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evolutionary ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168624/comparative-studies-of-critical-physiological-limits-and-vulnerability-to-environmental-extremes-in-small-ectotherms-how-much-environmental-control-is-needed
#1
Ary A Hoffmann, Carla M Sgrò
Researchers and practitioners are increasingly using comparative assessments of critical thermal and physiological limits to assess the relative vulnerability of ectothermic species to extreme thermal and aridity conditions occurring under climate change. In most assessments of vulnerability, critical limits are compared across taxa exposed to different environmental and developmental conditions. However, many aspects of vulnerability should ideally be compared when species are exposed to the same environmental conditions, allowing a partitioning of sources of variation such as used in quantitative genetics...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168614/eastern-gray-squirrels-are-consistent-shoppers-of-seed-traits-insights-from-discrete-choice-experiments
#2
Mekala Sundaram, Nathanael I Lichti, Nicole J Olynk Widmar, Robert K Swihart
Seeds of many hardwood trees are dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents, and this process is often mediated by the traits of seeds. Although numerous studies have linked seed traits to seed preference by rodents, little is known about how rodents forage for seeds when multiple desirable and undesirable seed traits are available simultaneously. Here, we adopt a novel method of designing choice experiments to study how eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) select for 6 traits (caloric value, protein content, tannin concentration, kernel mass, dormancy period and toughness of shell) among seeds...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168053/the-sociobiology-of-genes-the-gene-s-eye-view-as-a-unifying-behavioural-ecological-framework-for-biological-evolution
#3
Alexis De Tiège, Yves Van de Peer, Johan Braeckman, Koen B Tanghe
Although classical evolutionary theory, i.e., population genetics and the Modern Synthesis, was already implicitly 'gene-centred', the organism was, in practice, still generally regarded as the individual unit of which a population is composed. The gene-centred approach to evolution only reached a logical conclusion with the advent of the gene-selectionist or gene's eye view in the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas classical evolutionary theory can only work with (genotypically represented) fitness differences between individual organisms, gene-selectionism is capable of working with fitness differences among genes within the same organism and genome...
November 22, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166167/kinship-and-incest-avoidance-drive-patterns-of-reproductive-skew-in-cooperatively-breeding-birds
#4
Christina Riehl
Social animals vary in how reproduction is divided among group members, ranging from monopolization by a dominant pair (high skew) to equal sharing by cobreeders (low skew). Despite many theoretical models, the ecological and life-history factors that generate this variation are still debated. Here I analyze data from 83 species of cooperatively breeding birds, finding that kinship within the breeding group is a powerful predictor of reproductive sharing across species. Societies composed of nuclear families have significantly higher skew than those that contain unrelated members, a pattern that holds for both multimale and multifemale groups...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166157/rapid-diversification-and-time-explain-amphibian-richness-at-different-scales-in-the-tropical-andes-earth-s-most-biodiverse-hotspot
#5
Carl R Hutter, Shea M Lambert, John J Wiens
The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166155/drivers-of-diversification-in-individual-life-courses
#6
Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Ulrich K Steiner
Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using individual data of a primate population, we show that density regulates the stage composition of the population but that its entropy and the generating moments of heterogeneity are independent of density...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165806/host-preference-and-network-properties-in-biotrophic-plant-fungal-associations
#7
Sergei Põlme, Mohammad Bahram, Hans Jacquemyn, Peter Kennedy, Petr Kohout, Mari Moora, Jane Oja, Maarja Öpik, Lorenzo Pecoraro, Leho Tedersoo
Analytical methods can offer insights into the structure of biological networks, but mechanisms that determine the structure of these networks remain unclear. We conducted a synthesis based on 111 previously published datasets to assess a range of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that may influence the plant-associated fungal interaction networks. We calculated the relative host effect on fungal community composition and compared nestedness and modularity among different mycorrhizal types and endophytic fungal guilds...
November 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164751/style-polymorphism-in-linum-linaceae-a-case-of-mediterranean-parallel-evolution
#8
J Ruiz-Martín, R Santos-Gally, M Escudero, J J Midgley, R Pérez-Barrales, J Arroyo
Heterostyly is a sex polymorphism which has challenged evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin. One of the lineages where heterostyly, and related stylar conditions, appears more frequently is the family Linaceae and its most diverse and widespread genus, Linum. Thus, this group is particularly suitable for testing competing hypotheses about ancestral and transitional stages on the evolutionary building up of heterostyly. We generated a well-resolved phylogeny of Linum based on extensive sampling and plastid and nuclear DNA sequences, and used it to trace the evolution of character states of style polymorphism and its association with traits related to pollination and breeding systems, obtained from our samples and the literature...
