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evolutionary ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334414/cryptic-species-as-a-window-into-the-paradigm-shift-of-the-species-concept
#1
Cene Fišer, Christopher T Robinson, Florian Malard
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new 'species' paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category - which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331642/protein-adaptations-in-extremophiles-an-insight-into-extremophilic-connection-of-mycobacterial-proteome
#2
REVIEW
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321901/proximate-causes-of-altitudinal-differences-in-body-size-in-an-agamid-lizard
#3
Hong-Liang Lu, Chun-Xia Xu, Yuan-Ting Jin, Jean-Marc Hero, Wei-Guo Du
Body size is directly linked to key life history traits such as growth, fecundity, and survivorship. Identifying the causes of body size variation is a critical task in ecological and evolutionary research. Body size variation along altitudinal gradients has received considerable attention; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we compared the growth rate and age structure of toad-headed lizards (Phrynocephalus vlangalii) from two populations found at different elevations in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321869/imitating-the-cost-of-males-a-hypothesis-for-coexistence-of-all-female-sperm-dependent-species-and-their-sexual-host
#4
Christelle Leung, Bernard Angers
All-female sperm-dependent species are particular asexual organisms that must coexist with a closely related sexual host for reproduction. However, demographic advantages of asexual over sexual species that have to produce male individuals could lead both to extinction. The unresolved question of their coexistence still challenges and fascinates evolutionary biologists. As an alternative hypothesis, we propose those asexual organisms are afflicted by a demographic cost analogous to the production of males to prevent exclusion of the host...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321691/deciphering-the-nature-of-the-coral-chromera-association
#5
Amin R Mohamed, Vivian R Cumbo, Saki Harii, Chuya Shinzato, Cheong Xin Chan, Mark A Ragan, Nori Satoh, Eldon E Ball, David J Miller
Since the discovery of Chromera velia as a novel coral-associated microalga, this organism has attracted interest because of its unique evolutionary position between the photosynthetic dinoflagellates and the parasitic apicomplexans. The nature of the relationship between Chromera and its coral host is controversial. Is it a mutualism, from which both participants benefit, a parasitic relationship, or a chance association? To better understand the interaction, larvae of the common Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora digitifera were experimentally infected with Chromera, and the impact on the host transcriptome was assessed at 4, 12, and 48 h post-infection using Illumina RNA-Seq technology...
January 10, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321506/interference-of-chemical-defence-and-sexual-communication-can-shape-the-evolution-of-chemical-signals
#6
Lisa Pfeiffer, Joachim Ruther, John Hofferberth, Johannes Stökl
According to current evolutionary theory, insect pheromones can originate from extant precursor compounds being selected for information transfer. This is exemplified by females of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma whose defensive secretion consisting mainly of (-)-iridomyrmecin has evolved secondary functions as cue to avoid other females during host search and as female sex pheromone. To promote our understanding of pheromone evolution from defensive secretions we studied the chemical ecology of Leptopilina clavipes...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321302/rapid-seasonal-evolution-in-innate-immunity-of-wild-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Emily L Behrman, Virginia M Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri A Petrov, Brian P Lazzaro, Paul S Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Providencia rettgeri to measure post-infection survival and bacterial load of wild D...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321293/individual-variation-in-reproductive-behaviour-is-linked-to-temporal-heterogeneity-in-predation-risk
#8
Miguel Barbosa, Amy E Deacon, Maria Joao Janeiro, Indar Ramnarine, Michael Blair Morrissey, Anne E Magurran
Variation in predation risk is a major driver of ecological and evolutionary change, and, in turn, of geographical variation in behaviour. While predation risk is rarely constant in natural populations, the extent to which variation in predation risk shapes individual behaviour in wild populations remains unclear. Here, we investigated individual differences in reproductive behaviour in 16 Trinidadian guppy populations and related it to the observed variation in predator biomass each population experienced...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319883/trait-specific-processes-of-convergence-and-conservatism-shape-ecomorphological-evolution-in-ground-dwelling-squirrels
#9
Bryan S McLean, Kristofer M Helgen, H Thomas Goodwin, Joseph A Cook
Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity...
