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Vascular access state of art

Ejona Duka, Anna Maria Ierardi, Chiara Floridi, Alberto Terrana, Federico Fontana, Gianpaolo Carrafiello
Interventional radiological procedures for diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer have become increasingly important. Imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy has become the modality of choice for diagnosing lung cancer, and in the era of target therapies, it is an useful tool to define earlier patient-specific tumor phenotypes. In functionally inoperable patients, especially the ablative procedures are potentially curative alternatives to surgery. In addition to thermally ablative treatment, selective chemoembolization by a vascular access allows localized therapy...
February 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Joseph E Tonna, Nicholas J Johnson, John Greenwood, David F Gaieski, Zachary Shinar, Joseph M Bellezo, Lance Becker, Atman P Shah, Scott T Youngquist, Michael P Mallin, James Franklin Fair, Kyle J Gunnerson, Cindy Weng, Stephen McKellar
PURPOSE: To characterize the current scope and practices of centers performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) on the undifferentiated patient with cardiac arrest in the emergency department. METHODS: We contacted all US centers in January 2016 that had submitted adult eCPR cases to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry and surveyed them, querying for programs that had performed eCPR in the Emergency Department (ED ECMO)...
October 2016: Resuscitation
Lorenzo Azzalini, E Marc Jolicœur
Transradial access (TRA) has reduced vascular access-site complication (VASC) and bleeding rates in patients undergoing coronary angiography and intervention. A "radial-first" approach should be adopted and indications of TRA extended in order to maximize its beneficial effect. However, in certain clinical scenarios, transfemoral access (TFA) is a preferable or a mandatory route to successfully perform the procedure. Since the widespread adoption of TRA, a paradoxical increase in VASC rates has been observed in patients undergoing TFA, which might be attributed to a combination of increased risk profile of both the procedures and the patients, and a loss of skills in securing TFA by those who are now default radial operators...
February 15, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Alexandre T J Maria, Marie Maumus, Alain Le Quellec, Christian Jorgensen, Danièle Noël, Philippe Guilpain
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are non-hematopoietic multipotent progenitor cells, first described in bone marrow in the middle of last century. Since then, MSC have been the objects of a myriad of publications, progressively increasing our knowledge on their potentialities and bringing high expectancies for their regenerative properties. During the same period, numerous tissues, such as adipose tissue, placenta, or umbilical cord, have been used as alternative sources of MSC in comparison with bone marrow...
April 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
F Alfageme Roldán, I Salgüero Fernández, F Zamanta Muñoz Garza, G Roustán Gullón
Advances in our understanding of the biology and therapy of vascular anomalies have made this condition a common reason for consulting a dermatologist. In addition, multidisciplinary units have been created to manage patients with complex vascular anomalies. Although most vascular anomalies are diagnosed based on clinical findings, a thorough evaluation often requires additional imaging tests to determine the nature, extension, and prognosis of these lesions. Because it is fast and noninvasive, ultrasound is usually the first imaging test ordered...
May 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Martin Jöhr, Thomas M Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to discuss recent developments in vascular access technology and to highlight those that are particularly relevant to the practitioner. RECENT FINDINGS: The need for venous access should always be critically assessed in every child, and it is important to use the limited number of suitable veins wisely and to avoid unnecessary attempts. Near-infrared devices make veins visible, but they do not necessarily increase the success rate of peripheral venous puncture...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Carol Yim-Lui Cheung, Yi-Ting Ong, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Chen, Tien Yin Wong
Although cerebral small vessel disease has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the cerebral microcirculation is difficult to visualize directly in vivo. As the retina and the brain share similar embryological origin, anatomical features and physiological properties with the cerebral small vessels, the retinal vessels thus offer a unique and easily accessible "window" to study the correlates and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases in vivo. Retinal microvasculature can now be visualized, quantified and monitored non-invasively using state-of-the-art retinal imaging technology...
