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Components separation

Rosemary Fama, Edith V Sullivan, Stephanie A Sassoon, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Natalie M Zahr
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning and episodic memory impairment occur in HIV infection (HIV) and chronic alcoholism (ALC). Comorbidity of these conditions (HIV + ALC) is prevalent and heightens risk of vulnerability to separate and compounded deficits. Age and disease-related variables can also serve as mediators of cognitive impairment and should be considered, given the extended longevity of HIV-infected individuals in this era of improved pharmacological therapy. METHODS: HIV, ALC, HIV + ALC, and normal controls (NC) were administered traditional and computerized tests of executive function and episodic memory...
October 19, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Mingming Wang, Wei Zhan
The grand scale, ultimate efficiency, and sustainability of natural photosynthesis have inspired generations of researchers in biomimetic light energy utilization. As an essential and ubiquitous component in all photosynthetic machinery, lipids and their assemblies have long been recognized as powerful molecular scaffolds in building artificial photosynthetic systems. Model lipid bilayers, such as black lipid membranes and liposomes (vesicles), have been extensively used to host natural as well as synthetic photo- and redox-active species, thereby enabling key photosynthetic processes, such as energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, to be examined in well-defined, natural-like membrane settings...
October 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Jing Wang, Meizhu Zheng, Lina Chen, Zhiqiang Liu, Yuchi Zhang, Chun-Ming Liu, Shu Liu
Hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive free radical of human body, a strong contributor to tissue damage. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was applied to screen and identify hydroxyl radical scavengers from the total flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba leaves, and high-performance counter current chromatography was used to separate and isolate the active compounds. Furthermore, molecular devices was used to determine hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the obtained hydroxyl radical scavengers and other flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba leaves...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Matthew T Campbell, Gary L Glish
Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) is capable of separating components of complex mixtures prior to mass spectrometric analysis, thereby increasing signal-to-noise and signal-to-background ratios on millisecond timescales. However, adding a DIMS device to the front end of a mass spectrometer can reduce the signal intensity of subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. This is a result, in part, of ions lost due to inefficient transfer of ions from the DIMS device through the aperture leading into the mass spectrometer...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ying Chen, Chao He, Jing-Jun Cheng, Wen-Yao Huang, Sheng-Wen Shao, Ya-Ping Jiang, Ling-Feng Dai, Jia-Fa Liu, Yi Song
This study aimed to conduct measurement uncertainty assessment of a new method for determination of Sudan colorants (Sudan I, II, III and IV) in food by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Samples were extracted with organic solvents (hexane, 20% acetone) and first purified by magnesium trisilicate (2MgO·3SiO2). The Sudan colorants (Sudan I-IV) were also initially separated on C8 by gradient elution using acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phases and detected with diode-array detector (DAD)...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Sridhar Ravi, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Thomas Engels, Kai Schneider, Chun Wang, Jörn Sesterhenn, Hao Liu
The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carles Soler, Ana Alambiaga, Maria A Martí, Almudena García-Molina, Anthony Valverde, Jesús Contell, Marcos Campos
Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik...
September 30, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Peng Wei Zhu, Luguang Chen
A persistence length is a key parameter for the quantitative interpretation of the flexibility of polymers. We have studied the complexes composed of spherical poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brush and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle in efforts to characterize the flexibility of tethered PNIPAM below the lower critical solution temperature TLCST. An analytical mean-field model is utilized to describe the persistence length Lp in a broad range of ψ, the number of bound micelles per chain. The persistence length of the micelle-constrained PNIPAM is quantitatively correlated with the thermal energy kBT, electrostatic repulsion fC, and effective excluded volume parameter νeff...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Leanne M Boehm, Eduard E Vasilevskis, Lorraine C Mion
BACKGROUND: The ABCDE bundle is a multifaceted, interprofessional intervention that is associated with reduced ventilator and delirium days as well as increased likelihood of mobility in intensive care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to describe organizational domains that contribute to variation in ABCDE bundle implementation as reported by intensive care unit providers and to examine the capability of a conceptual framework for identifying variation in ABCDE bundle implementation...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Kelsey Chinnadurai, Lindy Fenlason, Brian Bridges, Mana Espahbodi, Sivakumar Chinnadurai, Jane Blood-Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in pediatric intensive care units (ICUs). Ventilator-associated pneumonia protocols decrease the incidence of VAP; however, many components of these protocols are not feasible in all settings. This study was done in a large pediatric hospital in Nicaragua. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to implement a sustainable evidence-based VAP protocol, in a different culture, for the purpose of decreasing VAP rates...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Carola Schultz, Sven Vedder, Martin Winter, Sascha Nowak
