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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350124/a-dimensional-approach-to-assessing-psychiatric-risk-in-adults-born-very-preterm
#1
Jasmin Kroll, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Philip J Brittain, Chieh-En J Tseng, Vyacheslav Karolis, Robin M Murray, Chiara Nosarti
BACKGROUND: Individuals who were born very preterm have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses compared with term-born controls; however, it remains unclear whether they also display increased sub-clinical psychiatric symptomatology. Hence, our objective was to utilize a dimensional approach to assess psychiatric symptomatology in adult life following very preterm birth. METHODS: We studied 152 adults who were born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; gestational range 24-32 weeks) and 96 term-born controls...
January 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349790/identification-of-the-absorbed-components-and-metabolites-of-modified-huo-luo-xiao-ling-dan-in-rat-plasma-by-uhplc-q-tof-ms-ms
#2
Nannan Wang, Xiaoning Zhao, Yiran Li, Congcong Cheng, Jiaxin Huai, Kaishun Bi, Ronghua Dai
To reveal the material basis of Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan, a sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) method was developed to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of HLXLD. The plasma samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. With the optimized conditions and single sample injection of each positive or negative ion mode, a total of 109 compounds, including 78 prototype compounds and 31 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized...
January 19, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349616/outcomes-of-utilizing-absorbable-mesh-as-an-adjunct-to-posterior-sheath-closure-during-complex-posterior-component-separation
#3
J S Winder, A Majumder, M Fayezizadeh, Y W Novitsky, E M Pauli
BACKGROUND: A minority of patients undergoing posterior component separation (PCS) have abdominal wall defects that preclude complete reconstruction of the visceral sac with native tissue. The use of absorbable mesh bridges (AMB) to span such defects has not been established. We hypothesized that AMB use during posterior sheath closure of PCS is safe and provides favorable outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing PCS with AMB at two hernia centers...
January 18, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348723/metabolite-profiling-of-fermented-ginseng-extracts-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
Seong-Eun Park, Seung-Ho Seo, Kyoung In Lee, Chang-Su Na, Hong-Seok Son
Background: Ginseng contains many small metabolites such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ginsenosides. However, little is known about the relationships between microorganisms and metabolites during the entire ginseng fermentation process. We investigated metabolic changes during ginseng fermentation according to the inoculation of food-compatible microorganisms. Methods: Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) datasets coupled with the multivariate statistical method for the purpose of latent-information extraction and sample classification were used for the evaluation of ginseng fermentation...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348572/areca-nut-extracts-mobilize-calcium-and-release-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-various-immune-cells
#5
Malika Faouzi, Ram P Neupane, Jian Yang, Philip Williams, Reinhold Penner
Betel nut consumption has significant implications for the public health globally, as the wide-spread habit of Areca chewing throughout Asia and the Pacific is associated with a high prevalence of oral carcinoma and other diseases. Despite a clear causal association of betel nut chewing and oral mucosal diseases, the biological mechanisms that link Areca nut-contained molecules, inflammation and cancer remain underexplored. In this study we show that the whole Areca nut extract (ANE) is capable of mobilizing Ca2+ in various immune cell lines...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347581/noisy-independent-component-analysis-of-autocorrelated-components
#6
Jakob Knollmüller, Torsten A Enßlin
We present a method for the separation of superimposed, independent, autocorrelated components from noisy multichannel measurement. The presented method simultaneously reconstructs and separates the components, taking all channels into account, and thereby increases the effective signal-to-noise ratio considerably, allowing separations even in the high-noise regime. Characteristics of the measurement instruments can be included, allowing for application in complex measurement situations. Independent posterior samples can be provided, permitting error estimates on all desired quantities...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347400/disordered-hyperuniformity-in-two-component-nonadditive-hard-disk-plasmas
#7
Enrique Lomba, Jean-Jacques Weis, Salvatore Torquato
We study the behavior of a classical two-component ionic plasma made up of nonadditive hard disks with additional logarithmic Coulomb interactions between them. Due to the Coulomb repulsion, long-wavelength total density fluctuations are suppressed and the system is globally hyperuniform. Short-range volume effects lead to phase separation or to heterocoordination for positive or negative nonadditivities, respectively. These effects compete with the hidden long-range order imposed by hyperuniformity. As a result, the critical behavior of the mixture is modified, with long-wavelength concentration fluctuations partially damped when the system is charged...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347378/interfacial-mixing-in-high-energy-density-matter-with-a-multiphysics-kinetic-model
#8
Jeffrey R Haack, Cory D Hauck, Michael S Murillo