November 22, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162638/the-relationship-between-pectoral-fin-ray-stiffness-and-swimming-behavior-in-labridae-insights-into-design-performance-and-ecology
#9
Brett R Aiello, Adam R Hardy, Chery Cherian, Aaron M Olsen, Sihyun E Ahn, Melina E Hale, Mark W Westneat
The functional capabilities of flexible, propulsive, appendages are directly influenced by their mechanical properties. The fins of fishes have undergone extraordinary evolutionary diversification in structure and function, which raises questions of how fin mechanics relate to swimming behavior. In the fish family Labridae, pectoral fin swimming behavior ranges from rowing to flapping. Rowers are more maneuverable than flappers, but flappers generate greater thrust at high speeds and achieve greater mechanical efficiency at all speeds...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159263/influence-of-age-and-body-condition-on-astrovirus-infection-of-bats-in-singapore-an-evolutionary-and-epidemiological-analysis
#10
Ian H Mendenhall, Maggie M Skiles, Erica Sena Neves, Sophie A Borthwick, Dolyce H W Low, Benjamin Liang, Benjamin P Y-H Lee, Yvonne C F Su, Gavin J D Smith
Bats are unique mammals that are reservoirs of high levels of virus diversity. Although several of these viruses are zoonotic, the majority are not. Astroviruses, transmitted fecal-orally, are commonly detected in a wide diversity of bat species, are prevalent at high rates and are not thought to directly infect humans. These features make astroviruses useful in examining virus evolutionary history, epidemiology in the host, and temporal shedding trends. Our study screened for the presence of astroviruses in bats in Singapore, reconstructed the phylogenetic relations of the polymerase genes and tested for population characteristics associated with infection...
December 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158555/what-genomic-data-can-reveal-about-eco-evolutionary-dynamics
#11
REVIEW
Seth M Rudman, Matthew A Barbour, Katalin Csilléry, Phillip Gienapp, Frederic Guillaume, Nelson G Hairston, Andrew P Hendry, Jesse R Lasky, Marina Rafajlović, Katja Räsänen, Paul S Schmidt, Ole Seehausen, Nina O Therkildsen, Martin M Turcotte, Jonathan M Levine
Recognition that evolution operates on the same timescale as ecological processes has motivated growing interest in eco-evolutionary dynamics. Nonetheless, generating sufficient data to test predictions about eco-evolutionary dynamics has proved challenging, particularly in natural contexts. Here we argue that genomic data can be integrated into the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics in ways that deepen our understanding of the interplay between ecology and evolution. Specifically, we outline five major questions in the study of eco-evolutionary dynamics for which genomic data may provide answers...
November 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156494/comparative-analysis-of-vestibular-ecomorphology-in-birds
#12
Roger B J Benson, Ethan Starmer-Jones, Roger A Close, Stig A Walsh
The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations...
December 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155894/estimating-virus-effective-population-size-and-selection-without-neutral-markers
#13
Elsa Rousseau, Benoît Moury, Ludovic Mailleret, Rachid Senoussi, Alain Palloix, Vincent Simon, Sophie Valière, Frédéric Grognard, Frédéric Fabre
By combining high-throughput sequencing (HTS) with experimental evolution, we can observe the within-host dynamics of pathogen variants of biomedical or ecological interest. We studied the evolutionary dynamics of five variants of Potato virus Y (PVY) in 15 doubled-haploid lines of pepper. All plants were inoculated with the same mixture of virus variants and, variant frequencies were determined by HTS in eight plants of each pepper line, at each of six sampling dates. We developed a method for estimating the intensities of selection and genetic drift in a multi-allelic Wright-Fisher model, applicable whether these forces are strong or weak, and in the absence of neutral markers...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153398/maximizing-power-in-phylogenetics-and-phylogenomics-a-perspective-illuminated-by-fungal-big-data
#14
Alex Dornburg, Jeffrey P Townsend, Zheng Wang
Since its original inception over 150 years ago by Darwin, we have made tremendous progress toward the reconstruction of the Tree of Life. In particular, the transition from analyzing datasets comprised of small numbers of loci to those comprised of hundreds of loci, if not entire genomes, has aided in resolving some of the most vexing of evolutionary problems while giving us a new perspective on biodiversity. Correspondingly, phylogenetic trees have taken a central role in fields that span ecology, conservation, and medicine...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152197/selection-of-reference-genes-for-qrt-pcr-and-expression-analysis-of-high-altitude-related-genes-in-grassland-caterpillars-lepidoptera-erebidae-gynaephora-along-an-altitude-gradient
