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hyaluronan matrix

Yonglun Kong, Qingchun Liang, Yanting Chen, Pingzhen Yang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yining Li, Siyuan Feng, Ji Wu, Wantao Liu, Jingyi Tang, Huimin Yu, Jing-Song Ou, Lihe Lu, Jianyun Yan
Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biological process similar to bone formation involving osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hyaluronan (HA), a major structural component of the extracellular matrix in cartilage, has been shown to inhibit osteoblast differentiation. However, whether HA affects osteogenic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs remains unclear. In the present study, we used in vitro and ex vivo models of vascular calcification to investigate the role of HA in vascular calcification...
May 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
May J Reed, Mamatha Damodarasamy, Jasmine L Pathan, Michelle A Erickson, William A Banks, Robert B Vernon
The brain changes in volume and composition with normal aging. Cellular components of the brain are supported by an extracellular matrix (ECM) comprised largely of hyaluronan (HA) and HA-associated members of the lectican family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). We examined regional differences in microvascular density, neuronal and glial markers, and accumulation of HA and CSPGs in mouse brains during normal aging. The cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum of young (4 months), middle-aged (14 months), and aged (24-26 months) brains were analyzed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Jose G Molina, Kemly Philip, Chiara Bellocchi, Brent Gudenkauf, Minghua Wu, Ning-Yuan Chen, Scott D Collum, Junsuk Ko, Sandeep K Agarwal, Shervin Assassi, Hongyan Zhong, Michael R Blackburn, Tingting Weng
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc - scleroderma) is a chronic disease that affects the skin and various internal organs. Dermal fibrosis is a major component of this disease. The mechanisms that promote dermal fibrosis remain elusive. Elevations in tissue adenosine levels and the subsequent engagement of the pro-fibrotic A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) have been shown to regulate fibrosis in multiple organs including the lung, kidney and penis; however, the role of the ADORA2B in dermal fibrosis has not been investigated...
May 17, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Aaron Dolor, Francis C Szoka
Collagen and hyaluronan are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their overexpression in tumors is linked to increased tumor growth and metastasis. These ECM components contribute to a protective tumor microenvironment by supporting a high interstitial fluid pressure and creating a tortuous setting for the convection and diffusion of chemotherapeutic small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles in the tumor interstitial space. This review focuses on the research efforts to deplete extracellular collagen with collagenases to normalize the tumor microenvironment...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Xianyan Qin, Weizhen Qiao, Yuejing Wang, Tingyu Li, Xiang Li, Tao Gong, Zhi-Rong Zhang, Yao Fu
An extracellular matrix-mimicking hydrogel is developed consisting of a hyaluronan-derived component with anti-inflammatory activity, and a gelatin-derived component offering adhesion sites for cell anchorage. The in situ-forming hyaluronan-gelatin (HA-GEL) hydrogel displays a sponge-like microporous morphology. Also, HA-GEL shows a rapid swelling pattern reaching maximum weight swelling ratio within 10 min, while at the equilibrium state, fully swollen hydrogels display an exceedingly high water content with ≈2000% of the dry gel weight...
May 7, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Marko Klarić, Herman Haller, Alemka Brnčić Fischer, Emina Babarović, Aleksandra Prijić, Senija Eminović
Hyaluronan controls cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation, and it is involved in tumor invasion. The extracellular matrix containing hyaluronan regulates cell behavior via cell surface receptors such as CD44 and receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM, CD168). We investigated the expression of CD44 and RHAMM in tissue samples of endometrial cancer and the relation of their expression with clinicopathologic parameters of patients. In order to evaluate the value of CD44 and RHAMM as prognostic factors, we investigated the relation of their expression with patients' survival...
May 4, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Markku I Tammi, Sanna Oikari, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Kirsi Rilla, Päivi Auvinen, Raija H Tammi
Hyaluronan accumulates in the stroma of several solid tumors and promotes their progression. Both enhanced synthesis and fragmentation of hyaluronan are required as a part of this inflammatory process resembling wound healing. Increased expression of the genes of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) are infrequent in human tumors, while posttranslational modifications that activate the HAS enzymes, and glucose shunted to the UDP-sugar substrates HASs, can have crucial contributions to tumor hyaluronan synthesis. The pericellular hyaluronan influences virtually all cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, controlling migration, proliferation, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and stem cell functions...
April 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Mozhgan Shojaee, Ganesh Swaminathan, Chris A Bashur, Anand Ramamurthi
The neo-assembly and maturation of elastic matrix is an important challenge for engineering small-diameter grafts for patients with peripheral artery disease. We have previously shown that hyaluronan oligomers and transforming growth factor-β (Elastogenic factors or EFs) promote elastogenesis in smooth muscle cell (SMC) culture. However, their combined effects on macrophages and inflammatory cells in vivo are unknown. This information is needed to use the body (e.g., peritoneal cavity) as an "in vivo bioreactor" to recruit autologous cells to implanted EF-functionalized scaffolds...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Victoria Rotter Sopasakis, Ruth Wickelgren, Valentina Sukonina, Camilla Brantsing, Emilia Svala, Elisabeth Hansson, Sven Enerbäck, Anders Lindahl, Eva Skiöldebrand
Objective Chondrocytes are responsible for remodeling and maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Because of the absence of a vascular supply, chondrocytes survive in a relatively hypoxic environment and thus have limited regenerative capacity during conditions of cellular stress associated with inflammation and matrix degradation, such as osteoarthritis (OA). Glucose is essential to sustain chondrocyte metabolism and is a precursor for key matrix components...
