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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434188/drivers-of-community-assembly-in-tropical-forest-restoration-sites-role-of-local-environment-landscape-and-space
#1
Lívia D Audino, Stephen J Murphy, Ludimila Zambaldi, Julio Louzada, Liza S Comita
There is increasing recognition that community assembly theory can offer valuable insights for ecological restoration. We studied community assembly processes following tropical forest restoration efforts, using dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) as a focal taxon to investigate taxonomic and functional patterns of biodiversity recovery. We evaluated the relative importance of the local environment (i.e., canopy cover, understory cover, tree basal area, and soil texture), landscape context (i.e., habitat patch proximity and availability and percentage of surrounding area classified as natural forest or Eucalyptus spp...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#2
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433768/response-of-evapotranspiration-to-changes-in-land-use-and-land-cover-and-climate-in-china-during-2001-2013
#3
Gen Li, Fangmin Zhang, Yuanshu Jing, Yibo Liu, Ge Sun
Land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is a central component of the Earth's global energy balance and water cycle. Understanding ET is important in quantifying the impacts of human influences on the hydrological cycle and thus helps improving water use efficiency and strengthening water use planning and watershed management. China has experienced tremendous land use and land cover changes (LUCC) as a result of urbanization and ecological restoration under a broad background of climate change. This study used MODIS data products to analyze how LUCC and climate change affected ET in China in the period 2001-2013...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433664/ovaries-of-the-white-worm-enchytraeus-albidus-annelida-clitellata-are-composed-of-16-celled-meroistic-germ-line-cysts
#4
Anna Z Urbisz, Łukasz Chajec, Agnieszka Brąszewska-Zalewska, Janusz Kubrakiewicz, Piotr Świątek
The paired ovaries of E. albidus are like a bunch of grapes and are composed of clearly separated units, syncytial germ cysts (clusters), which are surrounded by a thin layer of somatic cells. Each cyst maintains the connection with the ovary by an extended stalk that is composed of somatic cells. The spatial architecture of the germ-line cysts found in E. albidus is the same as in other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date. As a rule, germ cells are located at the cyst periphery and each has only one ring canal that connects it to the common and centrally located cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore...
April 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433159/glucuronoarabinoxylans-as-major-cell-walls-polymers-from-young-shoots-of-the-woody-bamboo-phyllostachys-aurea
#5
Víctor Martín Zelaya, Paula Virginia Fernández, Andrea Susana Vega, Anita Ida Mantese, Ana Ailén Federico, Marina Ciancia
Young shoots of Phyllostachys aurea showed glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) as the major hemicellulosic components, being extracted in major amounts with 1M KOH (ratio Xyl:Ara:GlcA, 100:67:8), but also with water, showing a broad structural variability. Mixed linkage glucans were also present, but in minor amounts, mostly concentrated in the 4M KOH extracts, while pectin polymers were very scarce. Arabinogalactan proteins were an important part of water extracts, determined by the presence of the typical arabinogalactan structures (3- and 6-linked Gal p; terminal and 5-linked Ara f), in addition to small amounts of hydroxyproline (2-3% of total protein) and positive reaction to Yariv's reagent...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432890/characterization-of-spectral-responses-of-dissolved-organic-matter-dom-for-atrazine-binding-during-the-sorption-process-onto-black-soil
#6
Yifan Wang, Xinyuan Zhang, Xing Zhang, Qingjuan Meng, Fengjie Gao, Ying Zhang
This study was aim to investigate the interaction between soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) and atrazine as a kind of pesticides during the sorption process onto black soil. According to the experimental data, the adsorption capacity of Soil + DOM, Soil and DOM were 41.80, 31.45 and 9.35 mg kg(-1), separately, which indicated that DOM significantly enhanced the adsorption efficiency of atrazine by soil. Data implied that the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation could well explain the adsorption process...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#7