The development of a novel high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method hyphenated to an ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (IT-TOF-MS) for the separation and identification of constituents from common organic carbonate solvent-based electrolyte systems in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is presented in this work. The method development was developed for the qualitative structural elucidation of electrolyte main constituents with a special focus on the aging products of these components. The determination of their limits of detection was performed as well...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Maria M Piñango, Emily Finn, Cheryl Lacadie, R Todd Constable
In the sentence "The captain who the sailor greeted is tall," the connection between the relative pronoun and the object position of greeted represents a long-distance dependency (LDD), necessary for the interpretation of "the captain" as the individual being greeted. Whereas the lesion-based record shows preferential involvement of only the left inferior frontal (LIF) cortex, associated with Broca's aphasia, during real-time comprehension of LDDs, the neuroimaging record shows additional involvement of the left posterior superior temporal (LPST) and lower parietal cortices, which are associated with Wernicke's aphasia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Hong-Ping Wang, You-Bo Zhang, Xiu-Wei Yang, Da-Qing Zhao, Ying-Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Ginsenosides are the characteristic and principal components which manifest a variety of the biological and pharmacological activities of the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng (GRR). This study was carried out to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the ginsenosides in the cultivated and forest GRR. METHODS: A rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole/time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was applied to the qualitative analysis of ginsenosides and a 4000 QTRAP triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS) was applied to quantitative analysis of 19 ginsenosides...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Dan Denis, Richard Rowe, A Mark Williams, Elizabeth Milne
The human mirror neuron system is believed to play an important role in facilitating the ability of athletes to anticipate the actions of an opponent. This system is often assessed with EEG by measuring event-related changes in mu (8-13Hz) sensorimotor oscillations. However, traditional channel-based analyses of this measure are flawed in that due to volume conduction effects mu and non-mu alpha activity can become mixed. This flaw means it is unclear the extent to which mu activity indexes the mirror system, as opposed to other processes such as attentional demand...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Yaroslav Staroseletz, Aled Williams, Kepa K Burusco, Irfan Alibay, Valentin V Vlassov, Marina A Zenkova, Elena V Bichenkova
Traditional therapeutic interventions against abnormal gene expression in disease states at the level of expressed proteins are becoming increasingly difficult due to poor selectivity, off-target effects and associated toxicity. Upstream catalytic targeting of specific RNA sequences offers an alternative platform for drug discovery to achieve more potent and selective treatment through antisense interference with disease-relevant RNAs. We report a novel class of catalytic biomaterials, comprising amphipathic RNA-cleaving peptides placed between two RNA recognition motifs, here demonstrated to target the TΨC loop and 3'- acceptor stem of tRNA(Phe)...
October 3, 2016: Biomaterials
Ryuta Shintakuya, Kenichiro Uemura, Yoshiaki Murakami, Naru Kondo, Naoya Nakagawa, Kazuhide Urabe, Keisuke Okano, Kazuo Awai, Toru Higaki, Taijiro Sueda
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer. It has been reported pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is associated with serum nutritional markers in chronic pancreatitis. However, there has been no report about the relationship between sarcopenia and PEI. The aim of this study is to determine whether body composition, including skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and serum nutritional markers are associated with pancreatic exocrine function in patients with pancreatic disease...
October 11, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Chelsie E Benca, Jaime L Derringer, Robin P Corley, Susan E Young, Matthew C Keller, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Genetics
Julie M Muller, Shane S Galley, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Kenneth L Nash
The complexation of selected trivalent lanthanide ions with derivatives of the tetranitrogen donor ligands 6,6'-bis-1R,1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-2,2'-bipyridines (BTzBPs, R = alkyl or aryl) was investigated in solid state and in solution. An anhydrous solid [Ce(Bn-BTzBP)(NO3)3] (Bn = benzene) complex was synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Eu(III) complexes with the 2-ethyl(hexyl) derivative EH-BTzBP in methanol were studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Earlier studies have identified the EH-BTzBP as a potentially useful solvent extraction reagent for the separation of americium from lanthanide metal ions, a challenging component of advanced nuclear fuel cycles for actinide transmutation...
October 14, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Johanna Metsomaa, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
OBJECTIVE: Blind source separation (BSS) can be used to decompose complex electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography data into simpler components based on statistical assumptions without using a physical model. Applications include brain-computer interfaces, artifact removal and identifying parallel neural processes. We wish to address the issue of applying BSS to event-related responses which is challenging because of non-stationary data. METHODS: We introduce a new BSS approach called momentary-uncorrelated component analysis (MUCA) which is tailored for event-related multi-trial data...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Jean Wolff, Shigeyuki Komura, David Andelman
We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
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