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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906454/immunotherapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer-emerging-clinical-trials-from-a-national-cancer-institute-head-and-neck-cancer-steering-committee-planning-meeting
#1
Julie E Bauman, Ezra Cohen, Robert L Ferris, David J Adelstein, David M Brizel, John A Ridge, Brian O'Sullivan, Barbara A Burtness, Lisa H Butterfield, William E Carson, Mary L Disis, Bernard A Fox, Thomas F Gajewski, Maura L Gillison, James W Hodge, Quynh-Thu Le, David Raben, Scott E Strome, Jean Lynn, Shakun Malik
Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906387/hierarchically-porous-materials-synthesis-strategies-and-structure-design
#2
REVIEW
Xiao-Yu Yang, Li-Hua Chen, Yu Li, Joanna Claire Rooke, Clément Sanchez, Bao-Lian Su
Owing to their immense potential in energy conversion and storage, catalysis, photocatalysis, adsorption, separation and life science applications, significant interest has been devoted to the design and synthesis of hierarchically porous materials. The hierarchy of materials on porosity, structural, morphological, and component levels is key for high performance in all kinds of applications. Synthesis and applications of hierarchically structured porous materials have become a rapidly evolving field of current interest...
December 1, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906014/acceptability-and-use-of-ready-to-use-supplementary-food-compared-to-corn-soy-blend-as-a-targeted-ration-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-haiti-a-qualitative-study
#3
Anne G Beckett, Debbie Humphries, J Gregory Jerome, Jessica E Teng, Patrick Ulysse, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) is increasingly used as a component of food rations for adults with HIV. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study to evaluate the acceptability and use of peanut-based RUSF compared to corn-soy blend (CSB) among adults living with HIV in rural Haiti who had been enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial comparing the impact of those rations. A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 84 participants-42 selected from the RUSF arm of the study, and 42 from the CSB arm-using a guide with pre-designated core topics and open-ended questions...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#4
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905876/age-and-sex-specific-associations-of-anthropometric-measures-of-adiposity-with-blood-pressure-and-hypertension-in-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Kevin Y Taing, Michael E Farkouh, Rahim Moineddin, Jack V Tu, Prabhat Jha
BACKGROUND: A determinant of blood pressure is adiposity; however, there are uncertainties surrounding whether general or central adiposity is the more important determinant of blood pressure. Further, inconsistent results exist for the relationships of anthropometric measures with blood pressure and hypertension, and whether these relationships differ substantially by age and sex is unclear. We aimed to elucidate the associations of anthropometric measures of general and central adiposity with blood pressure and hypertension, and determine the effect of age and sex on these relationships...
December 1, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905538/potential-and-optimization-of-two-phase-anaerobic-digestion-of-oil-refinery-waste-activated-sludge-and-microbial-community-study
#6
Qinghong Wang, Ying Liang, Peng Zhao, Qing X Li, Shaohui Guo, Chunmao Chen
Oil refinery waste activated sludge produced from oil wastewater biological treatment is a major industrial sludge. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of oil refinery waste activated sludge was studied for the first time. Thermal pretreatment under 170 °C is effective on sludge solubilization. At the optimum hydrolytic-acidogenic condition which was pH of 6.5, temperature of 55 °C and HRT of 2 days, 2754 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced and acetic acid and butyric acid were the key components...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904881/sfr1-a-tetrahymena-thermophila-sfi1-repeat-protein-modulates-the-production-of-cortical-row-basal-bodies
#7
Westley Heydeck, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Janin Knop, Christina C Poh, Mark Winey
Basal bodies are essential microtubule-based structures that template, anchor, and orient cilia at the cell surface. Cilia act primarily in the generation of directional fluid flow and sensory reception, both of which are utilized for a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Although basal bodies contribute to vital cell functions, the molecular contributors of their assembly and maintenance are poorly understood. Previous studies of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila revealed important roles for two centrin family members in basal body assembly, separation of new basal bodies, and stability...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904047/protective-effect-of-deer-bone-oil-on-cartilage-destruction-in-rats-with-monosodium-iodoacetate-mia-induced-osteoarthritis