#15
Li Zhang, Qi-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Tong Wang, Xing-Zhuo Yang, Xiao-Peng Li, Ming-Long Yuan
Changes in gene expression patterns can reflect the adaptation of organisms to divergent environments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important tool for ecological adaptation studies at the gene expression level. The quality of the results of qRT-PCR analysis largely depends on the availability of reliable reference genes (RGs). To date, reliable RGs have not been determined for adaptive evolution studies in insects using a standard approach. Here, we evaluated the reliability of 17 candidate RGs for five Gynaephora populations inhabiting various altitudes of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) using four independent (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the deltaCt method) and one comprehensive (RefFinder) algorithms...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152183/genetic-mating-system-and-mate-selection-in-smallmouth-bass
#16
Ryan P Franckowiak, Mark S Ridgway, Chris C Wilson
Mating systems are an important factor influencing the variance in reproductive success among individuals within natural populations and thus have important ecological and evolutionary implications. We used molecular pedigree reconstruction techniques with microsatellite DNA data to characterize the genetic mating system and mate selection in adult smallmouth bass spawning in Lake Opeongo. The genetic mating system of smallmouth bass in this system can be characterized as predominantly monogamous with a low rate of polygynandry particularly among larger individuals...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152180/varying-congruence-among-spatial-patterns-of-vascular-plants-and-vertebrates-based-on-habitat-groups
#17
Haigen Xu, Yun Cao, Mingchang Cao, Jun Wu, Yi Wu, Zhifang Le, Peng Cui, Jiaqi Li, Fangzhou Ma, Li Liu, Feilong Hu, Mengmeng Chen, Wenjun Tong
Proxies are adopted to represent biodiversity patterns due to inadequate information for all taxa. Despite the wide use of proxies, their efficacy remains unclear. Previous analyses focused on overall species richness for fewer groups, affecting the generality and depth of inference. Biological taxa often exhibit very different habitat preferences. Habitat groupings may be an appropriate approach to advancing the study of richness patterns. Diverse geographical patterns of species richness and their potential mechanisms were then examined for habitat groups...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152168/pollination-by-the-locally-endangered-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-enhances-fruit-production-of-the-economically-important-durian-durio-zibethinus
#18
Sheema A Aziz, Gopalasamy R Clements, Kim R McConkey, Tuanjit Sritongchuay, Saifful Pathil, Muhammad Nur Hafizi Abu Yazid, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Pierre-Michel Forget, Sara Bumrungsri
Fruit bats provide valuable pollination services to humans through a unique coevolutionary relationship with chiropterophilous plants. However, chiropterophily in the Old World and the pollination roles of large bats, such as flying foxes (Pteropus spp., Acerodon spp., Desmalopex spp.), are still poorly understood and require further elucidation. Efforts to protect these bats have been hampered by a lack of basic quantitative information on their role as ecosystem service providers. Here, we investigate the role of the locally endangered island flying fox Pteropus hypomelanus in the pollination ecology of durian (Durio zibethinus), an economically important crop in Southeast Asia...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151875/adaptation-costs-to-constant-and-alternating-polluted-environments
#19
Morgan Dutilleul, Denis Réale, Benoit Goussen, Catherine Lecomte, Simon Galas, Jean-Marc Bonzom
Some populations quickly adapt to strong and novel selection pressures caused by anthropogenic stressors. However, this short-term evolutionary response to novel and harsh environmental conditions may lead to adaptation costs, and evaluating these costs is important if we want to understand the evolution of resistance to anthropogenic stressors. In this experimental evolution study, we exposed Caenorhabditis elegans populations to uranium (U populations), salt (NaCl populations) and alternating uranium/salt treatments (U/NaCl populations) and to a control environment (C populations), over 22 generations...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151872/evolved-pesticide-tolerance-influences-susceptibility-to-parasites-in-amphibians
#20
Jessica Hua, Vanessa P Wuerthner, Devin K Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D Cothran, Rick A Relyea, Jason T Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result in different performance trade-offs including population susceptibility to parasites...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
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