche, Emmanuele Farris
Hybridisation plays a prominent role in plant evolution due to its influence on genetic diversity, fitness and adaptive potential We identify a case of on-going hybrid evolution of floral phenotypes in disjunct populations of Cyclamen balearicum and C. repandum subsp. repandum on Corsica and Sardinia. Hybrid populations on the two islands contain similar patterns of variation in flower colour and size but are probably at different stages in the evolutionary process of hybridisation and differences in the frequency of floral types and flower size suggest hybrid vigour that may contribute to the dynamics and maintenance of hybrid forms...
June 23, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#18
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642863/friends-enemies-endogenous-retroviruses-are-major-transcriptional-regulators-of-human-dna
#19
REVIEW
Anton A Buzdin, Vladimir Prassolov, Andrew V Garazha
Endogenous retroviruses are mobile genetic elements hardly distinguishable from infectious, or "exogenous," retroviruses at the time of insertion in the host DNA. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are not rare. They gave rise to multiple families of closely related mobile elements that occupy ~8% of the human genome. Together, they shape genomic regulatory landscape by providing at least ~320,000 human transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located on ~110,000 individual HERV elements. The HERVs host as many as 155,000 mapped DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, which denote loci active in the regulation of gene expression or chromatin structure...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#20
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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