#8
Hyeon-Son Choi, Suji Im, Je Won Park, Hyung Joo Suh
The anti-osteoarthritic activity of the methanol fraction of deer bone oil extract (DBO-M) was evaluated in interleukin (IL)-1β-inflamed primary rabbit chondrocytes and in rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis. The active compound in DBO-M was analyzed using a direct infusion liquid chromatography quadrupole (LCQ) ion-trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometer (MS). DBO-M significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (s-GAG) release from chondrocyte, and lowered mRNA levels of the collagen-degrading enzymes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 in a dose-dependent manner...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903707/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#9
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioural and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall -- reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning -- reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. While these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also recently demonstrated in other kinds of adaptation, such as in locomotor adaptation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903527/standardized-flow-cytometry-for-highly-sensitive-mrd-measurements-in-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#10
Prisca Theunissen, Ester Mejstrikova, Lukasz Sedek, Alita J van der Sluijs-Gelling, Giuseppe Gaipa, Marius Bartels, Elaine Sobral da Costa, Michaela Kotrov Aacute, Michaela Novakova, Edwin Sonneveld, Chiara Buracchi, Paola Bonaccorso, Elen Oliviera, Jeroen G Te Marvelde, Tomasz Szczepanski, Ludovic Lhermitte, Ondrej Hrusak, Quentin Lecrevisse, Georgiana Emilia Grigore, Eva Fronkov Aacute, Jan Trka, Monika Brüggemann, Alberto Orfao, Jacques J M van Dongen, Vincent H J van der Velden
A fully-standardized EuroFlow 8-color antibody panel and laboratory procedure was stepwise designed to measure minimal residual disease (MRD) in B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with a sensitivity of ≤10(-5), comparable to real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR-based MRD detection via antigen-receptor rearrangements. Leukocyte markers and the corresponding antibodies and fluorochromes were selected based on their contribution in separating BCP-ALL cells from normal/regenerating BCP cells in multidimensional principal component analyses...
November 30, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903314/pudong-white-pig-a-unique-genetic-resource-disclosed-by-sequencing-data
#11
Q Xiao, Z Zhang, H Sun, Q Wang, Y Pan
Pudong White (PW) pigs are distributed in the Taihu region of China and are characterized by their completely white coats. A heated debate concerning this genetic resource and its relationship to Taihu and western pig breeds has arisen, due to the white coat of the animals. To determine whether PW is a unique genetic resource, we performed a detailed assessment of the genetic relationships among PW, six breeds from the Taihu population and three western pig breeds, based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data...
December 1, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902442/the-whcd-gene-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-plays-roles-in-cell-division-and-envelope-formation
#12
Dong-Seok Lee, Younhee Kim, Heung-Shick Lee
In this study, we analyzed the whcD gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum, which encodes a homolog of whiB, a Streptomyces coelicolor gene required for the sporulation of aerial hyphae. Deletion of the gene (ΔwhcD) severely affected cell growth in C. glutamicum. The ΔwhcD strain exhibited a large, filamentous, branched, and bud-shaped morphology with multiple septa. The transcription levels of the cell division genes involved in Z-ring assembly and septal peptidoglycan synthesis, including ftsZ, sepF, ftsQ, and ftsI, were markedly decreased in the ΔwhcD strain...
November 24, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902439/evidence-that-pneumococcal-walk-is-regulated-by-stkp-through-protein-protein-interaction
#13
Gro Anita Stamsås, Daniel Straume, Zhian Salehian, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein
WalRK is the only two-component regulatory system essential for viability in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite its importance, the biological role of this system is not well understood. However, previous studies have shown that it has a crucial role in controlling pneumococcal cell division. Considerable efforts have been made to understand how the WalRK system is regulated, but no signal(s) sensed by the WalK histidine kinase has been identified so far. Here, we provide evidence that the serine/threonine protein kinase StkP modulates the activity of WalK through direct protein-protein interaction, suggesting that this interaction is one of the signals sensed by WalK...
