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evolutionary ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087070/can-evolution-supply-what-ecology-demands
#1
REVIEW
Hanna Kokko, Anurag Chaturvedi, Daniel Croll, Martin C Fischer, Frédéric Guillaume, Sophie Karrenberg, Ben Kerr, Gregor Rolshausen, Jessica Stapley
A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological 'demands' change, evolution 'supplies' the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as the population evolves. Geneticists meanwhile have identified complexities relating to the nature of genetic variation and its architecture, and the importance of epigenetic variation is under debate...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#2
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081570/the-population-ecology-of-technology-an-empirical-study-of-us-biotechnology-patents-from-1976-to-2003
#3
Ad van den Oord, Arjen van Witteloostuijn
A detailed understanding of technological change as an evolutionary process is currently not well understood. To increase our understanding, we build upon theory from organizational ecology to develop a model of endogenous technological growth and determine to what extent the pattern of technological growth can be attributed to the structural or systemic characteristics of the technology itself. Through an empirical investigation of patent data in the biotechnology industry from 1976 to 2003, we find that a technology's internal (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#4
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077871/hyoliths-are-palaeozoic-lophophorates
#5
Joseph Moysiuk, Martin R Smith, Jean-Bernard Caron
Hyoliths are abundant and globally distributed 'shelly' fossils that appear early in the Cambrian period and can be found throughout the 280 million year span of Palaeozoic strata. The ecological and evolutionary importance of this group has remained unresolved, largely because of their poorly constrained soft anatomy and idiosyncratic scleritome, which comprises an operculum, a conical shell and, in some taxa, a pair of lateral spines (helens). Since their first description over 175 years ago, hyoliths have most often been regarded as incertae sedis, related to molluscs or assigned to their own phylum...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077777/no-evidence-for-thermal-transgenerational-plasticity-in-metabolism-when-minimizing-the-potential-for-confounding-effects
#6
Ø N Kielland, C Bech, S Einum
Environmental change may cause phenotypic changes that are inherited across generations through transgenerational plasticity (TGP). If TGP is adaptive, offspring fitness increases with an increasing match between parent and offspring environment. Here we test for adaptive TGP in somatic growth and metabolic rate in response to temperature in the clonal zooplankton Daphnia pulex Animals of the first focal generation experienced thermal transgenerational 'mismatch' (parental and offspring temperatures differed), whereas conditions of the next two generations matched the (grand)maternal thermal conditions...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#7
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076419/stability-of-a-coevolving-host-parasite-system-peaks-at-intermediate-productivity
#8
Xin-Feng Zhao, Yi-Qi Hao, Quan-Guo Zhang
Habitat productivity may affect the stability of consumer-resource systems, through both ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. We hypothesize that coevolving consumer-resource systems show more stable dynamics at intermediate resource availability, while very low-level resource supply cannot support sufficiently large populations of resource and consumer species to avoid stochastic extinction, and extremely resource-rich environments may promote escalatory arms-race-like coevolution that can cause strong fluctuations in species abundance and even extinction of one or both trophic levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074845/local-coexistence-and-genetic-isolation-of-three-pollinator-species-on-the-same-fig-tree-species
#9
T L Sutton, J L DeGabriel, M Riegler, J M Cook
Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#10
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073390/the-behavioural-constellation-of-deprivation-causes-and-consequences
#11
Gillian V Pepper, Daniel Nettle
Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that there is a cluster of behaviours associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call the behavioural constellation of deprivation. We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower socioeconomic status curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains...
January 11, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071692/diversity-distribution-and-significance-of-transposable-elements-in-the-genome-of-the-only-selfing-hermaphroditic-vertebrate-kryptolebias-marmoratus
#12
Jae-Sung Rhee, Beom-Soon Choi, Jaebum Kim, Bo-Mi Kim, Young-Mi Lee, Il-Chan Kim, Akira Kanamori, Ik-Young Choi, Manfred Schartl, Jae-Seong Lee
The Kryptolebias marmoratus is unique because it is the only self-fertilizing hermaphroditic vertebrate, known to date. It primarily reproduces by internal self-fertilization in a mixed ovary/testis gonad. Here, we report on a high-quality genome assembly for the K. marmoratus South Korea (SK) strain highlighting the diversity and distribution of transposable elements (TEs). We find that K. marmoratus genome maintains number and composition of TEs. This can be an important genomic attribute promoting genome recombination in this selfing fish, while, in addition to a mixed mating strategy, it may also represent a mechanism contributing to the evolutionary adaptation to ecological pressure of the species...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070978/testing-for-local-adaptation-and-evolutionary-potential-along-altitudinal-gradients-in-rainforest-drosophila-beyond-laboratory-estimates
#13
Eleanor K O'Brien, Megan Higgie, Alan Reynolds, Ary A Hoffmann, Jon R Bridle
Predicting how species will respond to the rapid climatic changes predicted this century is an urgent task. Species distribution models (SDMs) use the current relationship between environmental variation and species' abundances to predict the effect of future environmental change on their distributions. However, two common assumptions of SDMs are likely to be violated in many cases: (i) that the relationship of environment with abundance or fitness is constant throughout a species' range and will remain so in future and (ii) that abiotic factors (e...
