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Fatemeh S Mojabi, Atoossa Fahimi, Shahrzad Moghadam, Sarah Moghadam, M Windy McNerneny, Ravikumar Ponnusamy, Alexander Kleschevnikov, William C Mobley, Ahmad Salehi
It has been suggested that increased GABAergic innervation in the hippocampus plays a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome (DS). Bolstering this notion, are studies linking hyper-innervation of the dentate gyrus (DG) by GABAergic terminals to failure in LTP induction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Here, we used extensive morphometrical methods to assess the status of GABAergic interneurons in the DG of young and old Ts65Dn mice and their 2N controls. We detected an age-dependent increase in GABAergic innervation of dentate granule cells (DGCs) in Ts65Dn mice...
October 4, 2016: Hippocampus
Atoossa Fahimi, Mehmet Akif Baktir, Sarah Moghadam, Fatemeh S Mojabi, Krithika Sumanth, M Windy McNerney, Ravikumar Ponnusamy, Ahmad Salehi
While it has been known that physical activity can improve cognitive function and protect against neurodegeneration, the underlying mechanisms for these protective effects are yet to be fully elucidated. There is a large body of evidence indicating that physical exercise improves neurogenesis and maintenance of neurons. Yet, its possible effects on glial cells remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether physical exercise in mice alters the expression of trophic factor-related genes and the status of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
September 29, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Damon J A Toth, Windy D Tanner, Karim Khader, Adi V Gundlapalli
We quantify outbreak risk after importations of Middle East respiratory syndrome outside the Arabian Peninsula. Data from 31 importation events show strong statistical support for lower transmissibility after early transmission generations. Our model projects the risk of ≥10, 100, and 500 transmissions as 11%, 2%, and 0.02%, and ≥1, 2, 3, and 4 generations as 23%, 14%, 0.9%, and 0.05%, respectively. Our results suggest tempered risk of large, long-lasting outbreaks with appropriate control measures.
September 2016: Epidemics
Tonggui Wu, Peng Zhang, Lei Zhang, Geoff G Wang, Mukui Yu
Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (P< 0...
2016: PloS One
Qingyang Liu, Tangming Ma, Michael R Olson, Yanju Liu, Tingting Zhang, Yu Wu, James J Schauer
Black carbon (BC) aerosol has been identified as one of key factors responsible for air quality in Beijing. BC emissions abatement could help slow regional climate change while providing benefits for public health. In order to quantify its variations and contribution to air pollution, we systematically studied real-time measurements of equivalent black carbon (eBC) in PM2.5 aerosols at an urban site in Beijing from 2010 to 2014. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) is used instead of black carbon (BC) for data derived from Aethalometer-31 measurement...
2016: Scientific Reports
Steven A Kahn, Tina L Palmieri, Soman Sen, Jason Woods, Oliver L Gunter
Firefighting is wrought with risk, as 80-100 firefighters (FFs) died on the job each year in the United States. Many of the fatalities have been analyzed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine contributing factors. The purpose of this study is to determine variables that put FFs at risk for potentially preventable workplace mortality such as use of personal protective equipment (PPE), seat belts, and appropriate training/fitness/clearance for duty. The NIOSH FF Fatality Database reports from 2009 to 2014 were analyzed...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Jin Tao, Qing-Lin Sun, Pan-Long Tan, Zeng-Qiang Chen, Ying-Ping He
In order to realize safe and accurate homing of a powered parafoil under the condition of insufficient initial altitude, a multiphase homing path is designed according to the flight characteristics of the vehicle. With consideration that the traditional control methods cannot ensure the quality of path following because of the nonlinear, large inertial and longtime delay existed in the system and strong disturbances in a complex environment, a homing controller, composed of the vertical and horizontal trajectory tracking controllers, is designed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC)...
September 1, 2016: ISA Transactions
Shawn A Means, Robert J Smith
Eradication of malaria from the world in the latter part of the twentieth century proved an elusive, albeit desirable, objective. Unfortunately, resurgence of malarial incidence is currently underway. Key to understanding effective control schemes such as indoor residual spraying (spraying insecticide inside houses to kill the malarial vector mosquitoes) is the impact of spatial distributions for communities exposed to the malarial vector mosquito populations. Densities of human dwellings in small communities vary considerably in regions exposed to larval breeding sites...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mamta Behl, Julie R Rice, Marjo V Smith, Caroll A Co, Matthew F Bridge, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Jonathan H Freedman, Windy A Boyd
With the phasing-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants due to concerns regarding their potential developmental toxicity, the use of replacement compounds such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased. Limited toxicity data are currently available to estimate the potential adverse health effects of the OPFRs. The toxicological effects of 4 brominated flame retardants, including 3 PBDEs and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A, were compared with 6 aromatic OPFRs and 2 aliphatic OPFRs...
