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evolutionary ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776375/range-wide-genetic-analysis-of-dermacentor-variabilis-and-its-francisella-like-endosymbionts-demonstrates-phylogeographic-concordance-between-both-taxa
#1
Emily L Kaufman, Nathan E Stone, Glen A Scoles, Crystal M Hepp, Joseph D Busch, David M Wagner
BACKGROUND: The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, is an important vector of pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals in North America. Although this tick species is widely distributed in the USA and Canada, knowledge of its range-wide phylogeographic patterns remains incomplete. METHODS: We carried out a phylogenetic analysis of D. variabilis using samples collected from 26 USA states and five Canadian provinces. Tick samples (n = 1053 in total) originated from two main sources: existing archives (2000-2011), and new collections made from 2012 to 2013...
May 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776336/phylogenomic-analysis-of-apoidea-sheds-new-light-on-the-sister-group-of-bees
#2
Manuela Sann, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S Peters, Christoph Mayer, Alexey Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, Christoph Bleidorn, Michael Ohl
BACKGROUND: Apoid wasps and bees (Apoidea) are an ecologically and morphologically diverse group of Hymenoptera, with some species of bees having evolved eusocial societies. Major problems for our understanding of the evolutionary history of Apoidea have been the difficulty to trace the phylogenetic origin and to reliably estimate the geological age of bees. To address these issues, we compiled a comprehensive phylogenomic dataset by simultaneously analyzing target DNA enrichment and transcriptomic sequence data, comprising 195 single-copy protein-coding genes and covering all major lineages of apoid wasps and bee families...
May 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775460/genus-wide-comparison-of-pseudovibrio-bacterial-genomes-reveal-diverse-adaptations-to-different-marine-invertebrate-hosts
#3
Anoop Alex, Agostinho Antunes
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#4
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772096/signatures-of-diversifying-selection-and-convergence-acting-on-passerine-toll-like-receptor-4-in-an-evolutionary-context
#5
Tereza Králová, Tomáš Albrecht, Josef Bryja, David Hořák, Arild Johnsen, Jan T Lifjeld, Marian Novotný, Ondřej Sedláček, Hana Velová, Michal Vinkler
Positive selection acting on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been recently investigated to reveal evolutionary mechanisms of host-pathogen molecular co-adaptation. Much of this research, however, has focused mainly on the identification of sites predicted to be under positive selection, bringing little insight into the functional differences and similarities among species and a limited understanding of convergent evolution in the innate immune molecules. In this study we provide evidence of phenotypic variability in the avian TLR4 ligand-binding region (LBR), the direct interface between host and pathogen molecular structures...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769587/explorations-on-the-ecological-role-of-toxin-secretion-and-delivery-in-jawless-predatory-polychaeta
#6
N Cuevas, M Martins, A P Rodrigo, C Martins, P M Costa
Motivated by biotechnological prospects, there is increasing evidence that we may just be scraping the tip of the iceberg of poisonous marine invertebrates, among which the Polychaeta are promising candidates for bioprospecting. Here we show that an inconspicuous phyllodocid uses toxins in its uncanny feeding strategy. The worm, a jawless active predator characterised by its bright green colour, preys on larger invertebrates (including conspecifics) by extracting tissue portions with its powerful proboscis through suction...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765588/dna-barcoding-a-taxonomically-complex-hemiparasitic-genus-reveals-deep-divergence-between-ploidy-levels-but-lack-of-species-level-resolution
#7
Xumei Wang, Galina Gussarova, Markus Ruhsam, Natasha de Vere, Chris Metherell, Peter M Hollingsworth, Alex D Twyford
DNA barcoding is emerging as a useful tool not only for species identification but also for studying evolutionary and ecological processes. Although plant DNA barcodes do not always provide species-level resolution, the generation of large DNA barcode data sets can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation of species diversity. Here, we study evolutionary processes in taxonomically complex British Euphrasia (Orobanchaceae), a group with multiple ploidy levels, frequent self-fertilization, young species divergence and widespread hybridization...
