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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725374/snowbeds-are-more-affected-than-other-subalpine-alpine-plant-communities-by-climate-change-in-the-swiss-alps
#1
Magalì Matteodo, Klaus Ammann, Eric Pascal Verrecchia, Pascal Vittoz
While the upward shift of plant species has been observed on many alpine and nival summits, the reaction of the subalpine and lower alpine plant communities to the current warming and lower snow precipitation has been little investigated so far. To this aim, 63 old, exhaustive plant inventories, distributed along a subalpine-alpine elevation gradient of the Swiss Alps and covering different plant community types (acidic and calcareous grasslands; windy ridges; snowbeds), were revisited after 25-50 years. Old and recent inventories were compared in terms of species diversity with Simpson diversity and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices, and in terms of community composition with principal component analysis...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#2
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711661/mechanisms-of-action-and-clinical-efficacy-of-nmda-receptor-modulators-in-mood-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Mehdi Ghasemi, Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi, Margaret Windy McNerney, Ahmad Salehi
Although the biogenic amine models have provided meaningful links between clinical phenomena and pharmacological management of mood disorders (MDs), the onset of action of current treatments is slow and a proportion of individuals fail to adequately respond. A growing number of investigations have focused on the glutamatergic system as a viable target. Herein we review the putative role of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) signaling in the pathophysiology of MDs. Prompting this focus are several lines of evidence: 1) altered glutamate and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) expression and functioning; 2) antidepressant effects of NMDAR signaling blockers; 3) interaction between conventional therapeutic regimens and NMDAR signaling modulators; 4) biochemical evidence of interaction between monoaminergic system and NMDAR signaling; 5) interaction between neurotrophic factors and NMDAR signaling in mood regulation; 6) cross-talk between NMDAR signaling and inflammatory processes; and 7) antidepressant effects of a number of NMDA modulators in recent clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699730/flexible-slippery-surface-to-manipulate-droplet-coalescence-and-sliding-and-its-practicability-in-wind-resistant-water-collection
#4
Yuanfeng Wang, Baitai Qian, Chuilin Lai, Xiaowen Wang, Kaikai Ma, Yujuan Guo, Xingli Zhu, Bin Fei, John H Xin
A flexible slippery membrane (FSM) with tunable morphology and high elastic deformability has been developed by infusing perfluoropolyether (PFPE) into a fluorinated-copolymer-modified thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiberous membrane. To immobilize PFPE in TPU matrix, we synthesized a fluorinated-copolymer poly(DFMA-co-IBOA-co-LMA) with low surface energy, high chemical affinity to PFPE, adequate flexibility, and strong physical adhesion on TPU. Upon external tensile stress, the as-prepared FSM can realize a real-time manipulation of water sliding and coalescence on it...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637726/interventions-for-preventing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-protocol-of-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#5
Windy Mariane Virenia Wariki, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Charles S Wiysonge, Hacsi Horvath, Jennifer S Read
INTRODUCTION: Various interventions to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been investigated and implemented. A number of systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of MTCT of HIV reported antiretroviral prophylaxis, caesarean section before labour and before ruptured membranes, and complete avoidance of breastfeeding were efficacious for preventing MTCT of HIV. Recent WHO guidelines recommend lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women for treatment of the woman's own HIV infection and for prevention of MTCT of HIV...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595122/winds-and-the-distribution-of-nearshore-phytoplankton-in-a-stratified-lake
#6
Hélène Cyr
The distribution of phytoplankton in lakes is notoriously patchy and dynamic, but wind-driven currents and algal buoyancy/motility are thought to determine where algae accumulate. In this study, nearshore phytoplankton were sampled from different parts of a lake basin twice a day for 4-5 consecutive days, in the spring and in late summer, to test whether short-term changes in phytoplankton biomass and community composition can be predicted from wind-driven currents. On windy days, phytoplankton biomass was higher at downwind than at upwind nearshore sites, and the magnitude of this difference increased linearly with increasing wind speed...
May 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580677/lgbtq-youth-s-views-on-gay-straight-alliances-building-community-providing-gateways-and-representing-safety-and-support
#7
Carolyn M Porta, Erin Singer, Christopher J Mehus, Amy L Gower, Elizabeth Saewyc, Windy Fredkove, Marla E Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are school-based clubs that can contribute to a healthy school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. While positive associations between health behaviors and GSAs have been documented, less is known about how youth perceive GSAs. METHODS: A total of 58 LGBTQ youth (14-19 years old) mentioned GSAs during go-along interviews in 3 states/provinces in North America. These 446 comments about GSAs were thematically coded and organized using Atlas...
