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Georgia Petrou, Ronnie Jansson, Mark Högqvist, Johan Erlandsson, Lars Wågberg, My Hedhammar, Thomas Crouzier
Mucoadhesion is defined as the adhesion of a material to the mucus gel covering the mucous membranes. The mechanisms controlling mucoadhesion include nonspecific electrostatic interactions and specific interactions between the materials and the mucins, the heavily glycosylated proteins that form the mucus gel. Mucoadhesive materials can be used to develop mucosal wound dressings, and noninvasive transmucosal drug delivery systems. Spider silk, which is strong, biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic and lightweight would serve as an excellent base for the development of such materials...
June 22, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Suzanne G Pitama, Suetonia C Palmer, Tania Huria, Cameron Lacey, Tim Wilkinson
CONTEXT: The effectiveness of cultural competency education in improving health practitioner proficiency and addressing health inequities for minoritised patient groups is uncertain. Identification of institutional factors that shape or constrain development of indigenous health curricula may provide insights into the impact of these factors on the broader cultural competency curricula. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review using actor-network theory to inform our interpretive synthesis of studies that reported indigenous health curricula evaluated within medical, nursing and allied health education...
June 22, 2018: Medical Education
Ziqiang Wang, Xiang Ren, Yonglan Luo, Liang Wang, Guanwei Cui, Fengyu Xie, Hongjing Wang, Ying Xie, Xuping Sun
It is highly desired to design and develop highly efficient electrocatalysts for alkaline hydrogen evolution reactions. Herein, we report the development of ultrafine PtCo alloy nanoparticle decorated one-dimensional Co nanowires grown on Ti mesh (PtCo-Co/TiM). Owing to its favorable composition and structure, the PtCo-Co/TiM can deliver an ultrahigh current density of 46.5 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 70 mV in 1.0 M KOH, superior to recently reported Pt-based electrocatalysts. This catalyst also provides excellent long-term electrochemical durability with its catalytic activity being maintained for at least 50 h...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Irene S Kurtz, Jessica D Schiffman
From ship hulls to bandages, biological fouling is a ubiquitous problem that impacts a wide range of industries and requires complex engineered solutions. Eliciting materials to have antibacterial or antifouling properties describes two main approaches to delay biofouling by killing or repelling bacteria, respectively. In this review article, we discuss how electrospun nanofiber mats are blank canvases that can be tailored to have controlled interactions with biologics, which would improve the design of intelligent conformal coatings or freestanding meshes that deliver targeted antimicrobials or cause bacteria to slip off surfaces...
June 22, 2018: Materials
Kelsey G DeFrates, Robert Moore, Julia Borgesi, Guowei Lin, Thomas Mulderig, Vince Beachley, Xiao Hu
Fibrous materials have garnered much interest in the field of biomedical engineering due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio, porosity, and tunability. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, fiber meshes have been used to create biomimetic nanostructures that allow for cell attachment, migration, and proliferation, to promote tissue regeneration and wound healing, as well as controllable drug delivery. In addition to the properties of conventional, synthetic polymer fibers, fibers made from natural polymers, such as proteins, can exhibit enhanced biocompatibility, bioactivity, and biodegradability...
June 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
D Weyhe, J Conze, A Kuthe, F Köckerling, B J Lammers, R Lorenz, H Niebuhr, W Reinpold, K Zarras, R Bittner
SURGICAL TECHNIQUES: The HerniaSurge guidelines have the highest evidence with respect to a strong recommendation for mesh-based surgical techniques. This evidence is equally valid for the Lichtenstein procedure as for the minimally invasive procedures TEP/TAPP. In the case of discrete symptomatic or asymptomatic inguinal hernias, watchful waiting can be an option, taking into account health status and social circumstances. Femoral hernias, on the other hand, should be treated promptly with mesh insertion...
