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Gynecologic carcinoma

Ming-Xing Zhang, Shan-Shan Hong, Qing-Qing Cai, Meng Zhang, Jun Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Cong-Jian Xu
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among gynecological malignancies. The high mortality rate has not been significantly reduced despite advances in surgery and chemotherapy. Gene therapy shows therapeutic potential, but several key issues must be resolved before clinical application. To minimize toxicity in noncancerous tissues, tumor-specific ligands are conjugated to vectors to increase the selectivity of drug delivery. The expression pattern of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor in normal and cancer tissues provides an opportunity for highly selective drug delivery in ovarian cancer...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Natalie Herold, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Birgid Markiefka, Katharina Keupp, Sandra Kröber, Eric Hahnen, Rita Schmutzler, Kerstin Rhiem
Non-small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (NSCNEC) account for 2% of gynecological cancer cases and are associated with a poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis and aggressive tumor behavior. BRCA2 -associated ovarian carcinomas predominantly possess a high-grade serous phenotype, which respond to platinum and targeted therapy with PARP inhibitors. Presented here is the case of an adult patient with NSCNEC of the ovaries associated with a deleterious BRCA2 germline mutation. The pathogenic mutation was also confirmed on the somatic level, while the wild-type allele had a high variant fraction, suggesting loss of heterozygosity...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Mary McGunigal, Ariel Pollock, John T Doucette, Jerry Liu, Manjeet Chadha, Tamara Kalir, Vishal Gupta
OBJECTIVES: Randomized trials have shown a local control benefit with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in high-intermediate-risk endometrial cancer patients, although not all such patients receive RT. We reviewed the National Cancer Data Base to investigate which patient/tumor-related factors are associated with delivery of adjuvant RT. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients diagnosed with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2009 stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma from 1998 to 2012 who underwent surgery +/- adjuvant RT...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Keisei Tate, Hiroshi Yoshida, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Takashi Uehara, Shun Ichi Ikeda, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Tomoyasu Kato
OBJECTIVE: Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive type 2 endometrial cancer. Data on prognostic factors for patients with early-stage USC without adjuvant therapy are limited. This study aims to assess the baseline recurrence risk of early-stage USC patients without adjuvant treatment and to identify prognostic factors and patients who need adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II USC between 1997 and 2016 were included...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Michael Höckel, Sophia Trott, Nadja Dornhöfer, Lars-Christian Horn, Bettina Hentschel, Benjamin Wolf
BACKGROUND: The incidence of vulvar cancer is increasing, but surgical treatment-the current standard of care-often leads to unsatisfactory outcomes, especially in patients with node-positive disease. Preliminary results at our centre showed that locoregional spread of vulvar carcinoma occurs within tissue domains defined by stepwise embryonic and fetal development (ontogenetic cancer fields and associated lymph node regions). We propose that clinical translation of these insights into practice could improve outcomes of surgical treatment of vulvar cancer...
March 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Daisuke Irie, Noriyuki Okonogi, Masaru Wakatsuki, Shingo Kato, Tatsuya Ohno, Kumiko Karasawa, Hiroki Kiyohara, Daijiro Kobayashi, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takashi Nakano, Tadashi Kamada, Makio Shozu
This is a pooled analysis to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for inoperable endometrial carcinoma. Eligible patients had previously untreated Stage I-III endometrial carcinoma without para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Total dose to the tumor was 62.4-74.4 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE)] in 20 fractions, and the dose to the gastrointestinal tract was limited to <60 Gy (RBE). Intracavitary brachytherapy was not combined in the present study. Fourteen patients with endometrial carcinoma were analyzed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Hiroyuki Fukuda, Akira Tanaka, Yasuyuki Hirashima, Ichiro Ito
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is most commonly associated with small cell lung carcinoma, while it is rarely associated with gynecological and breast carcinoma. We herein report a case of LEMS associated with synchronous double cancer, which was a combination of small cell carcinoma of the cervix and breast carcinoma. The early diagnosis and treatment of LEMS are important for achieving a good outcome. The possibility of accompanying paraneoplastic neurological syndrome must be sufficiently considered in gynecology and breast cancer patients...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Panpan Li, Hexuan Yin, Fanling Meng, Shuang Liu, Haixia Liu, Rong Ma
BACKGROUND: Tripartite motif-containing protein 44 (TRIM44) has been recently identified as a novel oncogene that is overexpressed in several types of human cancers; however, its role in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the TRIM44 protein expression and clinicopathological significance of TRIM44 in EC. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were collected from 143 patients with EC for the immunohistochemical analysis of TRIM44 expression...