June 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765380/the-complete-plastome-sequences-of-seven-species-in-gentiana-sect-kudoa-gentianaceae-insights-into-plastid-gene-loss-and-molecular-evolution
#8
Shan-Shan Sun, Peng-Cheng Fu, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Yan-Wei Cheng, Fa-Qi Zhang, Shi-Long Chen, Qing-Bo Gao
The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in the study of phylogenomics, molecular dating, and molecular evolution. Gentiana sect. Kudoa is a predominantly alpine flowering plant that is valued for its contributions to medicine, ecology, and horticulture. Previous evolutionary studies showed that the plastid gene loss pattern and intra-sectional phylogenetics in sect. Kudoa are still unclear. In this study, we compared 11 Gentiana plastomes, including 7 newly sequenced plastomes from sect. Kudoa , to represent its three serious: ser...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764669/editorial-overview-ecology-ecological-adaptation-in-agroecosystems-novel-opportunities-to-integrate-evolutionary-biology-and-agricultural-entomology
#9
EDITORIAL
Yolanda H Chen, Sean D Schoville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764656/rapid-evolution-of-aphid-pests-in-agricultural-environments
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Christophe Simon, Jean Peccoud
Aphids constitute a major group of crop pests that inflict serious damages to plants, both directly by ingesting phloem and indirectly as vectors of numerous diseases. In response to intense and repeated human-induced pressures, such as insecticide treatments, the use of resistant plants and biological agents, aphids have developed a series of evolutionary responses relying on adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In this review, we highlight some remarkable evolutionary responses to anthropogenic pressures in agroecosystems and discuss the mechanisms underlying the ecological and evolutionary success of aphids...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761370/multispecies-individuals
#11
Pierrick Bourrat, Paul E Griffiths
We assess the arguments for recognising functionally integrated multispecies consortia as genuine biological individuals, including cases of so-called 'holobionts'. We provide two examples in which the same core biochemical processes that sustain life are distributed across a consortium of individuals of different species. Although the same chemistry features in both examples, proponents of the holobiont as unit of evolution would recognize one of the two cases as a multispecies individual whilst they would consider the other as a compelling case of ecological dependence between separate individuals...
May 14, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761320/strong-specificity-and-network-modularity-at-a-very-fine-phylogenetic-scale-in-the-lichen-genus-peltigera
#12
P L Chagnon, N Magain, J Miadlikowska, F Lutzoni
Identifying the drivers and evolutionary consequences of species interactions is a major goal of community ecology. Network-based analyses can provide mathematical tools to detect non-random patterns of interactions, and potentially help predicting the consequences of such patterns on evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic systems. Here, we characterize the structure of a lichen network at a very fine phylogenetic scale, by identifying the photosynthetic partners (i.e., cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc) of lichenized fungi belonging to a monophyletic section of a single genus (i...