June 21, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Peter C Revenaugh, Ryan M Smith, Max A Plitt, Lisa Ishii, Kofi Boahene, Patrick J Byrne
Importance: Facial nerve deficits cause significant functional and social consequences for those affected. Existing techniques for dynamic restoration of facial nerve function are imperfect and result in a wide variety of outcomes. Currently, there is no standard objective instrument for facial movement as it relates to restorative techniques. Objective: To determine what objective instruments of midface movement are used in outcome measurements for patients treated with dynamic methods for facial paralysis...
June 21, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Karl Walsh, Ioannis Goutos, Baljit Dheansa
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is an acute inflammatory disorder of the gallbladder, which can complicate the recovery of burn patients. No formal literature review has been performed about this uncommon but potentially fatal complication in burn care. A Pubmed search from 1950 to 2015 was performed using MESH terms: "acalculous cholecystitis," "burns or thermal injuries or thermal damage," and "cholecystitis or gallbladder inflammation." The articles were analyzed and data collected individually on the incidence, presenting symptoms or signs, risk factors, investigations, and treatment modalities used...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Chin-Ru Ker, Kun-Ling Lin, Zi-Xi Loo, Yung-Shun Juan, Cheng-Yu Long
Hysterectomy is the empirical treatment for female pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without robust evidence to prove its efficacy. Uphold transvaginal mesh (TVM) system is an innovated device with smaller area, superior anterior/apical support with single incision to treat POP. The prospective cohort study aims to evaluate Uphold TVM's performance with or without concomitant hysterectomy. Inclusion criteria specify patients suffering from stage 2 or more anterior/apical prolapse without previous hysterectomy. Exclusion criteria specify those with contraindications to uterine preservation, such as leiomyomas, adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia, abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, cervical dysplasia, receiving tamoxifen treatment, family history of gynecology cancer, or colon cancer and incapability to be routinely followed...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pierre Langer, Cameron Black, Padraig Egan, Noel Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: To date, calvarial defects in dogs have traditionally been addressed with different types of implants including bone allograft, polymethylmethacrylate and titanium mesh secured with conventional metallic fixation methods. This report describes the use of an absorbable and non absorbable novel polymer fixation method, Bonewelding® technology, in combination with titanium mesh for the repair of calvarial defects in two dogs. The clinical outcomes and comparative complication using resorbable and non-resorbable thermoplastic pins were compared...
June 22, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Sara Bersche Golas, Takuma Shibahara, Stephen Agboola, Hiroko Otaki, Jumpei Sato, Tatsuya Nakae, Toru Hisamitsu, Go Kojima, Jennifer Felsted, Sujay Kakarmath, Joseph Kvedar, Kamal Jethwani
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in the United States. Advances in big data solutions allow for storage, management, and mining of large volumes of structured and semi-structured data, such as complex healthcare data. Applying these advances to complex healthcare data has led to the development of risk prediction models to help identify patients who would benefit most from disease management programs in an effort to reduce readmissions and healthcare cost, but the results of these efforts have been varied...