January 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070465/the-outcomes-of-most-aggressive-interactions-among-closely-related-bird-species-are-asymmetric
#14
Paul R Martin, Cameron Freshwater, Cameron K Ghalambor
Aggressive interactions among closely related species are common, and can play an important role as a selective pressure shaping species traits and assemblages. The nature of this selective pressure depends on whether the outcomes of aggressive contests are asymmetric between species (i.e., one species is consistently dominant), yet few studies have estimated the prevalence of asymmetric versus symmetric outcomes to aggressive contests. Here we use previously published data involving 26,212 interactions between 270 species pairs of birds from 26 taxonomic families to address the question: How often are aggressive interactions among closely related bird species asymmetric? We define asymmetry using (i) the proportion of contests won by one species, and (ii) statistical tests for asymmetric outcomes of aggressive contests...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070297/phylogeographic-patterns-of-a-lower-intertidal-isopod-in-the-gulf-of-california-and-the-caribbean-and-comparison-with-other-intertidal-isopods
#15
Luis A Hurtado, Mariana Mateos, Shuang Liu
A growing body of knowledge on the diversity and evolution of intertidal isopods across different regions worldwide has enhanced our understanding on biological diversification at the poorly studied, yet vast, sea-land interface. High genetic divergences among numerous allopatric lineages have been identified within presumed single broadly distributed species. Excirolana mayana is an intertidal isopod that is commonly found in sandy beaches throughout the Gulf of California. Its distribution in the Pacific extends from this basin to Colombia and in the Atlantic from Florida to Venezuela...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070289/is-xenodontine-snake-reproduction-shaped-by-ancestry-more-than-by-ecology
#16
Gisela P Bellini, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro R Giraudo
One of the current challenges of evolutionary ecology is to understand the effects of phylogenetic history (PH) and/or ecological factors (EF) on the life-history traits of the species. Here, the effects of environment and phylogeny are tested for the first time on the reproductive biology of South American xenodontine snakes. We studied 60% of the tribes of this endemic and most representative clade in a temperate region of South America. A comparative method (canonical phylogenetic ordination-CPO) was used to find the relative contributions of EF and PH upon life-history aspects of snakes, comparing the reproductive mode, mean fecundity, reproductive potential, and frequency of nearly 1,000 specimens...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070272/impact-of-temperature-shifts-on-the-joint-evolution-of-seed-dormancy-and-size
#17
Yang Liu, Sébastien Barot, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Nicolas Loeuille
Seed dormancy and size are two important life-history traits that interplay as adaptation to varying environmental settings. As evolution of both traits involves correlated selective pressures, it is of interest to comparatively investigate the evolution of the two traits jointly as well as independently. We explore evolutionary trajectories of seed dormancy and size using adaptive dynamics in scenarios of deterministic or stochastic temperature variations. Ecological dynamics usually result in unbalanced population structures, and temperature shifts or fluctuations of high magnitude give rise to more balanced ecological structures...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#18
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069533/myrteae-phylogeny-calibration-biogeography-and-diversification-patterns-increased-understanding-in-the-most-species-rich-tribe-of-myrtaceae
#19
Thais N C Vasconcelos, Carol E B Proença, Berhaman Ahmad, Daniel S Aguilar, Reinaldo Aguilar, Bruno S Amorim, Keron Campbell, Itayguara R Costa, Plauto S De-Carvalho, Jair E Q Faria, Augusto Giaretta, Pepijn W Kooij, Duane F Lima, Fiorella F Mazine, Brigido Peguero, Gerhard Prenner, Matheus F Santos, Julia Soewarto, Astrid Wingler, Eve J Lucas
Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066872/comparative-genomics-and-expression-levels-of-hydrophobins-from-eight-mycorrhizal-genomes
#20
F Rineau, H Lmalem, D Ahren, F Shah, T Johansson, L Coninx, J Ruytinx, H Nguyen, I Grigoriev, A Kuo, A Kohler, E Morin, J Vangronsveld, F Martin, J V Colpaert
Hydrophobins are small secreted proteins that are present as several gene copies in most fungal genomes. Their properties are now well understood: they are amphiphilic and assemble at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces. However, their physiological functions remain largely unexplored, especially within mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we identified hydrophobin genes and analysed their distribution in eight mycorrhizal genomes. We then measured their expression levels in three different biological conditions (mycorrhizal tissue vs...
January 9, 2017: Mycorrhiza
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