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evolutionary ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905882/plasticity-in-growth-of-farmed-and-wild-atlantic-salmon-is-the-increased-growth-rate-of-farmed-salmon-caused-by-evolutionary-adaptations-to-the-commercial-diet
#1
Alison Catherine Harvey, Monica Favnebøe Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary Robert Carvalho, Martin Ian Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre, Kevin Alan Glover
BACKGROUND: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on this diet...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902186/multigenetic-characterization-of-candidatus-xenohaliotis-californiensis
#2
Francesco Cicala, James D Moore, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Miguel A Del Río-Portilla, Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares
"Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (or Ca. Xc) is the etiological agent of the withering syndrome (WS), a chronic wasting disease affecting most if not all North American species of abalone, and has been described as a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote. Genetic data about this species is limited to the 16S rRNA gene. The inability to grow it axenically has hindered its genetic and genomic characterization and, in consequence, a thorough analysis of its systematics. Here, we amplified and sequenced five genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, ftsZ, virD4, and virB11) of Ca...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#3
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900850/hybridization-between-pollination-syndromes-as-an-ecological-and-evolutionary-resource
#4
Quentin Cronk, Ji Yong Yang
In plants, pollination syndromes (the correlated presence of many features of relevance to pollination mode, for instance pollination by a particular animal clade) are a striking feature of plant biodiversity, providing great floral phenotypic diversity (Fenster et al. ). Adaptation to a particular animal pollinator provides an explanation for why recently diverged plants can have such extreme differentiation in floral form. One might expect such elaborate adaptations to provide a high degree of pollinator specificity and hence reproductive isolation, but there are many cases where substantial gene flow exists between extreme floral morphs (see Table 1), and the resulting hybrids may be highly fertile...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900682/construction-and-screening-of-marine-metagenomic-large-insert-libraries
#5
Nancy Weiland-Bräuer, Daniela Langfeldt, Ruth A Schmitz
The marine environment covers more than 70 % of the world's surface. Marine microbial communities are highly diverse and have evolved during extended evolutionary processes of physiological adaptations under the influence of a variety of ecological conditions and selection pressures. They harbor an enormous diversity of microbes with still unknown and probably new physiological characteristics. In the past, marine microbes, mostly bacteria of microbial consortia attached to marine tissues of multicellular organisms, have proven to be a rich source of highly potent bioactive compounds, which represent a considerable number of drug candidates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899070/multigene-phylogenetic-analysis-redefines-dung-beetles-relationships-and-classification-coleoptera-scarabaeidae-scarabaeinae
#6
Sergei Tarasov, Dimitar Dimitrov
BACKGROUND: Dung beetles (subfamily Scarabaeinae) are popular model organisms in ecology and developmental biology, and for the last two decades they have experienced a systematics renaissance with the adoption of modern phylogenetic approaches. Within this period 16 key phylogenies and numerous additional studies with limited scope have been published, but higher-level relationships of this pivotal group of beetles remain contentious and current classifications contain many unnatural groupings...
November 29, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898765/transcriptome-assembly-and-comparison-of-an-allotetraploid-weed-species-annual-bluegrass-with-its-two-diploid-progenitor-species-schrad-and-kunth
#7
Shu Chen, J Scott McElroy, Fenny Dane, Leslie R Goertzen
Annual bluegrass ( L.) is one of the most widespread weed species in this world. As a young allotetraploid, has occupied diverse environments from Antarctic area to subtropical regions. To unveil the evolutionary mystery behind 's wide distribution, extensive adaptability and phenotypic plasticity needs collaboration from multiple research scopes from ecology and plant physiology to population genetics and molecular biology. However, the lack of omic data and reference has greatly hampered the study. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome study on species...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898247/challenges-for-the-maintenance-and-cryopreservation-of-multiple-isolates-of-model-microorganisms-an-example-using-the-marine-diatom-skeletonema-marinoi
#8
John G Day, Simon Tytor, Jenny Egardt, Monica Applegren, Cecilia Rad-Menéndez, Olga Chepurnova, Wim Vyverman, Anna Godhe
Modern genomic and metabolomic tools have provided the possibility of generating and interrogating large datasets that can provide answers to previously imponderable taxonomic, evolutionary, ecological, and physiological questions. However, the curatorial tools needed to provide and maintain the relevant biological resources on which new knowledge can be built have not kept pace with this meteoric rise in scientific capacity, its associated activity, or the huge increase in published science. The availability of biological material of guaranteed identity and quality in Biological Resource Centers is fundamental for scientific research, but it crucially depends on there being adequate preservation/maintenance methods that are capable of ensuring phenotypic, genotypic, and functional security of the biological material(s)...