November 29, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901289/the-influence-of-physical-characteristics-on-the-resting-energy-expenditure-of-youth-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Stephen D Herrmann, Robert G McMurray, Youngdeok Kim, Erik A Willis, Minsoo Kang, Thomas McCurdy
OBJECTIVE: To examine the literature on resting energy expenditure (REE) of youth and determine the influence of age, sex, BMI, and body composition on REE. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, NTIS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Pascal databases for studies with data on resting metabolic rate, REE, resting oxygen uptake (or VO2 ) in healthy children, youth, or adolescents (age = 1-18 years). Over 200 publications were identified; sixty-one publications met criteria and were included in the meta-analyses, resulting in 142 study population estimates (totaling 5,397 youth) of REE...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899526/dynamic-pre-bcr-homodimers-fine-tune-autonomous-survival-signals-in-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#15
M Frank Erasmus, Ksenia Matlawska-Wasowska, Ichiko Kinjyo, Avanika Mahajan, Stuart S Winter, Li Xu, Michael Horowitz, Diane S Lidke, Bridget S Wilson
The pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) is an immature form of the BCR critical for early B lymphocyte development. It is composed of the membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain, surrogate light chain components, and the signaling subunits Igα and Igβ. We developed monovalent quantum dot (QD)-labeled probes specific for Igβ to study the behavior of pre-BCRs engaged in autonomous, ligand-independent signaling in live B cells. Single-particle tracking revealed that QD-labeled pre-BCRs engaged in transient, but frequent, homotypic interactions...
November 29, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898906/sexual-dimorphism-in-livestock-species-selected-for-economically-important-traits
#16
E M M van der Heide, D A L Lourenco, C Y Chen, W O Herring, R L Sapp, D W Moser, S Tsuruta, Y Masuda, B J Ducro, I Misztal
Most breeding companies evaluate economically important traits in males and females as a single trait, assuming genetic correlation of 1 between phenotypes measured in both sexes. This assumption may not be true because genes may be differently expressed in males and females. We estimated genetic correlations between males and females for growth and efficiency traits in broiler chickens, growth traits in American Angus beef cattle, and birth weight and preweaning mortality in purebred pigs; therefore, each trait was treated differently in males and females...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898850/genetic-evaluations-for-growth-heat-tolerance-in-angus-cattle
#17
H L Bradford, B O Fragomeni, J K Bertrand, D A L Lourenco, I Misztal
The objectives were to assess the impact of heat stress and to develop a model for genetic evaluation of growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle. The American Angus Association provided weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW) data, and records from the Upper South region were used because of the hot climatic conditions. Heat stress was characterized by a weaning (yearling) heat load function defined as the mean temperature-humidity index (THI) units greater than 75 (70) for 30 (150) d prior to the weigh date...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898089/polarisation-independent-silicon-on-insulator-slot-waveguides
#18
Valerian Hongjie Chen, Jun Rong Ong, Ching Eng Png
The minimisation of birefringence, or polarisation mode dispersion, is vital for simplifying and miniaturising photonic components. In this work, we present a systematic study of the slot waveguide geometries required for having zero birefringence (ZB). We show that the rail widths required for ZB are more strongly dependent on the height of the waveguide than on the slot separation. After which, we demonstrate that the ZB geometry is significantly affected by the slanting of the waveguide walls. This paper proceeds to show that within the range studied, one can fix the height, slot, slant angle, and bend radius, and still achieve ZB by varying the widths of both of the rails...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897255/high-entropy-metal-diborides-a-new-class-of-high-entropy-materials-and-a-new-type-of-ultrahigh-temperature-ceramics
#19
Joshua Gild, Yuanyao Zhang, Tyler Harrington, Sicong Jiang, Tao Hu, Matthew C Quinn, William M Mellor, Naixie Zhou, Kenneth Vecchio, Jian Luo
Seven equimolar, five-component, metal diborides were fabricated via high-energy ball milling and spark plasma sintering. Six of them, including (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Mo0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Hf0.2Zr0.2Mo0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Hf0.2Mo0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, (Mo0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Nb0.2Ti0.2)B2, and (Hf0.2Zr0.2Ta0.2Cr0.2Ti0.2)B2, possess virtually one solid-solution boride phase of the hexagonal AlB2 structure. Revised Hume-Rothery size-difference factors are used to rationalize the formation of high-entropy solid solutions in these metal diborides...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896946/dynamic-laser-speckle-angiography-achieved-by-eigen-decomposition-filtering
#20
Chenxi Li, Ruikang Wang
A new approach is proposed for statistically analysis of laser speckle signals emerged from a living biological tissue based on eigen-decomposition to separate the dynamic speckle signals due to moving blood cells from the static speckle signals due to static tissue components, upon which to achieve angiography of the interrogated tissue in vivo. The proposed approach is tested by imaging mouse ear pinna in vivo, demonstrating its capability of providing detailed microvascular networks with high contrast, and high temporal and spatial resolutions...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
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