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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324918/statistical-consequences-of-a-successful-lung-allocation-system-recovering-information-and-reducing-bias-in-models-for-urgency
#1
Nabihah Tayob, Susan Murray
The lung allocation system has reduced the number of waitlist deaths by ranking transplant candidates on the basis of a lung allocation score that requires estimation of the current 1-year restricted mean waitlist survival (urgency). Fewer waitlist deaths and the systematic removal of candidates from the waitlist for transplantation present statistical challenges that must be addressed when using recent waitlist data. Multiple overlapping 1-year follow-up windows are used in a restricted mean model that estimates patient urgency on the basis of updated risk factors at the start of the window...
March 21, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324903/instrumental-assessment-of-pediatric-dysphagia
#2
Joan C Arvedson, Maureen A Lefton-Greif
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have fulfilled primary roles in the evaluation and management of children with feeding/swallowing disorders for more than five decades. The increased incidence and prevalence of newborns, infants, and children with feeding and swallowing disorders has resulted in increased use of instrumental swallowing evaluations. The videofluoroscopic swallow study and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing are the two most commonly used swallowing assessments by SLPs, with ultrasound used less frequently...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324790/a-new-approach-to-estimating-the-evoked-hemodynamic-response-applied-to-dual-channel-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#3
Reza Arefi Shirvan, Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan, Ali Motie Nasrabadi
BACKGROUND: Brain activity can be measured non-invasively by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) which records hemodynamics of the brain tissue. Sensitivity of fNIRS to the brain activity is however being affected by natural physiological brain hemodynamics (systemic interferences). Functional hemodynamic signal extraction from physiological interferences still remains a challenging task. NEW METHOD: This paper presents a novel effective algorithm for real-time physiological interference reduction and recovery of the evoked brain activity using a dual channel fNIRS system...
March 18, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324783/recent-updates-of-carbapenem-antibiotics
#4
REVIEW
Mohammed I El-Gamal, Imen Brahim, Noorhan Hisham, Rand Aladdin, Haneen Mohammed, Amany Bahaaeldin
Carbapenems are among the most commonly used and the most efficient antibiotics since they are relatively resistant to hydrolysis by most β-lactamases, they target penicillin-binding proteins, and generally have broad-spectrum antibacterial effect. In this review, we described the initial discovery and development of carbapenems, chemical characteristics, in vitro/in vivo activities, resistance studies, and clinical investigations for traditional carbapenem antibiotics in the market; imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem, biapenem, panipenem/betamipron in addition to newer carbapenems such as razupenem, tebipenem, tomopenem, and sanfetrinem...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324597/the-burden-of-chronic-heart-failure-in-primary-care-in-italy
#5
Carlo Piccinni, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Monica Simonetti, Marco Giovanni Mennuni, Damiano Parretti, Claudio Cricelli, Delia Colombo, Mihaela Nica, Iacopo Cricelli, Francesco Lapi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major public health concern. From a public health perspective, the epidemiology of CHF needs to be distinguished from that of its related acute form. Data stemming from primary care are crucial to better know and update the prevalence and incidence rates of CHF. AIM: To update the epidemiology of CHF in an Italian primary care setting and to describe socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of these patients...
March 21, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324303/subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-what-do-they-tell-us-about-disease-progression
#6
REVIEW
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease is a widely heterogeneous disorder with a broad list of motor and nonmotor manifestations. Identifying subtypes of Parkinson's disease is one of the top clinical and research priorities. This review aims to summarize the most valid conventional and recent subtyping solutions that have been introduced so far and to update our current knowledge with recent discoveries on the association between subtypes and disease progression. We also discuss the challenges of subtyping in the context of Parkinson's disease, stability of the subtypes over time, and potential clinical implications...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324302/huntington-s-disease-update-on-treatments
#7
REVIEW
Kara J Wyant, Andrew J Ridder, Praveen Dayalu
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, behavioral, and cognitive decline, ending in death. Despite the discovery of the underlying genetic mutation more than 20 years ago, treatment remains focused on symptomatic management. Chorea, the most recognizable symptom, responds to medication that reduces dopaminergic neurotransmission. Psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety may also respond well to symptomatic therapies...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324300/%C3%AE-synuclein-and-parkinsonism-updates-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Kaie Rosborough, Neha Patel, Lorraine V Kalia
Mutations in the SNCA gene, which encodes the α-synuclein protein, were the first discovered genetic causes of familial parkinsonism with Lewy pathology. To date, six different SNCA missense mutations as well as multiplications are known to cause parkinsonism. For this review, we performed a literature search to identify all published cases of SNCA-related parkinsonism to provide an updated summary of the clinical and neuropathological features of parkinsonism due to SNCA mutations. Familial parkinsonism associated with SNCA is rare, but α-synuclein aggregation is a core feature of sporadic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324286/prolymphocytic-leukemia-new-insights-in-diagnosis-and-in-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Aude Collignon, Anne Wanquet, Elsa Maitre, Edouard Cornet, Xavier Troussard, Thérèse Aurran-Schleinitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aimed to produce a comprehensive update on clinical and biological data regarding two rare lymphoid neoplasms, B and T prolymphocytic leukemias, and assess therapeutic management in the light of new molecular insights and the advent of targeted therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: B cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) diagnosis remains challenging in the absence of clear immunophenotypic or cytogenetic signature and overlap with mantle cell lymphoma...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324270/obinutuzumab-a-review-in-rituximab-refractory-or-relapsed-follicular-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Sohita Dhillon
Obinutuzumab (Gazyva(®), Gazyvaro(®)) is a recombinant, monoclonal, humanized and glycoengineered, type II, anti-CD20, IgG1 antibody. It has recently been granted an additional indication for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma who relapsed after, or are refractory to, a rituximab-containing regimen. In the primary analysis of the large, phase III GADOLIN study, induction therapy with obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) to a statistically significant extent relative to induction with bendamustine monotherapy in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (iNHL)...
