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Shuo Zhang, Xuelei Ma, Chenjing Zhu, Li Liu, Guoping Wang, Xia Yuan
Targeting immune cells or factors are effective for patients with solid tumors. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to have immunosuppressive functions, and the levels of MDSCs in patients with solid tumor are assumed to have prognostic values. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the relationship between MDSCs and the prognosis of patients with solid tumors. We searched articles in PUBMED and EMBASE comprehensively, updated to March 2016. Eight studies with 442 patients were included in the meta-analysis...
2016: PloS One
Masoumeh Ghafarzadeh, Mehrdad Namdari, Ali Eatemadi
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent congenital anomaly in newborn babies. Cardiac malformations have been induced in different animal model experiments, by perturbing some molecules that take part in the developmental pathways associated with myocyte differentiation, specification, or cardiac morphogenesis. The exact epigenetic, environmental, or genetic, basis for these molecules perturbations is yet to be understood. But, scientist have bridged this gap by introducing autologous stem cell into the defective hearts to treat CHD...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Michael McKee, Ben Case, Maureen Fausone, Philip Zazove, Alicia Ouellette, Michael D Fetters
Students with sensory and physical disabilities are underrepresented in medical schools despite the availability of assistive technologies and accommodations. Unfortunately, many medical schools have adopted restrictive "organic" technical standards based on deficits rather than on the ability to do the work. Compelling ethical considerations of justice and beneficence should prompt change in this arena. Medical schools should instead embrace "functional" technical standards that permit accommodations for disabilities and update their admissions policies to promote applications from qualified students with disabilities...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Lis Alban
Free movement of safe and wholesome food is an essential aspect of any society. This article contains an updated description of the regulatory issues associated with preharvest food safety within the European Union. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Trichinella, antimicrobial resistance, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are dealt with in detail. Moreover, Cysticercus bovis/Taenia saginata, Toxoplasma, Yersinia, verotoxigenic/shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, and foodborne viruses are briefly covered. The article describes how the focus in the European Union is changing to involve a supply chain view with a focus on cost-effectiveness...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Karen Zaghiyan, Jan P Kamiński, Galinos Barmparas, Phillip Fleshner
The risk of de novo Crohn's disease (CD) after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) versus inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) or indeterminate colitis (IC) remains debatable. Here, we present updated results after long-term follow-up of a previously studied cohort of 334 patients with UC, IBDU, or IC who underwent IPAA during a 10-year period ending 2007. Of 334 study patients, 56 per cent were male and median age was 38 years (range: 8-81). Patients were classified as UC (n = 237) or IBDU (n = 97) preoperatively and UC (n = 236) or IC (n = 98) postoperatively...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Sean James Fallon, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Niels Ter Huurne, Roshan Cools
A balance has to be struck between supporting distractor-resistant representations in working memory and allowing those representations to be updated. Catecholamine, particularly dopamine, transmission has been proposed to modulate the balance between the stability and flexibility of working memory representations. However, it is unclear whether drugs that increase catecholamine transmission, such as methylphenidate, optimize this balance in a task-dependent manner or bias the system toward stability at the expense of flexibility (or vice versa)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Carolyn Talbott, Lynn Watson, Joseph Tariman, Matthew Sorenson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and usability of a standardized communication tool for nurses. BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: Communication is key in healthcare. On a daily, if not hourly, basis, nursing staff is inundated with new information regarding tools and resources, practice changes and the work environment. However, there is currently no standardized messaging or delivery method to effectively communicate new information...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Erik Iwarsson, Bo Jacobsson, Jessica Dagerhamn, Thomas Davidson, Eduardo Bernabé, Marianne Heibert Arnlind
INTRODUCTION: To review the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for detection of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 (T21, T18 and T13) in a general pregnant population as well as to update the data on high-risk pregnancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Methodological quality was rated using QUADAS and scientific evidence using GRADE. Summary measures of diagnostic accuracy were calculated using a bivariate random-effects model...