July 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510626/outcome-measures-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-the-intronic-mutation-in-the-cep290-gene
#8
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Windy Choi, Rebecca Sheplock, Malgorzata Swider, Mychajlo S Kosyk, Sharon B Schwartz, Edwin M Stone, Gerald A Fishman
Purpose: To determine efficacy outcome measures for clinical trials of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with a common intronic mutation in the CEP290 gene. Methods: CEP290-LCA patients (ages 5-48) with the intronic mutation (c.2991+1655A>G) were studied as a retrospective observational case series using clinical methods and with full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence imaging (NIR-RAFI), transient pupillary light reflex (TPLR), oculomotor control and instability (OCI), a mobility course, and a questionnaire (NEI-VFQ)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497171/measuring-facial-cooling-in-outdoor-windy-winter-conditions-an-exploratory-study
#9
Andrew G S Briggs, Terry J Gillespie, Robert D Brown
Winter clothing provides insulation for almost all of a person's body, but in most situations, a person's face remains uncovered even in cold windy weather. This exploratory study used thermal imagery to record the rate of cooling of the faces of volunteers in a range of winter air temperatures and wind speeds. Different areas of the faces cooled at different rates with the areas around the eyes and neck cooling at the slowest rate, and the nose and cheeks cooling at the fastest rate. In all cases, the faces cooled at an approximately logarithmic decay for the first few minutes...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467419/meerkat-close-calling-patterns-are-linked-to-sex-social-category-season-and-wind-but-not-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-concentrations
#10
Jelena Mausbach, Ines Braga Goncalves, Michael Heistermann, André Ganswindt, Marta B Manser
It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455604/biological-incorporation-of-human-acellular-dermal-matrix-used-in-achilles-tendon-repair
#11
Giampietro Bertasi, Windy Cole, Brian Samsell, Xiaofei Qin, Mark Moore
Human acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are used successfully in a variety of procedures, including sports medicine related, wound repair, and breast reconstructions, but the mechanism of repair is still not fully understood. An opportunity to explore this mechanism presented itself when a patient experienced a rerupture of the native tendon due to a fall that occurred 2 months after undergoing an Achilles tendon repair using Matracell treated ADM. The ADM was removed and an extensive histology analysis was performed on the tissue...
April 28, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453293/predicting-a-drug-s-membrane-permeability-a-computational-model-validated-with-in-vitro-permeability-assay-data
#12
Brian J Bennion, Nicholas A Be, M Windy McNerney, Victoria Lao, Emma M Carlson, Carlos A Valdez, Michael A Malfatti, Heather A Enright, Tuan H Nguyen, Felice C Lightstone, Timothy S Carpenter
Membrane permeability is a key property to consider during the drug design process, and particularly vital when dealing with small molecules that have intracellular targets as their efficacy highly depends on their ability to cross the membrane. In this work, we describe the use of umbrella sampling molecular dynamics (MD) computational modeling to comprehensively assess the passive permeability profile of a range of compounds through a lipid bilayer. The model was initially calibrated through in vitro validation studies employing a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446701/wind-and-rain-are-the-primary-climate-factors-driving-changing-phenology-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#13
Rachel D Irons, April Harding Scurr, Alexandra P Rose, Julie C Hagelin, Tricia Blake, Daniel F Doak
While the ecological effects of climate change have been widely observed, most efforts to document these impacts in terrestrial systems have concentrated on the impacts of temperature. We used tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nest observations from two widely separated sites in central Alaska to examine the aspects of climate affecting breeding phenology at the northern extent of this species' range. We found that two measures of breeding phenology, annual lay and hatch dates, are more strongly predicted by windiness and precipitation than by temperature...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440643/field-calibration-of-xad-based-passive-air-sampler-on-the-tibetan-plateau-wind-influence-and-configuration-improvement
#14
Ping Gong, Xiaoping Wang, Xiande Liu, Frank Wania
The passive air sampler based on XAD-2 resin (XAD-PAS) has proven useful for collecting atmospheric persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote regions. Whereas laboratory studies have shown that, due to the open bottom of its housing, the passive sampling rate (PSR) of the XAD-PAS is susceptible to wind and other processes causing air turbulence, the sampler has not been calibrated in the field at sites experiencing high winds. In this study, the PSRs of the XAD-PAS were calibrated at three sites on the Tibetan Plateau, covering a wide range in temperature (T), pressure (P) and wind speed (v)...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380504/management-of-horses-with-focus-on-blanketing-and-clipping-practices-reported-by-members-of-the-swedish-and-norwegian-equestrian-community