August 26, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Edward Hanna, John Penman, Trausti Jónsson, Grant R Bigg, Halldór Björnsson, Sølvi Sjúrðarson, Mads A Hansen, John Cappelen, Robert G Bryant
Here, we analyse high-frequency (1 min) surface air temperature, mean sea-level pressure (MSLP), wind speed and direction and cloud-cover data acquired during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 from 76 UK Met Office weather stations, and compare the results with those from 30 weather stations in the Faroe Islands and 148 stations in Iceland. There was a statistically significant mean UK temperature drop of 0.83±0.63°C, which occurred over 39 min on average, and the minimum temperature lagged the peak of the eclipse by about 10 min...
September 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Douglas R Warrick, Tyson L Hedrick, Andrew A Biewener, Kristen E Crandell, Bret W Tobalske
While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging and (ii) the relative importance of flapping versus gliding for accomplishing high-speed manoeuvers...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Wouter Halfwerk, Michael J Ryan, Preston S Wilson
The world is a noisy place, and animals have evolved a myriad of strategies to communicate in it. Animal communication signals are, however, often multimodal; their components can be processed by multiple sensory systems, and noise can thus affect signal components across different modalities. We studied the effect of environmental noise on multimodal communication in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males communicate with rivals using airborne sounds combined with call-induced water ripples. We tested males under control as well as noisy conditions in which we mimicked rain- and wind-induced vibrations on the water surface...
September 2016: American Naturalist
Jia Liu, Jun Wang, Hui Wang, Wenxiang Wang, Rijin Zhou, Desheng Mei, Hongtao Cheng, Juan Yang, Harsh Raman, Qiong Hu
The majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to pod shatter in an unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH) and inter-mated (IF2) crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering) and R2 (prone to pod shattering) accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02, and C05...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
R Sabatini, O Marsden, C Bailly, C Bogey
Direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are performed to study the acoustic field generated by an infrasonic source in a realistic atmosphere. Some of the main phenomena affecting the propagation of infrasonic waves at large distances from the source are investigated. The effects of thermal and wind-related refraction on the signals recorded at ground level are highlighted, with particular emphasis on the phase shift induced by the presence of caustics in the acoustic field...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Windy Cole
Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years...
July 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
Jacqueline Jones, Angana Mukherjee, Balasubramanyam Karanam, Melissa Davis, Jesse Jaynes, R Renee Reams, Windy Dean-Colomb, Clayton Yates
Kaiso, a bi-modal transcription factor, regulates gene expression, and is elevated in breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Depletion of Kaiso in other cancer types leads to a reduction in markers for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (Jones et al., 2014), however its clinical implications in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDCA) have not been widely explored. PDCA is rarely detected at an early stage but is characterized by rapid progression and invasiveness. We now report the significance of the subcellular localization of Kaiso in PDCAs from African Americans...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Aldo Croquer, David Bone, Carolina Bastidas, Ruth Ramos, Elia García
This study evaluated pollution levels in water and sediments of Península de Paraguaná and related these levels with benthic macrofauna along a coastal area where the largest Venezuelan oil refineries have operated over the past 60 years. For this, the concentration of heavy metals, of hydrocarbon compounds and the community structure of the macrobenthos were examined at 20 sites distributed along 40 km of coastline for six consecutive years, which included windy and calm seasons. The spatial variability of organic and inorganic compounds showed considerably high coastal pollution along the study area, across both years and seasons...
2016: PeerJ
Joel B Lonzaga
Time reversal is used for localizing sources of recorded infrasound signals propagating in a windy, stratified atmosphere. Due to the convective effect of the background flow, the back-azimuths of the recorded signals can be substantially different from the source back-azimuth, posing a significant difficulty in source localization. The back-propagated signals are characterized by negative group velocities from which the source back-azimuth and source-to-receiver (STR) distance can be estimated using the apparent back-azimuths and trace velocities of the signals...
June 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Seyed Saeed Pairawan, Cherie Cora, Windy Olaya, Jeremy Deisch, Renzo Garberoglio, Naveenraj Solomon, Maheswari Senthil, Carlos Garberoglio, Sharon S Lum
BACKGROUND: While sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) provides axillary staging, recent trials question the necessity of removing positive nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes (LN) in breast cancer. We sought to determine the technical feasibility of percutaneous core needle biopsy (PNB) of axillary sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). METHODS: After dual tracer injection, 25 patients underwent intraoperative axillary ultrasound and ultrasound guided per PNB of the axillary LN at the site of radiotracer uptake, followed by standard SLND...
October 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ivan A Hinojosa, Bridget S Green, Caleb Gardner, Jan Hesse, Jenni A Stanley, Andrew G Jeffs
The post-larval or puerulus stage of spiny, or rock, lobsters (Palinuridae) swim many kilometres from open oceans into coastal waters where they subsequently settle. The orientation cues used by the puerulus for this migration are unclear, but are presumed to be critical to finding a place to settle. Understanding this process may help explain the biological processes of dispersal and settlement, and be useful for developing realistic dispersal models. In this study, we examined the use of reef sound as an orientation cue by the puerulus stage of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii...
2016: PloS One
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