Read by QxMD icon Read

evolutionary ecology

Kaitlin C Maguire, Douglas J Shinneman, Kevin M Potter, Valerie D Hipkins
Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America...
March 14, 2018: Systematic Biology
Cecilia Siliansky de Andreazzi, Paulo R Guimarães, Carlos J Melián
Studies have shown the potential for rapid adaptation in coevolving populations and that the structure of species interaction networks can modulate the vulnerability of ecological systems to perturbations. Although the feedback loop between population dynamics and coevolution of traits is crucial for understanding long-term stability in ecological assemblages, modelling eco-evolutionary dynamics in species-rich assemblages is still a challenge. We explore how eco-evolutionary feedbacks influence trait evolution and species abundances in 23 empirical antagonistic networks...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Isaac Winkler, Sonja J Scheffer, Matthew L Lewis, Kristina J Ottens, Andrew P Rasmussen, Géssica A Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A Condon, Andrew A Forbes
BACKGROUND: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Joseph M Styga, Thomas M Houslay, Alastair J Wilson, Ryan L Earley
Establishing links between morphology and performance is important for understanding the functional, ecological, and evolutionary implications of morphological diversity. Relationships between morphology and performance are expected to be age dependent if, at different points during ontogeny, animals must perform in different capacities to achieve high fitness returns. Few studies have examined how the relationship between form and function changes across ontogeny. Here, we assess this relationship in the amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) fish, a species that is both capable of and reliant on "tail-flip jumping" for terrestrial locomotion...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Koji Takayama, Daniel J Crawford, Patricio López-Sepúlveda, Josef Greimler, Tod F Stuessy
Adaptive radiation is a common evolutionary phenomenon in oceanic islands. From one successful immigrant population, dispersal into different island environments and directional selection can rapidly yield a series of morphologically distinct species, each adapted to its own particular environment. Not all island immigrants, however, follow this evolutionary pathway. Others successfully arrive and establish viable populations, but they remain in the same ecological zone and only slowly diverge over millions of years...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Alejandro M Labella, M Dolores Castro, Manuel Manchado, Juan J Borrego
Phylogenetic relationships between species in the genus Photobacterium have been poorly studied despite pathogenic and ecological relevance of some of its members. This is the first phylogenetic study that includes new species of Photobacterium (validated or not) that have not been included in any of the previously described clades, using 16S rRNA sequences and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) in concatenated sequences of gyrB , gapA , topA , ftsZ and mreB housekeeping genes. Sequence analysis has been implemented using Maximum-parsimony (MP), Neighbour-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) treeing methods and the predicted evolutionary relationship between the Photobacterium clades was established on the basis of bootstrap values of >75% for 16S rRNA sequences and MLSA...
March 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Andrew J Page, Alexander Wailan, Yan Shao, Kim Judge, Gordon Dougan, Elizabeth J Klemm, Nicholas R Thomson, Jacqueline A Keane
Increasingly rich metadata are now being linked to samples that have been whole-genome sequenced. However, much of this information is ignored. This is because linking this metadata to genes, or regions of the genome, usually relies on knowing the gene sequence(s) responsible for the particular trait being measured and looking for its presence or absence in that genome. Examples of this would be the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes carried on mobile genetic elements (MGEs). However, although it is possible to routinely identify the resistance gene, identifying the unknown MGE upon which it is carried can be much more difficult if the starting point is short-read whole-genome sequence data...
March 12, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Sofía Pestoni, Federico Javier Degrange, Claudia Patricia Tambussi, María Manuela Demmel Ferreira, Germán Alfredo Tirao
The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Monika Janišová, Katarína Skokanová, Tomáš Hlásny
Tephroseris longifolia agg. is a complex group of outcrossing perennials distributed throughout Central Europe. Recent morphological study revealed six morphotypes corresponding to five previously distinguished subspecies, together with Alpine and Pannonian morphotypes of T. longifolia subsp. longifolia . The delimited morphotypes differ in relative DNA content, geographical range, and rarity. We compared ecological niches of the six morphotypes in order to assess the impact of ecological differentiation on the speciation processes within the T...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Simonetta Mattiucci, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen, Michela Paoletti, Giuseppe Nascetti
This review addresses the biodiversity, biology, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and consumer health significance of the so far known species of Anisakis, both in their natural hosts and in human accidental host populations, worldwide. These key aspects of the Anisakis species' biology are highlighted, since we consider them as main driving forces behind which most of the research in this field has been carried out over the past decade. From a public health perspective, the human disease caused by Anisakis species (anisakiasis) appears to be considerably underreported and underestimated in many countries or regions around the globe...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Alex Knight, John G Ewen, Patricia Brekke, Anna W Santure
Coccidia are intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa that cause a range of pathologies collectively termed coccidiosis. Species of coccidia of commercial importance have been well studied, with the effect of other species on passerine birds receiving increasing attention. In this chapter, we review the literature on coccidia in passerines, with a particular focus on wild populations. The taxonomy and life cycle of passerine coccidia are covered, as is their impact on the health of passerines, their epidemiology and their role in parasite-mediated natural and sexual selection...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
John S S Denton
The mesopelagic (midwater) and deep-sea environments together comprise over 90% of the volume of the world ocean [1] and provide services that are only recently becoming recognized [2]. One of the most significant of these services relates to midwater fish biomass, recently estimated to be two orders of magnitude larger than the current worldwide fisheries catch [3, 4]. Calls to exploit midwater fish biomass have increased despite warnings about the unknown recovery potential of such organisms [2] and despite existing data suggesting that deep-sea fishes could be classified as endangered [5]...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Rosemary G Gillespie, Suresh P Benjamin, Michael S Brewer, Malia Ana J Rivera, George K Roderick
Insular adaptive radiations in which repeated bouts of diversification lead to phenotypically similar sets of taxa serve to highlight predictability in the evolutionary process [1]. However, examples of such replicated events are rare. Cross-clade comparisons of adaptive radiations are much needed to determine whether similar ecological opportunities can lead to the same outcomes. Here, we report a heretofore uncovered adaptive radiation of Hawaiian stick spiders (Theridiidae, Ariamnes) in which different species exhibit a set of discrete ecomorphs associated with different microhabitats...