2014: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Svenja Caspers, Susanne Moebus, Silke Lux, Noreen Pundt, Holger Schütz, Thomas W Mühleisen, Vincent Gras, Simon B Eickhoff, Sandro Romanzetti, Tony Stöcker, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Mehmet E Kirlangic, Martina Minnerop, Peter Pieperhoff, Ulrich Mödder, Samir Das, Alan C Evans, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Raimund Erbel, Sven Cichon, Markus M Nöthen, Dieter Sturma, Andreas Bauer, N Jon Shah, Karl Zilles, Katrin Amunts
The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45-75 years on inclusion...
2014: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
A K Zhanatbekova, L K Karazhanova, A M Begalina, S Filipova
Arterial hypertensionis an important worldwide health problem. Its relevance relates both to the high incidence and prevalence in all adult communities and to the high risk of serious and potentially fatal cardiovascular events due to hypertension. Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal (>140/90 mm Hg) despite the use of at least 3 optimally dosed antihypertensive drugs from different classes, with one of the drugs being a diuretic. The exact prevalence of RH is unknown, but it is generally estimated at 10-20% of hypertensive patients...
2014: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Knut E Reinbacher, Mauro Pau, Jürgen Wallner, Wolfgang Zemann, Angelika Klein, Christian Gstettner, Reingard M Aigner, Matthias Feichtinger
UNLABELLED: Intraorbital tumours are often undetected for a long period and may lead to compression of the optic nerve and loss of vision. Although CT, MRI's and ultrasound can help in determining the probable diagnosis, most orbital tumours are only diagnosed by surgical biopsy. In intraconal lesions this may prove especially difficult as the expansions are situated next to sensitive anatomical structures (eye bulb, optic nerve). In search of a minimally invasive access to the intraconal region, we describe a method of a three-dimensional, image-guided biopsy of orbital tumours using a combined technique of hardware fusion between (18)F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography ((18)F-FDG PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT)...
October 2014: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Michael S Kristensen, Wendy H Teoh, Ole Graumann, Christian B Laursen
OBJECTIVES: To create a state-of-the-art overview of the new and expanding role of ultrasonography in clinical decision-making, intervention and management of the upper and lower airways, that is clinically relevant, up-to-date and practically useful for clinicians. METHODS: This is a narrative review combined with a structured Medline literature search. RESULTS: Ultrasonography can be utilised to predict airway difficulty during induction of anaesthesia, evaluate if the stomach is empty or possesses gastric content that poses an aspiration risk, localise the essential cricothyroid membrane prior to difficult airway management, perform nerve blocks for awake intubation, confirm tracheal or oesophageal intubation and facilitate localisation of tracheal rings for tracheostomy...
April 2014: Insights Into Imaging
Luca Vecchia, Carla Olivieri, Claudia Scotti
Anti-angiogenic therapy represents a very promising approach in cancer treatment, as most tumors needs to be supplied by a functional vascular network in order to grow beyond the local boundaries and metastatize. The accessibility of vessels to drug delivery and the broad spectrum of cancers treatable with the same compound have arisen interest in research of suitable molecules, with several, especially targeting the VEGF pathway, entered in clinical trials and approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Despite good results, the major hurdle resides in the limited duration of an effective clinical response before tumors start to grow again...
August 2013: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Prahlad G Menon, Nikola Teslovich, Chia-Yuan Chen, Akif Undar, Kerem Pekkan
During pediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), tiny aortic outflow cannulae (2-3 mm inner diameter), with micro-scale blood-wetting features transport relatively large blood volumes (0.3 to 1.0 L/min) resulting in high blood flow velocities (2 to 5 m/s). These severe flow conditions are likely to complement platelet activation, release pro-inflammatory cytokines, and further result in vascular and blood damage. Hemodynamically efficient aortic outflow cannulae are required to provide high blood volume flow rates at low exit force...