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432819/identification-of-bioactive-compounds-in-shaoyao-gancao-decoction-using-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-affinity-chromatography
#8
Zehua Li, Haiyang Gao, Jiangying Li, Yajun Zhang
Shaoyao-Gancao decoction, a Chinese herbal formula, is composed of Paeoniae Radix alba and Glycyrrhiza Radix et rhizoma. It has been widely used to treat muscle spasms and asthma. However, little is known about the bioactive components of Shaoyao-Gancao decoction. In the present study, the bioactive compounds in water-extract of Shaoyao-Gancao decoction were separated by the immobilized β2 -adrenoceptor affinity column and identified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The affinity constants of the separated compounds that bound to β2 -adrenoceptor were determined by frontal analysis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432519/carotid-plaque-with-expansive-arterial-remodeling-is-a-risk-factor-for-ischemic-complication-following-carotid-artery-stenting
#9
Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoya Kuwayama, Naoki Akioka, Kyo Noguchi, Satoshi Kuroda
BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is associated with a higher risk of periprocedural stroke than carotid endarterectomy. For better patient selection, more accurate risk factors should be identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether expansive arterial remodeling can predict ischemic complications in patients undergoing CAS. METHODS: This retrospective study included 82 patients with carotid stenosis treated by CAS. The plaque component was evaluated using MR plaque imaging before the procedure...
April 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432272/establishment-of-an-in-vitro-culture-model-of-theca-cells-from-hierarchical-follicles-in-ducks
#10
Xiang Gan, da Chen, Yan Deng, Junsong Yuan, Bo Kang, Jiamin Qiu, Wenqiang Sun, Chunchun Han, Jiwei Hu, Liang Li, Jiwen Wang
Theca cells, including theca interna cells and theca externa cells, are vital components of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for the in vitro culture of theca cells from duck ovarian hierarchical (F4-F2) follicles. We improved the method for cell separation by using trypsin to further remove granular cells, and we increased the concentration of fetal bovine serum used in in vitro culture to improve cytoactivity. Cell antibody immunofluorescence showed that all inoculated cells could be stained by the CYP17A1/19A1 antibody but not by the FSHR antibody, which could stain granulosa cells...
April 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430242/thermally-stable-wleds-with-excellent-luminous-properties-by-screen-printing-a-patterned-phosphor-glass-layer-on-a-microstructured-glass-plate
#11
Yang Peng, Xing Guo, Ruixin Li, Hao Cheng, Mingxiang Chen
In order to improve the luminous properties and thermal reliability of white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs), we proposed a promising phosphor-in-glass (PiG) converter, which was prepared by screen-printing a patterned phosphor glass layer on a microstructured glass plate. The patterned layer achieves four-quadrant phosphor geometry based on separated yellow Y<sub>3</sub>Al<sub>5</sub>O<sub>12</sub>:Ce<sup>3+</sup> (YAG:Ce<sup>3+</sup>) and red CaAlSiN<sub>3</sub>:Eu<sup>2+</sup> (CASN:Eu<sup>2+</sup>) phosphor parts...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429180/theoretical-models-for-the-thermo-gravitational-separation-process-in-porous-media-filled-by-n-component-mixtures
#12
Dimitri Mutschler, Mohamed Aziz Larabi, Abdelkader Mojtabi
The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of the separation of an N-component mixture. In this study, two analytical models explaining the thermo-gravitational separation of components in N-component mixtures for vertical cavity filled by a porous medium are presented and assessed. The basic state and the separation are expressed in terms of the separation ratio, and the Lewis, cross-diffusion and Rayleigh numbers. Our computational analysis confirms that, for the given values of the mass fractions, thermodiffusion can be measured with a thermo-gravitational column, strongly supporting the experimentally determined transport coefficients...