February 27, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Fernanda Pozzan Paim, Kim Valenta, Colin A Chapman, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Helder Lima de Queiroz
Integration between ecology and biogeography provides insights into how niche specialization affects the geographical distribution of species. Given that rivers are not effective barriers to dispersal in three parapatric species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii, S. cassiquiarensis and S. macrodon) inhabiting floodplain forests of Central Amazonia, we tested whether forest structure and tree diversity may explain species differences in niche specialization and spatial segregation. We sampled 6617 trees of 326 species in three habitats (high várzea, low várzea and chavascal) used by three Saimiri species, and estimated tree species richness in each of them...
March 10, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Jin-Mei Zhang, Jordi López-Pujol, Xun Gong, Hua-Feng Wang, Roser Vilatersana, Shi-Liang Zhou
According to the present taxonomical treatment, Paeonia subsect. Delavayanae consists of only two species (P. delavayi and P. ludlowii) endemic to the Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains. Although P. ludlowii can be distinguished from P. delavayi on the basis of a series of morphological characters, the species delimitation remains controversial because the more widespread one, P. delavayi, exhibits considerable morphological diversity. Both chloroplast DNA markers and nuclear microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (nSSR) are used herein to reveal genetic diversity and relationships of the two taxa included in this subsection, and ecological niche modeling (ENM) is employed to get insights into their paleodistribution...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
E. coli are deposited into soil with feces and exhibit subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes. The isolate collection and sample database were analyzed together to discover how land cover, site characteristics and soil chemistry influence the prevalence of cultivable E...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Joel Sharbrough, Meagan Luse, Jeffrey L Boore, John M Logsdon, Maurine Neiman
Harmful mutations are ubiquitous and inevitable, and the rate at which these mutations are removed from populations is a critical determinant of evolutionary fate. Closely related sexual and asexual taxa provide a particularly powerful setting to study deleterious mutation elimination because sexual reproduction should facilitate mutational clearance by reducing selective interference between sites and by allowing the production of offspring with different mutational complements than their parents. Here, we compared the rate of removal of conservative (i...
March 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Luke Woodford, Giovanni Bianco, Yoana Ivanova, Maeve Dale, Kathryn Elmer, Fiona Rae, Stephen D Larcombe, Barbara Helm, Heather M Ferguson, Francesco Baldini
Artificial infection of mosquitoes with the endosymbiont bacteria Wolbachia can interfere with malaria parasite development. Therefore, the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes has been proposed as a malaria control strategy. However, Wolbachia effects on vector competence are only partly understood, as indicated by inconsistent effects on malaria infection reported under laboratory conditions. Studies of naturally-occurring Wolbachia infections in wild vector populations could be useful to identify the ecological and evolutionary conditions under which these endosymbionts can block malaria transmission...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carson Holt, Michael Campbell, David A Keays, Nathaniel Edelman, Aurélie Kapusta, Emily Maclary, Eric Domyan, Alexander Suh, Wesley C Warren, Mark Yandell, M Thomas P Gilbert, Michael D Shapiro
The domestic rock pigeon ( Columba livia ) is among the most widely distributed and phenotypically diverse avian species. C. livia is broadly studied in ecology, genetics, physiology, behavior, and evolutionary biology, and has recently emerged as a model for understanding the molecular basis of anatomical diversity, the magnetic sense, and other key aspects of avian biology. Here we report an update to the C. livia genome reference assembly and gene annotation dataset. Greatly increased scaffold lengths in the updated reference assembly, along with an updated annotation set, provide improved tools for evolutionary and functional genetic studies of the pigeon, and for comparative avian genomics in general...
March 8, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"