January 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319228/mobility-affects-copulation-and-oviposition-dynamics-in-pieris-brassicae-in-semi-natural-cages
#10
Nicolas Larranaga, Michel Baguette, Olivier Calvez, Delphine Legrand
When, how often and for how long organisms mate can have strong consequences for individual fitness and are crucial aspects of evolutionary ecology. Such determinants are likely to be of even greater importance in monandrous species and species with short adult life stages. Previous work suggests that mobility, a key dispersal-related trait, may affect the dynamics of copulations, but few studies have investigated the impact of individual mobility on mating latency, copulation duration and oviposition latency simultaneously...
January 10, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316951/evolutionary-ethnobiology-and-cultural-evolution-opportunities-for-research-and-dialog
#11
REVIEW
Flávia Rosa Santoro, André Luiz Borba Nascimento, Gustavo Taboada Soldati, Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
The interest in theoretical frameworks that improve our understanding of social-ecological systems is growing within the field of ethnobiology. Several evolutionary questions may underlie the relationships between people and the natural resources that are investigated in this field. A new branch of research, known as evolutionary ethnobiology (EE), focuses on these questions and has recently been formally conceptualized. The field of cultural evolution (CE) has significantly contributed to the development of this new field, and it has introduced the Darwinian concepts of variation, competition, and heredity to studies that focus on the dynamics of local knowledge...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315395/comparative-genomic-analyses-reveal-the-features-for-adaptation-to-nematodes-in-fungi
#12
Ruizhen Wang, Leiming Dong, Ran He, Qinghua Wang, Yuequ Chen, Liangjian Qu, Yong-An Zhang
Nematophagous (NP) fungi are ecologically important components of the soil microbiome in natural ecosystems. Esteya vermicola (Ev) has been reported as a NP fungus with a poorly understood evolutionary history and mechanism of adaptation to parasitism. Furthermore, NP fungal genomic basis of lifestyle was still unclear. We sequenced and annotated the Ev genome (34.2 Mbp) and integrated genetic makeup and evolution of pathogenic genes to investigate NP fungi. The results revealed that NP fungi had some abundant pathogenic genes corresponding to their niche...
January 5, 2018: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315317/data-collection-and-storage-in-long-term-ecological-and-evolutionary-studies-the-mongoose-2000-system
#13
Harry H Marshall, David J Griffiths, Francis Mwanguhya, Robert Businge, Amber G F Griffiths, Solomon Kyabulima, Kenneth Mwesige, Jennifer L Sanderson, Faye J Thompson, Emma I K Vitikainen, Michael A Cant
Studying ecological and evolutionary processes in the natural world often requires research projects to follow multiple individuals in the wild over many years. These projects have provided significant advances but may also be hampered by needing to accurately and efficiently collect and store multiple streams of the data from multiple individuals concurrently. The increase in the availability and sophistication of portable computers (smartphones and tablets) and the applications that run on them has the potential to address many of these data collection and storage issues...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313842/twelve-thousand-recent-patellogastropods-from-a-northeastern-pacific-latitudinal-gradient
#14
Sara S Kahanamoku, Pincelli M Hull, David R Lindberg, Allison Y Hsiang, Erica C Clites, Seth Finnegan
Body size distributions can vary widely among communities, with important implications for ecological dynamics, energetics, and evolutionary history. Here we present a dataset of body size and shape for 12,035 extant Patellogastropoda (true limpet) specimens from the collections of the University of California Museum of Paleontology, compiled using a novel high-throughput morphometric imaging method. These specimens were collected over the past 150 years at 355 localities along a latitudinal gradient ranging from Alaska to Baja California, Mexico and are presented here with individual images, 2D outline coordinates, and 2D measurements of body size and shape...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311333/ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-interconnectedness-and-modularity
#15
Jan M Nordbotten, Simon A Levin, Eörs Szathmáry, Nils C Stenseth