April 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429074/ultrastructure-of-pheochromocytoma-undescribed-morphologic-features
#13
A Beiras Fernandez, A Kornberger, M Fraga, C F Vahl, A Beiras
We examined samples of human pheochromocytoma from 11 patients aged 30-70 years including one case of malignant pheochromocytoma with a view to identifying previously unreported ultrastructural details.We identified two types of nuclear inclusions consisting of irregularly shaped singular or multiple granulofibrillar formations with a typical concentric halo, on the one hand, and accumulations of egg-shaped structures consisting of granules and microfilaments, on the other. In some of the tumor cells, membrane-covered inclusions containing parallel laminar elements arranged in a paracrystalline, periodic fashion, or mega-mitrochondriae characterized by increased electrodensity of their matrix, and fibrillary material in the spaces between the cristae were present...
April 20, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428874/population-assessment-using-multivariate-time-series-analysis-a-case-study-of-rockfishes-in-puget-sound
#14
Nick Tolimieri, Elizabeth E Holmes, Gregory D Williams, Robert Pacunski, Dayv Lowry
Estimating a population's growth rate and year-to-year variance is a key component of population viability analysis (PVA). However, standard PVA methods require time series of counts obtained using consistent survey methods over many years. In addition, it can be difficult to separate observation and process variance, which is critical for PVA. Time-series analysis performed with multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models is a flexible statistical framework that allows one to address many of these limitations...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428766/episodic-specificity-in-acquiring-thematic-knowledge-of-novel-words-from-descriptive-episodes
#15
Meichao Zhang, Shuang Chen, Lin Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Yufang Yang
The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428539/separating-decadal-global-water-cycle-variability-from-sea-level-rise
#16
B D Hamlington, J T Reager, M-H Lo, K B Karnauskas, R R Leben
Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427101/tanshinol-alleviates-osteoporosis-and-myopathy-in-glucocorticoid-treated-rats
#17
Guanghua Chen, Xinle Zhang, Han Lin, Guizhi Huang, Yahui Chen, Liao Cui
Tanshinol is a major water-soluble active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether tanshinol has potential therapeutic effects against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and glucocorticoid-induced myopathy. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: a control group, a model group, and three model groups treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg of tanshinol, or calcitriol. All model groups received prednisone acetate for 90 days to induce glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis...
April 20, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426226/brain-uptake-of-bioactive-flavones-in-scutellariae-radix-and-its-relationship-to-anxiolytic-effect-in-mice
#18
Sophia Yui Kau Fong, Chenrui Li, Yiu Cheong Ho, Rui Li, Qian Wang, Yin Cheong Wong, Hong Xue, Zhong Zuo
Scutellariae Radix (SR) and its bioactive flavones elicit a variety of effects in the brain. However, the brain uptake of individual SR flavones and its relationship to the elicited effects after SR administration remain unknown. Moreover, previous studies seldom measured pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes simultaneously. In the current study, the brain uptake of six major SR flavones and the anxiolytic behavior following oral administration of a SR extract at two clinically relevant doses (600 and 1200 mg/kg twice daily) were simultaneously investigated in mice (n=18 per group)...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426196/chiral-inorganic-nanostructures
#19
Wei Ma, Liguang Xu, André F de Moura, Xiaoling Wu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu, Nicholas A Kotov
The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of simple nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies mediated by biomolecules and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others...
April 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426035/hierarchical-bioi-nanostructures-supported-on-a-metal-organic-framework-as-efficient-photocatalysts-for-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-in-water
#20
M Jahurul Islam, Hyun Kook Kim, D Amaranatha Reddy, Yujin Kim, Rory Ma, Heehyun Baek, Joonghan Kim, Tae Kyu Kim
Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is a green method for the removal of toxic organic pollutants by decomposition into harmless products. However, traditional single-component semiconductors are unable to reach high degradation efficiencies due to excessive photo charge carrier recombination. The use of hybrid nanocomposite photocatalysts is a promising strategy for overcoming this problem by reducing recombination as well as ensuring that large amounts of solar energy are harvested. Herein, a novel visible-light-active hybrid nanocomposite, BiOI/MIL-88B(Fe), was successfully synthesized through a simple precipitation method...
April 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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