We have extended a recently developed multispecies, multitemperature Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model [Haack et al., J. Stat. Phys. 168, 822 (2017)JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-017-1824-9], to include multiphysics capabilities that enable modeling of a wider range of physical conditions. In terms of geometry, we have extended from the spatially homogeneous setting to one spatial dimension. In terms of the physics, we have included an atomic ionization model, accurate collision physics across coupling regimes, self-consistent electric fields, and degeneracy in the electronic screening...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347212/theory-of-microphase-separation-in-bidisperse-chiral-membranes
#9
Raunak Sakhardande, Stefan Stanojeviea, Arvind Baskaran, Aparna Baskaran, Michael F Hagan, Bulbul Chakraborty
We present a Ginzburg-Landau theory of microphase separation in a bidisperse chiral membrane consisting of rods of opposite handedness. This model system undergoes a phase transition from an equilibrium state where the two components are completely phase separated to a state composed of microdomains of a finite size comparable to the twist penetration depth. Characterizing the phenomenology using linear stability analysis and numerical studies, we trace the origin of the discontinuous change in microdomain size that occurs during this phase transition to a competition between the cost of creating an interface and the gain in twist energy for small microdomains in which the twist penetrates deep into the center of the domain...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346973/generalized-model-for-k-core-percolation-and-interdependent-networks
#10
Nagendra K Panduranga, Jianxi Gao, Xin Yuan, H Eugene Stanley, Shlomo Havlin
Cascading failures in complex systems have been studied extensively using two different models: k-core percolation and interdependent networks. We combine the two models into a general model, solve it analytically, and validate our theoretical results through extensive simulations. We also study the complete phase diagram of the percolation transition as we tune the average local k-core threshold and the coupling between networks. We find that the phase diagram of the combined processes is very rich and includes novel features that do not appear in the models studying each of the processes separately...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346683/strigolactones-mediators-of-osmotic-stress-responses-with-a-potential-for-agrochemical-manipulation-of-crop-resilience
#11
Francesca Cardinale, Paolo Korwin Krukowski, Andrea Schubert, Ivan Visentin
After quickly touching upon general aspects of strigolactones biology and functions, including structure, synthesis and perception, this review focuses on the role and regulation of the strigolactone pathway during osmotic stress, in light of the most recent research developments. We discuss available data on organ-specific dynamics of strigolactone synthesis and interaction with abscisic acid in the acclimatization response, with emphasis on the ecophysiological implications of the effects on the stomatal closure process...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346441/a-portable-system-for-processing-donated-whole-blood-into-high-quality-components-without-centrifugation
#12
Sean C Gifford, Briony C Strachan, Hui Xia, Eszter Vörös, Kian Torabian, Taylor A Tomasino, Gary D Griffin, Benjamin Lichtiger, Fleur M Aung, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation-based approaches for processing donated blood into components is routine in the industrialized world, as disparate storage conditions require the rapid separation of 'whole blood' into distinct red blood cell (RBC), platelet, and plasma products. However, the logistical complications and potential cellular damage associated with centrifugation/apheresis manufacturing of blood products are well documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proof-of-concept system for whole blood processing, which does not employ electromechanical parts, is easily portable, and can be operated immediately after donation with minimal human labor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345458/synthesis-of-magnetite-semiconductor-metal-trimer-nanoparticles-through-functional-modular-assembly-a-magnetically-separable-photocatalyst-with-photothermic-enhancement-for-water-reduction
#13
Fei Pang, Ruifang Zhang, Dengpeng Lan, Jianping Ge
Hybrid nanoparticles have intrinsic advantages to achieve better activity in photocatalysis compared to single component materials, as it can synergistically combine functional components which promote light absorption, charge transportation, surface reaction and catalyst regeneration. Through functional modular assembly, a rational and stepwise approach has been developed to construct Fe3O4-CdS-Au trimer nanoparticles and its derivatives as magnetically separable catalysts for photothermo-catalytic hydrogen evolution from water...
January 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345420/integration-of-gas-enhanced-oil-recovery-in-multiphase-fermentations-for-the-microbial-production-of-fuels-and-chemicals
#14
Susana Pedraza-de la Cuesta, Lore Keijzers, Luuk A M van der Wielen, Maria C Cuellar
In multiphase fermentations where the product forms a second liquid phase or where solvents are added for product extraction, turbulent conditions disperse the oil phase as droplets. Surface-active components (SACs) present in the fermentation broth can stabilize the product droplets thus forming an emulsion. Breaking this emulsion increases process complexity and consequently the production cost. In previous works, it has been proposed to promote demulsification of oil/supernatant emulsions in an off-line batch bubble column operating at low gas flow rate...