November 29, 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896033/multiple-independent-colonizations-of-the-hawaiian-archipelago-by-the-family-dolichopodidae-diptera
#9
Kari Roesch Goodman, Neal Evenhuis, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Patrick Michael O'Grady
The family Dolichopodidae forms two of the four largest evolutionary radiations in the Hawaiian Islands across all flies: Campsicnemus (183 spp) and the Eurynogaster complex (66 spp). They also include a small radiation of Conchopus (6 spp). A handful of other dolichopodid species are native to the islands in singleton lineages or small radiations. This study provides a phylogenetic perspective on the colonization history of the dolichopodid fauna in the islands. We generated a multi-gene data set including representatives from 11 of the 14 endemic Hawaiian dolichopodid genera to examine the history of colonization to the islands, and analyzed it using Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic methods...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894884/modulation-of-the-heat-shock-response-is-associated-with-acclimation-to-novel-temperatures-but-not-adaptation-to-climatic-variation-in-the-ants-aphaenogaster-picea-and-a-rudis
#10
Sara Helms Cahan, Andrew D Nguyen, John Stanton-Geddes, Clint A Penick, Yainna Hernáiz-Hernández, Bernice B DeMarco, Nicholas J Gotelli
Ecological diversification into thermally divergent habitats can push species toward their physiological limits, requiring them to accommodate temperature extremes through plastic or evolutionary changes that increase persistence under the local thermal regime. One way to withstand thermal stress is to increase production of heat shock proteins, either by maintaining higher baseline abundance within cells or by increasing the magnitude of induction in response to heat stress. We evaluated whether environmental variation was associated with expression of three heat shock protein genes in two closely-related species of woodland ant, Aphaenogaster picea and A...
November 25, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894159/phylogenetic-and-ecological-diversity-of-apusomonads-a-lineage-of-deep-branching-eukaryotes
#11
Guifré Torruella, David Moreira, Purificación López-García
Apusomonads are a mysterious group of heterotrophic gliding biflagellates branching deeply in the eukaryotic tree of life as sister group to opisthokonts (including animals, fungi and a variety of unicellular protists). Despite their evolutionary interest, their diversity and ecology remain largely unknown, with very few described species and environmental sequences in databases. Most environmental 18S rRNA gene-based studies generally fail to identify apusomonad sequences, which might be due to primer bias, low abundance and/or to the fact that their biotopes remain poorly explored...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891618/co2-studies-remain-key-to-understanding-a-future-world
#12
REVIEW
Katie M Becklin, S Michael Walker, Danielle A Way, Joy K Ward
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging...
November 28, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891142/genetic-structure-and-evolutionary-history-of-three-alpine-sclerophyllous-oaks-in-east-himalaya-hengduan-mountains-and-adjacent-regions
#13
Li Feng, Qi-Jian Zheng, Zeng-Qiang Qian, Jia Yang, Yan-Ping Zhang, Zhong-Hu Li, Gui-Fang Zhao
The East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (EH-HM) region has a high biodiversity and harbors numerous endemic alpine plants. This is probably the result of combined orographic and climate oscillations occurring since late Tertiary. Here, we determined the genetic structure and evolutionary history of alpine oak species (including Quercus spinosa, Quercus aquifolioides, and Quercus rehderiana) using both cytoplasmic-nuclear markers and ecological niche models (ENMs), and elucidated the impacts of climate oscillations and environmental heterogeneity on their population demography...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887566/the-common-redstart-as-a-suitable-model-to-study-cuckoo-host-coevolution-in-a-unique-ecological-context
#14
Peter Samaš, Jarkko Rutila, Tomáš Grim
BACKGROUND: Co-evolutionary arms-races result in spatio-temporally dynamic relationships between interacting species, e.g., brood parasites and their avian hosts. However, majority of avian co-evolutionary studies are limited to "snap-shots" of a single breeding season in an open-nesting host. In a long-term study (11 breeding seasons), we explored a unique system between the brood parasitic common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and its host, the common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) which is exceptional among all cuckoo hosts due to being a cavity nester...