March 6, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Kathleen R Cho, Kumarasen Cooper, Sabrina Croce, Bojana Djordevic, Simon Herrington, Brooke Howitt, Pei Hui, Philip Ip, Martin Koebel, Sigurd Lax, Bradley J Quade, Patricia Shaw, August Vidal, Anna Yemelyanova, Blaise Clarke, Lora Hedrick Ellenson, Teri A Longacre, Ie-Ming Shih, W Glenn McCluggage, Anais Malpica, Esther Oliva, Vinita Parkash, Xavier Matias-Guiu
The aim of this article is to propose guidelines and recommendations in problematic areas in pathologic reporting of endometrial carcinoma (EC) regarding special techniques and ancillary studies. An organizing committee designed a comprehensive survey with different questions related to pathologic features, diagnosis, and prognosis of EC that was sent to all members of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists. The special techniques/ancillary studies group received 4 different questions to be addressed...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Ahmed I Ghanem, Ankit Modh, Charlotte Burmeister, Adnan R Munkarah, Mohamed A Elshaikh
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the impact of age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (AACCI) score on survival endpoints for women with advanced stage endometrial carcinoma (EC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 238 women with stage III EC. AACCI score was calculated and 3 groups were created accordingly; group 1 with a score of 0-2, group 2 with score 3-4, and group 3 with score ≥5. Significant predictors of recurrence-free (RFS), disease-specific (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed...
March 8, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
Carolyn J Kushner, Wei-Ting Hwang, Shiyu Wang, Lawrence J Solin, Neha Vapiwala
PURPOSE: Women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early-stage breast cancer have an excellent prognosis, but their risk of developing second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) is not well established. We analyzed SMNs in a large cohort with long follow-up after breast conservation therapy. METHODS: The study population comprised 755 women with DCIS (n = 135) or stage I-II breast carcinoma (n = 620). Subjects were aged 25-89 (median 55) years when they underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy to the entire breast (60-68Gray) between 1992 and 2001...
February 27, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Ahmed Abu-Zaid, Mohannad Alsabban, Mohammed Abuzaid, Osama Alomar, Ismail A Al-Badawi, Hany Salem
INTRODUCTION: Inherited ABO blood groups have been shown to play possible contributions in the pathogenesis of various gynecologic and non-gynecologic carcinomas. With regard to gynecologic carcinomas, there is a confined number of studies that explored the relationship between ABO blood group and endometrial carcinoma (EC) in the PubMed-indexed literature. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has ever been conducted in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: Our study has two objectives: (I) to determine the prevalence of ABO blood groups among Saudi patients with EC, and (II) to explore the relationship between ABO blood group and several clinico-pathological prognostic parameters (namely: menopausal status [age], body mass index [BMI], tumor grade, FIGO [Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique] stage and recurrence) in Saudi patients with EC...
December 18, 2017: Curēus
Lei Wang, Xing Cheng Wang, Xinyu Li, Yan Gu, Jun Zhou, Shuwan Jiang, Jiajia Liu, Chong Wu, Zhiyan Ding, Yafeng Wan, Chenghai Wang
In recent decades, emerging evidence demonstrates that ultraconserved elements (UCEs) encoding noncoding RNAs serve as regulators of gene expression. Until now, the role of uc.189 in human cancers remains undefined and the clinical significance of uc.189 in gynecological cancers remains unknown. This study was to identify the prognostic value of uc.189 expression in gynecological cancers. Tissue microarrays were constructed with 243 samples including 116 cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCCs), 98 endometrial adenocarcinomas (EACs), 29 ovarian cystoadenocarcinomas(OCAs), and corresponding normal tissues...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Ashwini Kalshetty, Sandip Basu
The current status and future potential targets of non-18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) in 3 major gynecologic malignancies are discussed. Estrogen receptor-based 16alpha-18 F-fluoro-17beta-estradiol (18 F-FES) PET/CT has been investigated in (a) Uterine malignancies (both endometrial and myometrial pathologies) and (b) ovarian carcinoma. For uterine tumors, FDG/FES standardized uptake value and/or uptake ratio showed a positive correlation with malignant transformation (ie, endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma) and higher malignant grades, whereas higher18 F-FES uptake was documented in benign pathologies (ie, endometrial hyperplasia and leiomyoma)...