January 18, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344954/mixed-ductal-lobular-carcinomas-evidence-for-progression-from-ductal-to-lobular-morphology
#15
Amy E McCart Reed, Jamie R Kutasovic, Katia Nones, Jodi M Saunus, Leonard Da Silva, Felicity Newell, Stephen Kazakoff, Lewis Melville, Janani Jayanthan, Ana Cristina Vargas, Lynne E Reid, Jonathan Beesley, Xiao Qing Chen, Anne Marie Patch, D David Clouston, Alan Porter, Elizabeth Evans, John V Pearson, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Margaret C Cummings, Nic Waddell, Sunil R Lakhani, Peter T Simpson
Mixed ductal-lobular carcinomas (MDL) display both ductal and lobular morphology, and are an archetypal example of intra-tumour morphological heterogeneity. The mechanisms underlying coexistence of these different morphologic entities are poorly understood, although theories include that these components either represent 'collision' of independent tumours or evolve from a common ancestor. We performed comprehensive clinico-pathological analysis of a cohort of 82 MDLs and found: i) MDLs more frequently co-exist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) than lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); ii) the E-cadherin-catenin complex was normal in the ductal component in 77...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344947/genome-wide-population-structure-and-admixture-analysis-reveals-weak-differentiation-among-ugandan-goat-breeds
#16
R B Onzima, M R Upadhyay, R Mukiibi, E Kanis, M A M Groenen, R P M A Crooijmans
Uganda has a large population of goats, predominantly from indigenous breeds reared in diverse production systems, whose existence is threatened by crossbreeding with exotic Boer goats. Knowledge about the genetic characteristics and relationships among these Ugandan goat breeds and the potential admixture with Boer goats is still limited. Using a medium-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we assessed the genetic diversity, population structure and admixture in six goat breeds in Uganda: Boer, Karamojong, Kigezi, Mubende, Small East African and Sebei...
January 17, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344785/laparoscopic-intracorporeal-rectus-aponeuroplasty-lira-technique-a-step-forward-in-minimally-invasive-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-for-ventral-hernia-repair-lvhr
#17
Julio Gómez-Menchero, Juan Francisco Guadalajara Jurado, Juan Manuel Suárez Grau, Juan Antonio Bellido Luque, Joaquin Luis García Moreno, Isaías Alarcón Del Agua, Salvador Morales-Conde
BACKGROUND: Closing the defect (CD) during laparoscopic ventral hernia repair began to be performed in order to decrease seroma, to improve the functionality of the abdominal wall, and to decrease the bulging effect. However, tension at the incision after CD in large defects is related to an increased rate of pain and recurrence. We present the preliminary results of a new technique for medium midline hernias as an alternative to conventional CD. METHODS: A prospective controlled study was conducted from January 2015 to January 2017 to evaluate an elective new procedure (LIRA) performed on patients with midline ventral hernias (4-10 cm width)...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344523/clinical-skills-temporal-degradation-assessment-in-undergraduate-medical-education
#18
Joseph Fisher, Rebecca Viscusi, Adam Ratesic, Cameron Johnstone, Ross Kelley, Angela M Tegethoff, Jessica Bates, Elaine H Situ-Lacasse, William J Adamas-Rappaport, Richard Amini
Introduction: Medical students' ability to learn clinical procedures and competently apply these skills is an essential component of medical education. Complex skills with limited opportunity for practice have been shown to degrade without continued refresher training. To our knowledge there is no evidence that objectively evaluates temporal degradation of clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temporal retention of clinical skills among third year medical students...
January 2018: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344025/insulin-resistance-in-kidney-disease-is-there-a-distinct-role-separate-from-that-of-diabetes-or-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Insulin resistance is a central component of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obesity, which puts one at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and complications related to diabetes such as chronic kidney disease. Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia place one at risk for other risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and proteinuria, e.g., development of kidney disease. Our traditional view of insulin actions focuses on insulin-sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and the pancreas...
December 2017: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343650/decoder-calibration-with-ultra-small-current-sample-set-for-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#20
Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Luyao Chen, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang, Wei Li, Jiping He
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (iBMIs) aim to restore efficient communication and movement ability for paralyzed patients. However, frequent recalibration is required for consistency and reliability, and every recalibration will require relatively large most current sample set. The aim in this study is to develop an effective decoder calibration method that can achieve good performance while minimizing recalibration time. APPROACH: Two rhesus macaques implanted with intracortical microelectrode arrays were trained separately on movement and sensory paradigm...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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