May 14, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760902/exploring-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-bacteria-environment-an-experimental-phylogenetics-approach
#13
Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Rocío Paleo-López, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, María Josefina Poupin, Thomas Ledger, Juan Diego Gaitan-Espitia, Andrzej Antoł, Michael Travisano, Roberto F Nespolo
There have been over 25 independent unicellular to multicellular evolutionary transitions, which have been transformational in the complexity of life. All of these transitions likely occurred in communities numerically dominated by unicellular organisms, mostly bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that bacteria were involved in generating the ecological conditions that promoted the stability and proliferation of the first multicellular forms as protective units. In this study, we addressed this problem by analyzing the occurrence of multicellularity in an experimental phylogeny of yeasts ( Sacharomyces cerevisiae ) a model organism that is unicellular but can generate multicellular clusters under some conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760889/measuring-inferential-importance-of-taxa-using-taxon-influence-indices
#14
John S S Denton, Eric W Goolsby
Assessing the importance of different taxa for inferring evolutionary history is a critical, but underutilized, aspect of systematics. Quantifying the importance of all taxa within a dataset provides an empirical measurement that can establish a ranking of extant taxa for ecological study and/or quantify the relative importance of newly announced or redescribed specimens to enable the disentangling of novelty and inferential influence. Here, we illustrate the use of taxon influence indices through analysis of both molecular and morphological datasets, introducing a modified Bayesian approach to the taxon influence index that accounts for model and topological uncertainty...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760441/origin-and-maintenance-of-chemical-diversity-in-a-species-rich-tropical-tree-lineage
#15
Diego Salazar, John Lokvam, Italo Mesones, Magno Vásquez Pilco, Jacqueline Milagros Ayarza Zuñiga, Perry de Valpine, Paul V A Fine
Plant secondary metabolites play important ecological and evolutionary roles, most notably in the deterrence of natural enemies. The classical theory explaining the evolution of plant chemical diversity is that new defences arise through a pairwise co-evolutionary arms race between plants and their specialized natural enemies. However, plant species are bombarded by dozens of different herbivore taxa from disparate phylogenetic lineages that span a wide range of feeding strategies and have distinctive physiological constraints that interact differently with particular plant metabolites...
May 14, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759008/thin-slices-of-athletes-nonverbal-behavior-give-away-game-location-testing-the-territoriality-hypothesis-of-the-home-game-advantage
#16
Philip Furley, Geoffrey Schweizer, Daniel Memmert
The present research investigated whether perceivers could detect who is playing at home or away in soccer matches based on thin slices of professional (Experiment 1) and amateur (Experiment 3) athletes' nonverbal behavior prior to the match and whether perceivers rated athletes playing at home relatively higher on behavioral dimensions (Experiments 2 and 3) linked to territoriality. In Experiment 1 ( N = 80), participants watched short videos depicting soccer players prior to a UEFA Champions League match and rated whether athletes were more likely to be playing at home or away...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757366/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-pervasive-effects-of-germline-mitochondrial-replacement-on-components-of-health
#17
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755152/eco-evolutionary-processes-generating-diversity-among-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-populations-off-baja-california-mexico
#18
Iris Segura-García, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares, Gisela Heckel, Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso, Rus Hoelzel
For highly mobile species that nevertheless show fine-scale patterns of population genetic structure, the relevant evolutionary mechanisms determining structure remain poorly understood. The bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ) is one such species, exhibiting complex patterns of genetic structure associated with local habitat dependence in various geographic regions. Here we studied bottlenose dolphin populations in the Gulf of California and Pacific Ocean off Baja California where habitat is highly structured to test associations between ecology, habitat dependence and genetic differentiation...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755151/shape-covariation-or-the-lack-thereof-between-vertebrae-and-other-skeletal-traits-in-felids-the-whole-is-not-always-greater-than-the-sum-of-parts
#19
Marcela Randau, Anjali Goswami
Within carnivorans, cats show comparatively little disparity in overall morphology, with species differing mainly in body size. However, detailed shape analyses of individual osteological structures, such as limbs or skulls, have shown that felids display significant morphological differences that correlate with their observed ecological and behavioural ranges. Recently, these shape analyses have been extended to the felid axial skeleton. Results demonstrate a functionally-partitioned vertebral column, with regions varying greatly in level of correlation between shape and ecology...
2018: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752753/phoretic-dispersal-influences-parasite-population-genetic-structure
#20
Emily DiBlasi, Kevin P Johnson, Sydney A Stringham, Angela N Hansen, Andrew B Beach, Dale H Clayton, Sarah E Bush
Dispersal is a fundamental component of the life history of most species. Dispersal influences fitness, population dynamics, gene flow, genetic drift, and population genetic structure. Even small differences in dispersal can alter ecological interactions and trigger an evolutionary cascade. Linking such ecological processes with evolutionary patterns is difficult, but can be done in the proper comparative context. Here we investigate how differences in phoretic dispersal influence the population genetic structure of two different parasites of the same host species...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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