April 2018: PET Clinics
Jiansong Zhou, Yuanyuan Chen, Xiaoxian Xu, Dingding Yan, Hanmei Lou
Currently, cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC) receives the same standard treatment as squamous cell carcinoma, but this treatment regimen is not wholly suited for ADC. The present study was conducted to assess the prognostic role of postoperative clinicopathological factors in patients with stage I-IIB cervical ADC.The study examined 312 patients with stage I-IIB cervical ADC who underwent radical hysterectomy, including pelvic lymphadenectomy, at our institutions between October 2006 and September 2014. Overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Franco Fulciniti, Kenji Yanoh, Petros Karakitsos, Jun Watanabe, Alessia Di Lorito, Niki Margari, Yoshinobu Maeda, Maki Kihara, Yoshiaki Norimatsu, Tadao K Kobayashi, Yasuo Hirai
BACKGROUND: The main purpose of directly sampled endometrial cytology is to detect invasive endometrial malignancies. With this principle in mind, The Yokohama System (TYS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and gynecologic oncologists met at the 2016 International Congress of Cytology, Yokohama, with the aim to publish a standardized reporting system inclusive of specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for uniform and reliable diagnosis of endometrial malignancies on directly sampled endometrial samples...
February 26, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Can Yin, Anqiang Yang, Ying Zhang, Lin Tao, Hong Zou, Yan Ren, Weihua Liang, Jinfang Jiang, Jin Zhao, Wenjie Zhang, Feng Li, Wei Jia
Primary cervical malignant melanoma (MM) is an extremely rare tumor, and we are only aware of 44 reported cases. Further information is needed with regard to this disease's clinicopathologic features. Two patients (55 and 81 yr old) with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding were diagnosed with primary cervical MM on the basis of hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry findings. Our literature review revealed that the average age in cases of primary cervical MM was 59 yr (range, 34-81 yr); 93% of patients presented with vaginal bleeding, and 82% of patients were diagnosed at an early clinical stage (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages I-II)...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Aylin Sar, Qiuli Duan, Moosa Khalil, Lisa M DiFrancesco, Carol Ewanowich, Alice Lytwyn, Bojana Djordjevic, Doha Itani, Sandra Lee, Martin Köbel, Sarah Glaze, Elena Park, Máire A Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the reproducibility of malignant glandular tumors of the uterine cervix classified per World Health Organization (WHO) 2003 and 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two pathologists reviewed 228 cases composed of adenocarcinoma in situ and 22 adenocarcinoma histotypes and selected 405 representative hematoxylin and eosin slides, which were digitally scanned. Six other pathologists (3 gynecological and 3 anatomical) independently reviewed and classified the images per both WHO classifications...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Rachel C Nicholson, Jeremy Twigg, Alison Roberts, Georgios Angelopoulos, Derek Cruickshank
OBJECTIVE: Women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage 1A1 cervical carcinoma were evaluated to determine whether repeat excision for large loop excision transformation zone margins positive with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) had been undertaken according to the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme guidelines and if deviations from guidelines adversely affected patient outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied patients with 1A1 cervical carcinoma treated in our service between May 2010 and July 2015 to determine whether NHSCSP guidelines (May 2010) were followed...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Don S Dizon, Dora Dias-Santagata, Amy Bregar, Laura Sullivan, Jennifer Filipi, Elizabeth DiTavi, Lucy Miller, Leif Ellisen, Michael Birrer, Marcela DelCarmen
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the U.S. and, although the majority of cases present at an early stage and can be treated with curative intent, those who present with advanced disease, or develop metastatic or recurrent disease, have a poorer prognosis. A subset of endometrial cancers exhibit mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. It is now recognized that MMR-deficient cancers are particularly susceptible to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, and in a landmark judgement in 2017, the U...
February 22, 2018: Oncologist
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