January 18, 2013: Journal of Biomechanics
Jürgen Mayer, Jim Swoger, Aleksandra J Ozga, Jens V Stein, James Sharpe
Deep tissue imaging has become state of the art in biology, but now the problem is to quantify spatial information in a global, organ-wide context. Although access to the raw data is no longer a limitation, the computational tools to extract biologically useful information out of these large data sets is still catching up. In many cases, to understand the mechanism behind a biological process, where molecules or cells interact with each other, it is mandatory to know their mutual positions. We illustrate this principle here with the immune system...
2012: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ramanath Dukkipati, Marissa Peck, Rajiv Dhamija, Dirk M Hentschel, Tyler Reynolds, Gautam Tammewar, Todd McAllister
The vast majority of arteriovenous grafts (AVG) have been constructed using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). While ePTFE grafts have the advantage of being relatively inexpensive and easy to manufacture, distribute, ship, and store, their primary patency rates are disappointing when compared with the native AVF. Though use of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) in the United States has increased substantially, approximately 25% of hemodialysis patients continue to use AVG as their vascular access. We present here a comprehensive review of biological grafts and their use in hemodialysis vascular access...
March 2013: Seminars in Dialysis
D Jenkins, E Mayer, N Screaton, M Madani
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a debilitating disease caused by chronic obstruction of pulmonary artery branches following episodes of pulmonary embolism and incomplete thrombus resolution. The prognosis of patients with CTEPH is poor unless an early diagnosis is made and treatment is initiated. Chest radiography and echocardiography are used in the initial assessment of suspected pulmonary hypertension. A diagnosis of CTEPH may be confirmed by the presence of a mismatched wedge-shaped perfusion deficit during ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy or characteristic findings during multi-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography, including a mosaic perfusion pattern, dilatation of proximal pulmonary arteries and right heart chambers, and the presence of vascular stenosis or obstruction...
March 1, 2012: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Nicolas A Brozzi, Eric E Roselli
Conventional surgery for thoracic aortic pathology involves replacing the affected segment of aorta with an interposition graft and often requires the use of extracorporeal circulatory support with or without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Although operative results have improved consistently over 60 years, patients with extensive aneurysms face a considerable risk with conventional surgery, particularly when burdened with multiple comorbidities. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was first performed in 1994 and has become a well-established alternative therapy for many thoracic aortic pathologies...
April 2012: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Enrico Ferrari, Ludwig Karl von Segesser
Transcatheter aortic valve therapies are the newest established techniques for the treatment of high risk patients affected by severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. The transapical approach requires a left anterolateral mini-thoracotomy, whereas the transfemoral method requires an adequate peripheral vascular access and can be performed fully percutaneously. Alternatively, the trans-subclavian access has been recently proposed as a third promising approach. Depending on the technique, the fine stent-valve positioning can be performed with or without contrast injections...
2010: Swiss Medical Weekly
Avihu Z Gazit, Phineas P Oren
Prompt initiation of appropriate and intensive treatment in children with decompensated heart failure is crucial to avoid irreversible end-organ dysfunction. Initial management of these children includes transfer to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, basic hemodynamic monitoring, and establishment of intravenous access. Inotropic support should be instituted peripherally before obtaining central venous and arterial access. The team should be prepared for emergent intubation and initiation of mechanical circulatory support...
October 2009: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
M Truijers, T Resch, J C Van Den Berg, J D Blankensteijn, L Lönn
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) represents one of the greatest advances in vascular surgery over the past 50 years. In contrast to conventional aneurysm repair, EVAR requires accurate preoperative imaging and stringent postoperative surveillance. Duplex ultrasound (DUS), transesophageal echocardiography, intravascular ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR), each provide useful information for patient selection, choice of endograft type and surveillance. Today most interventionists and surgeons will rely on CT or MR to assess aortic morphology, evaluate access artery patency and locate side branch orifices...
August 2009: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
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