In this contribution, we develop a theoretical framework for linking microprocesses (i.e., population dynamics and evolution through natural selection) with macrophenomena (such as interconnectedness and modularity within an ecological system). This is achieved by developing a measure of interconnectedness for population distributions defined on a trait space (generalizing the notion of modularity on graphs), in combination with an evolution equation for the population distribution. With this contribution, we provide a platform for understanding under what environmental, ecological, and evolutionary conditions ecosystems evolve toward being more or less modular...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311238/bacterial-pathogen-emergence-required-more-than-direct-contact-with-a-novel-passerine-host
#16
Molly Staley, Geoffrey E Hill, Chloe C Josefson, Jonathan W Armbruster, Camille Bonneaud
While direct contact may sometimes be sufficient to allow a pathogen to jump into a new host species, in other cases fortuitously adaptive mutations that arise in the original donor host are also necessary. Viruses have been the focus of most host shift studies, so less is known about the importance of ecological versus evolutionary processes to successful bacterial host shifts. Here we tested whether direct contact with the novel host was sufficient to enable the mid-1990s jump of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum from domestic poultry into house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus)...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310934/tendinous-framework-of-anurans-reveals-an-all-purpose-morphology
#17
Jéssica Fratani, María Laura Ponssa, Virginia Abdala
Tendons are directly associated with movement, amplifying power and reducing muscular work. Taking into account habitat and locomotor challenges faced by anurans, we identify the more conspicuous superficial tendons of a neotropical anuran group and investigate their relation to the former factors. We show that tendons can be visualized as an anatomical framework connected through muscles and/or fascia, and describe the most superficial tendinous layer of the postcranium of Leptodactylus latinasus. To analyze the relation between tendon morphology and ecological characters, we test the relative length ratio of 10 tendon-muscle (t-m) elements in 45 leptodactylid species while taking phylogeny into account...
August 31, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310650/parasitaemia-data-and-molecular-characterization-of-haemoproteus-catharti-from-new-world-vultures-cathartidae-reveals-a-novel-clade-of-haemosporida
#18
Michael J Yabsley, Ralph E T Vanstreels, Ellen S Martinsen, Alexandra G Wickson, Amanda E Holland, Sonia M Hernandez, Alec T Thompson, Susan L Perkins, Christopher J West, A Lawrence Bryan, Christopher A Cleveland, Emily Jolly, Justin D Brown, Dave McRuer, Shannon Behmke, James C Beasley
BACKGROUND: New World vultures (Cathartiformes: Cathartidae) are obligate scavengers comprised of seven species in five genera throughout the Americas. Of these, turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) and black vultures (Coragyps atratus) are the most widespread and, although ecologically similar, have evolved differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour. Three species of haemosporidians have been reported in New World vultures to date: Haemoproteus catharti, Leucocytozoon toddi and Plasmodium elongatum, although few studies have investigated haemosporidian parasites in this important group of species...
January 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310597/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-annotation-and-comparison-of-four-ecological-and-evolutionary-model-salmonid-fish-species
#19
Madeleine Carruthers, Andrey A Yurchenko, Julian J Augley, Colin E Adams, Pawel Herzyk, Kathryn R Elmer
BACKGROUND: Salmonid fishes exhibit high levels of phenotypic and ecological variation and are thus ideal model systems for studying evolutionary processes of adaptive divergence and speciation. Furthermore, salmonids are of major interest in fisheries, aquaculture, and conservation research. Improving understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying traits in these species would significantly progress research in these fields. Here we generate high quality de novo transcriptomes for four salmonid species: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306554/the-neglected-soil-virome-potential-role-and-impact
#20
REVIEW
Akbar Adjie Pratama, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Bacteriophages are among the most abundant and diverse biological units in the biosphere. They have contributed to our understanding of the central dogma of biology and have been instrumental in the evolutionary success of bacterial pathogens. In contrast to our current understanding of marine viral communities, the soil virome and its function in terrestrial ecosystems has remained relatively understudied. Here, we examine, in a comparative fashion, the knowledge gathered from studies performed in soil versus marine settings...
January 3, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
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