March 21, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#11
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323666/febrile-infant-update
#12
Kate Dorney, Richard G Bachur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The approach to febrile young infants remains challenging. This review serves as an update on the care of febrile infants less than 90 days of age with a focus on the changing epidemiology of serious bacterial infection (SBI), refinement of management strategies based on biomarkers, and the development of novel diagnostics. RECENT FINDINGS: There is high variability in the emergency department management of febrile young infants without significant differences in outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323660/impact-of-rare-variants-in-autosomal-dominant-hypercholesterolemia-causing-genes
#13
Sebastiano Calandra, Patrizia Tarugi, Stefano Bertolini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The systematic analysis of the major candidate genes in autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) and the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology have made possible the discovery of several rare gene variants whose pathogenic effect in most cases remains poorly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: One major advance in the field has been the adoption of a set of international guidelines for the assignment of pathogenicity to low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene variants based on the use of softwares, complemented with data available from literature and public databases...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323642/a-bayesian-approach-for-three-dimensional-markerless-tumor-tracking-using-kv-imaging-during-lung-radiotherapy
#14
Chun-Chien Shieh, Vincent Caillet, Michelle Dunbar, Paul J Keall, Jeremy T Booth, Nicholas Hardcastle, Carol Haddad, Thomas Eade, Ilana Feain
The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers can potentially enable broad access to more accurate and precise lung radiotherapy. A major challenge is that kilovoltage (kV) imaging based methods are rarely able to continuously track the tumor due to the inferior tumor visibility on 2D kV images. Another challenge is the estimation of 3D tumor position based on only 2D imaging information. The aim of this work is to address both challenges by proposing a Bayesian approach for markerless tumor tracking for the first time...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323575/lung-laryngeal-and-other-respiratory-cancer-incidence-among-japanese-atomic-bomb-survivors-an-updated-analysis-from-1958-through-2009
#15
Elizabeth K Cahoon, Dale L Preston, Donald A Pierce, Eric Grant, Alina V Brenner, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Mai Utada, Kotaro Ozasa
The Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors is comprised of a large, population-based cohort offering one of the best opportunities to study the relationship between exposure to radiation and incidence of respiratory cancers. Risks of lung, laryngeal and other cancers of the respiratory system were evaluated among 105,444 LSS subjects followed from 1958 to 2009. During this period, we identified 2,446 lung, 180 laryngeal and 115 other respiratory (trachea, mediastinum and other ill-defined sites) first primary incident cancer cases...
March 21, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323568/update-march-2017
#16
Francine Blei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323424/toward-a-comprehensive-global-emission-inventory-of-c4-c10-perfluoroalkane-sulfonic-acids-pfsas-and-related-precursors-focus-on-the-life-cycle-of-c8-based-products-and-ongoing-industrial-transition
#17
Zhanyun Wang, Justin M Boucher, Martin Scheringer, Ian T Cousins, Konrad Hungerbuehler
Here a new global emission inventory of C4-C10 perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) from the life cycle of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF)-based products in 1958-2030 is presented. In particular, we substantially improve and expand the previous frameworks by incorporating missing pieces (e.g., emissions to soil through land treatment, overlooked precursors) and updating parameters (e.g., emission factors, degradation half-lives). In 1958-2015, total direct and indirect emissions of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) are estimated as 1228-4930 tonnes, and emissions of PFOS precursors are estimated as 1230-8738 and approximately 670 tonnes for x-perfluorooctanesulfonamides/sulfonamido ethanols (xFOSA/Es) and POSF, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320126/gab2-rs2373115-variant-contributes-to-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-specifically-in-european-population
#18
Yang Hu, Likun Zheng, Liang Cheng, Ying Zhang, Weiyang Bai, Wenyang Zhou, Tao Wang, Zhifa Han, Jian Zong, Shuilin Jin, Jun Zhang, Guiyou Liu, Qinghua Jiang
A genome-wide association study identified GAB2 rs2373115 to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in European population. However, inconsistent results are reported in East Asian population. Here, we performed an updated analysis using 65,704 samples including 20,982 AD cases and 44,722 controls. First, we investigated the GAB2 rs2373115 variant in Asian population using 3974 AD cases and 7568 controls. To further evaluate the effect of rs2373115 in different populations, we selected 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls in European population...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320023/-update-opipramol
#19
Maximilian Gahr, Christoph Hiemke, Bernhard J Connemann
Opipramol was developed in the 1960s as an antidepressant and has chemical similarities with tricyclic antidepressants. Pharmacodynamic properties with absent reuptake inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline and agonism at sigma receptors distinguish opipramol from tricyclics. Furthermore, antidepressive effects are smaller than the anxiolytic ones. The mechanism of action of opipramol is currently not sufficiently understood. Agonistic effects at sigma receptors have been linked with therapeutic effects...
March 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
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