June 22, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Sepideh Zununi Vahed, Nazanin Fathi, Mohammad Samiei, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Simin Sharifi
Based on exceptional advantages of aptamers, increasing attention has been presented in the utilize of them as targeted ligands for cancer drug delivery. Recently, the progress of aptamer- targeted nanoparticles has presented new therapeutic systems for several types of cancer with decreased toxicity and improved efficacy. We highlight some of the promising formulations of aptamer-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles for specific targeted drug delivery to cancer cells. This review paper focuses on the current progresses in the use of the novel strategies to aptamer-targeted drug delivery for chemotherapy...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Jammula S Srinivas, Prakash Panagatla, Mukunda Reddy Damalacheru
Introduction: Reconstruction of complex abdominal wall defects is both challenging and technically demanding for plastic surgeon. Objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intra abdominal viscera and prevention of herniation. Materials: We conducted a retrospective study on five patients in whom lateral thigh flaps such as anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps and tensor fascia lata (TFL) myocutaneous flaps as pedicled or free flaps were used for complex abdominal wall Type II defects over a 5- years period between 2007 and 2012...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Michael Wiebrands, Chris J Malajczuk, Andrew J Woods, Andrew L Rohl, Ricardo L Mancera
Molecular graphics systems are visualization tools which, upon integration into a 3D immersive environment, provide a unique virtual reality experience for research and teaching of biomolecular structure, function and interactions. We have developed a molecular structure and dynamics application, the Molecular Dynamics Visualization tool, that uses the Unity game engine combined with large scale, multi-user, stereoscopic visualization systems to deliver an immersive display experience, particularly with a large cylindrical projection display...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Lisa J A Heitz-Mayfield, Giovanni E Salvi
OBJECTIVES: This narrative review was prepared for the 2017 World Workshop of the American Academy of Periodontology and European Federation of Periodontology to address key questions related to the clinical condition of peri-implant mucositis, including: 1) the definition of peri-implant mucositis, 2) conversion of peri-implant health to the biofilm-induced peri-implant mucositis lesion, 3) reversibility of peri-implant mucositis, 4) the long-standing peri-implant mucositis lesion, 5) similarities and differences between peri-implant mucositis at implants and gingivitis at teeth, and 6) risk indicators/factors for peri-implant mucositis...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Marianne H Gillam, Mhairi Kerr, Nicole L Pratt, Renly Lim, Elizabeth E Roughead
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) are common conditions. The use of mesh in the surgical treatment of these conditions in Australia is unclear. AIM: To examine the use of mesh in POP and SUI procedures in an Australian national cohort of older women. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) database. The cohort consisted of older women who had POP and SUI procedures between 1 July, 2005 and 31 December, 2016...
June 21, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Chuan Qin, Wen-Hao Zhang, De-Gang Yang, Ming-Liang Yang, Liang-Jie Du, Jian-Jun Li
Objective: To investigate the effects of myelotomy on locomotor recovery in rats subjected to spinal cord injury. Data Sources: Electronic databases including PubMed, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, China Biology Medicine disc, and Wanfang Database were searched to retrieve related studies published before September 2017. The MeSH terms (the Medical Subject Headings) such as "myelotomy", "spinal cord injuries", "rats", "randomized controlled trial" and all related entry terms were searched...
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Lisa J A Heitz-Mayfield, Giovanni E Salvi
OBJECTIVES: This narrative review was prepared for the 2017 World Workshop of the American Academy of Periodontology and European Federation of Periodontology to address key questions related to the clinical condition of peri-implant mucositis, including: 1) the definition of peri-implant mucositis, 2) conversion of peri-implant health to the biofilm-induced peri-implant mucositis lesion, 3) reversibility of peri-implant mucositis, 4) the long-standing peri-implant mucositis lesion, 5) similarities and differences between peri-implant mucositis at implants and gingivitis at teeth, and 6) risk indicators/factors for peri-implant mucositis...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Robert S Stephenson, Peter Agger, Camilla Omann, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Jonathan C Jarvis, Robert H Anderson
The precise nature of packing together of the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls has still to be determined. The spiraling nature of the chains of interconnected cardiomyocytes has long been recognized. As long ago as the end of the nineteenth century, Pettigrew had emphasized that the ventricular cone was not arranged on the basis of skeletal muscle. Despite this guidance, subsequent anatomists described entities such as “bulbo-spiral muscles”, with this notion of subunits culminating in the suggestion that the ventricular cone could be unwrapped so as to produce a “ventricular myocardial band”...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Stefano Siboni, Emanuele Asti, Pamela Milito, Gianluca Bonitta, Andrea Sironi, Alberto Aiolfi, Luigi Bonavina
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery has proven safe and effective in the treatment of large hiatus hernia. Differences may exist between objectively assessed surgical outcomes, symptomatic scores, and patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: An observational, single-arm cohort study was conducted in patients undergoing primary laparoscopic repair with crura mesh augmentation and Toupet fundoplication for large (> 50% of intrathoracic stomach) type III-IV hiatus hernia...
June 20, 2018: Digestive Surgery
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