October 25, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Michael Hanke, Nico Adelhöfer, Daniel Kottke, Vittorio Iacovella, Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, Roland Nigbur, Alexander Q Waite, Florian Baumgartner, Jörg Stadler
Here we present an update of the studyforrest ( dataset that complements the previously released functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for natural language processing with a new two-hour 3 Tesla fMRI acquisition while 15 of the original participants were shown an audio-visual version of the stimulus motion picture. We demonstrate with two validation analyses that these new data support modeling specific properties of the complex natural stimulus, as well as a substantial within-subject BOLD response congruency in brain areas related to the processing of auditory inputs, speech, and narrative when compared to the existing fMRI data for audio-only stimulation...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Ayan Sengupta, Falko R Kaule, J Swaroop Guntupalli, Michael B Hoffmann, Christian Häusler, Jörg Stadler, Michael Hanke
The studyforrest ( dataset is likely the largest neuroimaging dataset on natural language and story processing publicly available today. In this article, along with a companion publication, we present an update of this dataset that extends its scope to vision and multi-sensory research. 15 participants of the original cohort volunteered for a series of additional studies: a clinical examination of visual function, a standard retinotopic mapping procedure, and a localization of higher visual areas-such as the fusiform face area...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Data
Adrianne Tsen, Yasmin Alishahi, Laura Rosenkranz
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) occurring in association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rather rare and carries a worse prognosis and greater disease severity compared with IBD alone. Although it is an infrequently documented association, progress over the last 20 years has led to better understanding of the association between AIP and IBD. IBD has a stronger association with type 2 than with type 1 AIP. Clinical and histologic features of AIP-IBD more often reveal features of type 2 AIP. Imaging is not helpful in facilitating the diagnosis of AIP and IBD...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Jeremy S Juern, David Milia, Panna Codner, Marshall Beckman, Lewis Somberg, Travis Webb, John A Weigelt
INTRODUCTION: Blunt pelvic fractures can be associated with major pelvic bleeding. The significance of contrast extravasation (CE) on computed tomography (CT) is debated. We sought to update our experience with CE on CT scan for the years 2009-2014 to determine the accuracy of CE in predicting the need for angioembolization. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of the trauma registry and our electronic medical record from a Level I trauma center. Patients seen from July 1, 2009 to September 7, 2014 with blunt pelvic fractures and contrast enhanced CT were included...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Sui-Yuan Chang, Pi-Han Lin, Chien-Lin Cheng, Mao-Yuan Chen, Hsin-Yun Sun, Szu-Min Hsieh, Wang-Huei Sheng, Yi-Ching Su, Li-Hsin Su, Shu-Fang Chang, Wen-Chun Liu, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
Antiretroviral therapy containing an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) plus two NRTIs has become the recommended treatment for antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients in the updated guidelines. We aimed to determine the prevalence of INSTI-related mutations in Taiwan. Genotypic resistance assays were performed on plasma from ARV-naïve patients (N = 948), ARV-experienced but INSTI-naive patients (N = 359), and raltegravir-experienced patients (N = 63) from 2006 to 2015. Major INSTI mutations were defined according to the IAS-USA list and other substitutions with a Stanford HIVdb score ≧ 10 to at least one INSTI were defined as minor mutations...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bradley M Haverkos, Zenggang Pan, Alejandro A Gru, Aharon G Freud, Rachel Rabinovitch, Meng Xu-Welliver, Brad Otto, Carlos Barrionuevo, Robert A Baiocchi, Rosemary Rochford, Pierluigi Porcu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the United States. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American ("Western") cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience...
October 24, 2016: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
Aurora Miho Yanai, Euler Melo Nogueira, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro Graça, Philip Martin Fearnside
We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
Valeria Bellan, Helen R Gilpin, Tasha R Stanton, Lilja K Dagsdóttir, Alberto Gallace, G Lorimer Moseley
When vision and proprioception are rendered incongruent during a hand localisation task, vision is initially weighted more than proprioception in determining location, and proprioception gains more weighting over time. However, it is not known whether, under these incongruency conditions, particular areas of space are also weighted more heavily than others, nor whether explicit knowledge of the sensory incongruence (i.e. disconfirming the perceived location of the hand) modulates the effect. Here, we hypothesised that both non-informative inputs coming from one side of space and explicit knowledge of sensory incongruence would modulate perceived location of the limb...
October 24, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Arun Kamal, Raja Bhaskara Kanakeshwar, Ashok Shyam, Dheenadayalan Jayaramaraju, Devendra Agraharam, Ramesh Perumal, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
PURPOSE: Open fractures are challenging injuries and there is a lot of variation in practice preferences which may reflect the wide variations in outcome in different units across the world. A survey was done amongst the international community of SICOT membership to document the practice preferences and variations. METHODS: An online questionnaire containing 23 questions which were sub-divided into three sections covering the various aspects of open injury management was sent by email to orthopaedic trauma surgeons across the world...
October 24, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Najeff Waseem, Po-Hung Chen
Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischemic hepatitis or shock liver, is characterized by a massive, rapid rise in serum aminotransferases resulting from reduced oxygen delivery to the liver. The most common predisposing condition is cardiac failure, followed by circulatory failure as occurs in septic shock and respiratory failure. HH does, however, occur in the absence of a documented hypotensive event or shock state in 50% of patients. In intensive care units, the incidence of HH is near 2.5%, but has been reported as high as 10% in some studies...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Walid S Ayoub, Erica Cohen
Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Jeremy Jost, Adeline Raharivelo, Voa Ratsimbazafy, Mandy Nizard, Emilie Auditeau, Charles R Newton, Pierre-Marie Preux
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in Madagascar (23.5/1000), as is the treatment gap (estimated at 92 %). The health system of the country is underfunded; some AEDs are used, and the national drug policy does not encourage price regulation or the administration of generic agents. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the availability and cost of solid oral AED formulations in Antananarivo, capital of Madagascar. Data were gathered from all officially registered pharmacies (according to the drug agency list, updated in 2015) by means of telephone interviews lasting no more than 10 min and conducted by a native Malagasy speaker...
2016: SpringerPlus
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