November 25, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886423/an-approach-for-identifying-cryptic-barriers-to-gene-flow-that-limit-species-geographic-ranges
#15
Steven J Micheletti, Andrew Storfer
Species' geographic range limits are most often not demarcated by obvious dispersal barriers. Poor quality habitat at the edge of a species' range can prevent range expansion by preventing outward migration or through reducing adaptive potential resulting from decreased genetic diversity. We identified habitat variables that constrain gene flow across the entire geographic range of an endemic salamander (Ambystoma barbouri) in the eastern United States, and we tested whether increased resistance resulting from these variables provides cryptic dispersal barriers at the range edges...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882551/fitness-gains-in-guppies-support-evolution-s-role-in-coexistence
#16
Kelsey Lyberger
Understanding processes that drive the assembly of communities is not a new goal in ecology; researchers have long studied what leads to the coexistence of species. However, the study of rapid evolution as a driving process of community assembly is an emerging frontier in evolutionary-ecology research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 24, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881755/unravelling-darwin-s-entangled-bank-architecture-and-robustness-of-mutualistic-networks-with-multiple-interaction-types
#17
Wesley Dáttilo, Nubia Lara-Rodríguez, Pedro Jordano, Paulo R Guimarães, John N Thompson, Robert J Marquis, Lucas P Medeiros, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Maria A Marcos-García, Victor Rico-Gray
Trying to unravel Darwin's entangled bank further, we describe the architecture of a network involving multiple forms of mutualism (pollination by animals, seed dispersal by birds and plant protection by ants) and evaluate whether this multi-network shows evidence of a structure that promotes robustness. We found that species differed strongly in their contributions to the organization of the multi-interaction network, and that only a few species contributed to the structuring of these patterns. Moreover, we observed that the multi-interaction networks did not enhance community robustness compared with each of the three independent mutualistic networks when analysed across a range of simulated scenarios of species extinction...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881749/vive-la-r%C3%A3-sistance-genome-wide-selection-against-introduced-alleles-in-invasive-hybrid-zones
#18
Ryan P Kovach, Brian K Hand, Paul A Hohenlohe, Ted F Cosart, Matthew C Boyer, Helen H Neville, Clint C Muhlfeld, Stephen J Amish, Kellie Carim, Shawn R Narum, Winsor H Lowe, Fred W Allendorf, Gordon Luikart
Evolutionary and ecological consequences of hybridization between native and invasive species are notoriously complicated because patterns of selection acting on non-native alleles can vary throughout the genome and across environments. Rapid advances in genomics now make it feasible to assess locus-specific and genome-wide patterns of natural selection acting on invasive introgression within and among natural populations occupying diverse environments. We quantified genome-wide patterns of admixture across multiple independent hybrid zones of native westslope cutthroat trout and invasive rainbow trout, the world's most widely introduced fish, by genotyping 339 individuals from 21 populations using 9380 species-diagnostic loci...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880889/milk-composition-of-free-ranging-red-hartebeest-giraffe-southern-reedbuck-and-warthog-and-a-phylogenetic-comparison-of-the-milk-of-african-artiodactyla
#19
G Osthoff, A Hugo, M Madende, F Deacon, P J Nel
The composition of major nutrients and fatty acids of the milk of three species, red hartebeest, Southern reedbuck and warthog, and milk fatty acids of giraffe, that have not been published before, are reported, and together with the same parameters of 11 species previously published, were incorporated in a phylogenetic comparison. Unique properties of milk composition have been observed. Southern reedbuck milk seems to have a complex casein composition, similar to that of sheep. Milk composition varies between species...
November 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880762/unexpected-diversity-in-socially-synchronized-rhythms-of-shorebirds
#20
Martin Bulla, Mihai Valcu, Adriaan M Dokter, Alexei G Dondua, András Kosztolányi, Anne L Rutten, Barbara Helm, Brett K Sandercock, Bruce Casler, Bruno J Ens, Caleb S Spiegel, Chris J Hassell, Clemens Küpper, Clive Minton, Daniel Burgas, David B Lank, David C Payer, Egor Y Loktionov, Erica Nol, Eunbi Kwon, Fletcher Smith, H River Gates, Hana Vitnerová, Hanna Prüter, James A Johnson, James J H St Clair, Jean-François Lamarre, Jennie Rausch, Jeroen Reneerkens, Jesse R Conklin, Joanna Burger, Joe Liebezeit, Joël Bêty, Jonathan T Coleman, Jordi Figuerola, Jos C E W Hooijmeijer, José A Alves, Joseph A M Smith, Karel Weidinger, Kari Koivula, Ken Gosbell, Klaus-Michael Exo, Larry Niles, Laura Koloski, Laura McKinnon, Libor Praus, Marcel Klaassen, Marie-Andrée Giroux, Martin Sládeček, Megan L Boldenow, Michael I Goldstein, Miroslav Šálek, Nathan Senner, Nelli Rönkä, Nicolas Lecomte, Olivier Gilg, Orsolya Vincze, Oscar W Johnson, Paul A Smith, Paul F Woodard, Pavel S Tomkovich, Phil F Battley, Rebecca Bentzen, Richard B Lanctot, Ron Porter, Sarah T Saalfeld, Scott Freeman, Stephen C Brown, Stephen Yezerinac, Tamás Székely, Tomás Montalvo, Theunis Piersma, Vanessa Loverti, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Wim Tijsen, Bart Kempenaers
The behavioural rhythms of organisms are thought to be under strong selection, influenced by the rhythmicity of the environment. Such behavioural rhythms are well studied in isolated individuals under laboratory conditions, but free-living individuals have to temporally synchronize their activities with those of others, including potential mates, competitors, prey and predators. Individuals can temporally segregate their daily activities (for example, prey avoiding predators, subordinates avoiding dominants) or synchronize their activities (for example, group foraging, communal defence, pairs reproducing or caring for offspring)...
December 1, 2016: Nature
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