#15
E Hartmann, K E Bøe, G H M Jørgensen, C M Mejdell, K Dahlborn
Limited information is available on the extent to which blankets are used on horses and the owners' reasoning behind clipping the horse's coat. Research on the effects of those practices on horse welfare is scarce but results indicate that blanketing and clipping may not be necessary from the horse's perspective and can interfere with the horse's thermoregulatory capacities. Therefore, this survey collected robust, quantitative data on the housing routines and management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices as reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333234/horizontal-transfer-of-the-blandm-1-gene-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-biofilms
#16
Windy D Tanner, Robyn M Atkinson, Ramesh K Goel, Mark A Toleman, Lowell Scott Benson, Christina A Porucznik, James A VanDerslice
Horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the global spread of the blaNDM-1 gene. Multiple studies have demonstrated plasmid transfer of blaNDM-1 between Gram-negative bacteria, primarily Enterobacteriaceae species, but conjugational transfer of natural blaNDM-1 plasmids from Enterobacteriaceae into Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has not previously been shown. As P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii are both typically strong biofilm-formers, transfer of natural blaNDM-1 plasmids could potentially occur more readily in this environment...
February 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319713/observational-evidence-on-the-effects-of-mega-fires-on-the-frequency-of-hydrogeomorphic-hazards-the-case-of-the-peloponnese-fires-of-2007-in-greece
#17
M Diakakis, E I Nikolopoulos, S Mavroulis, E Vassilakis, E Korakaki
Even though rare, mega-fires raging during very dry and windy conditions, record catastrophic impacts on infrastructure, the environment and human life, as well as extremely high suppression and rehabilitation costs. Apart from the direct consequences, mega-fires induce long-term effects in the geomorphological and hydrological processes, influencing environmental factors that in turn can affect the occurrence of other natural hazards, such as floods and mass movement phenomena. This work focuses on the forest fire of 2007 in Peloponnese, Greece that to date corresponds to the largest fire in the country's record that burnt 1773km(2), causing 78 fatalities and very significant damages in property and infrastructure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163878/foraging-in-an-unsteady-world-bumblebee-flight-performance-in-field-realistic-turbulence
#18
J D Crall, J J Chang, R L Oppenheimer, S A Combes
Natural environments are characterized by variable wind that can pose significant challenges for flying animals and robots. However, our understanding of the flow conditions that animals experience outdoors and how these impact flight performance remains limited. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to characterize wind conditions encountered by foraging bumblebees in outdoor environments and test the effects of these conditions on flight. We used radio-frequency tags to track foraging activity of uniquely identified bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) workers, while simultaneously recording local wind flows...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041723/muddy-conditions-reduce-hygiene-and-lying-time-in-dairy-cattle-and-increase-time-spent-on-concrete
#19
Jennifer M Chen, Carolyn L Stull, David N Ledgerwood, Cassandra B Tucker
Dairy cattle spend less time lying and show signs of increased stress when housed in rainy and windy conditions, but no work has separated the effects of exposure to inclement weather from muddy conditions underfoot. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of muddy conditions alone on lying behavior, hygiene, and physiological responses. We housed pairs of pregnant, nonlactating dairy cattle (n = 12; 6 primigravid heifers, 6 multiparous cows) in enclosed pens with dirt floors and a concrete feed apron. Cattle were exposed to 3 levels of soil moisture: 90 (dry), 74 (muddy), or 67% (very muddy) dry matter for 5 d each in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988439/biomechanical-characterization-of-spider-webs
#20
Rakesh Das, Amit Kumar, Anurag Patel, Sahil Vijay, Shashank Saurabh, Navin Kumar
In light of recent focus on the behaviour of the natural structures for revolutionary technological growth, spider web seems to have seized considerable attention of product designer due to its amazing behaviour. In present work, mechanism behind the structural integrity of the spider web along with the materialistic analysis of its constituent silk threads has been extensively investigated. The nanoindentation tool both in static and dynamic mode has been utilized for complete analysis of the mechanical behaviour of the spiral and radial threads separately...
December 13, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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