April 1, 2018: Cartilage
Xiuwen Guan, Jie Chen, Yingying Hu, Lin Lin, Pingjie Sun, Huayu Tian, Xuesi Chen
Tumor vaccine has been one of the research hotspots for cancer immunotherapy in recent years. By introducing tumor antigens into the body, the patient's own immune system will be specifically activated to induce effective immune responses for controlling or eliminating the malignant tumor cells. In this study, a simple nanovaccine was developed to induce antigen-specific anti-tumor immune responses. Polycationic polyethylenimine (PEI) was utilized to co-deliver the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the adjuvant unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) by electrostatic binding...
April 21, 2018: Biomaterials
Sally S M Lee-Sayer, Meghan N Dougan, Jesse Cooper, Leslie Sanderson, Manisha Dosanjh, Christopher A Maxwell, Pauline Johnson
CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds to the extracellular matrix component, hyaluronan. However, this interaction is not constitutive in most immune cells at steady state, as the ability of CD44 to engage hyaluronan is highly regulated. While activated T cells and macrophages gain the ability to bind hyaluronan by CD44, the status in other immune cells is less studied. Here we found a percentage of murine eosinophils, natural killer and natural killer T cells were capable of interacting with hyaluronan at steady state...
2018: PloS One
Theodoros T Karalis, Paraskevi Heldin, Demitrios H Vynios, Thomas Neill, Simone Buraschi, Renato V Iozzo, Nikos K Karamanos, Spyros S Skandalis
The malignant phenotype of various cancers is linked to enhanced expression of hyaluronan, a pro-angiogenic glycosaminoglycan whose expression is suppressed by 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), a non-toxic oral agent used as a dietary supplement to improve health and combat prostate cancer. However, little is known about the effects of hyaluronan inhibition by 4-MU on breast cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of 4-MU in mammary carcinoma cells with distinct malignant phenotypes and estrogen receptor (ER) status, a major prognostic factor in the clinical management of breast cancers...
April 16, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Katie J Sikes, Kristen Renner, Jun Li, K Jane Grande-Allen, Jennifer P Connell, Valbona Cali, Ronald J Midura, John D Sandy, Anna Plaas, Vincent M Wang
Hyaluronan (HA), a high molecular weight non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an integral component of the extracellular matrix of developing and mature connective tissues including tendon. There are few published reports quantifying HA content during tendon growth and maturation, or detailing its effects on the mechanical properties of the tendon extracellular matrix. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine the role of HA synthesis during post-natal skeletal growth and maturation, and its influence on tendon structure and biomechanical function...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Lajos Jakab
After clearing up the confusion in the previously used nomenclature, the paper discusses the family of small-leucin-rich glycoproteins. After mentioning the family and its role in the organisation of the ground substance and in the regulation of inflammation, one unique molecule of proteoglycans is presented. This molecule is the inter-α-trypsin inhibitor. It has turned out that this peculiar molecule originally contains glycosaminoglycan beside the neutral carbohydrates. After summarizing the numerous connections of the proteoglycan molecule, the "self-sacrificing" nature of the molecule is presented...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Christiane H Antoni, Yvonne McDuffie, Jochen Bauer, Jonathan P Sleeman, Heike Boehm
Controlled activation of lymphangiogenesis through functional biomaterials represents a promising approach to support wound healing after surgical procedures, yet remains a challenge. In a synthetic biological approach, we therefore set out to mimic the basal microenvironment of human primary dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) during lymphangiogenesis. As the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) regulates lymphangiogenesis, we designed a bifunctional surface in which adhesive peptide ligands and short HA oligosaccharides (sHA) tethered to nanoparticles are copresented to the basal side of LECs in a controlled, concentration-dependent manner...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Leena Rauhala, Tiina Jokela, Riikka Kärnä, Geneviève Bart, Piia Takabe, Sanna Oikari, Markku I Tammi, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Raija H Tammi
Extracellular nucleotides are used as signaling molecules by several cell types. In epidermis, their release is triggered by insults such as ultraviolet radiation, barrier disruption and wounding and by specific nerve terminals firing. Increased synthesis of hyaluronan, a ubiquitous extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, also occurs in response to stress, leading to the attractive hypothesis that nucleotide signaling and hyaluronan synthesis could also be linked. In HaCaT keratinocytes ATP caused a rapid and strong but transient activation of hyaluronan synthase 2 ( HAS2 ) expression via PKC-, CaMKII-, MAPK- and CREB-dependent pathways by activating the purinergic P2Y2 receptor...
April 6, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Chenming Xu, Qiwen Shi, Leifang Zhang, Hang Zhao
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is asscoiated with lung injury. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) is an essential constituent of extracellular matrix (ECM), exhibiting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties when administered by injection, inhalation, nebulization or gene delivery of HA synthases. The aim of the present study is to determine whether HMW-HA alleviates PM2.5 -induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We observed that HMW-HA suppressed pathological injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, edema and epithelial damage caused by PM2...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Nadine Nagy, Hedwich F Kuipers, Payton L Marshall, Esther Wang, Gernot Kaber, Paul L Bollyky
The tissue microenvironment contributes to local immunity and to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases - a diverse set of conditions characterized by sterile inflammation, immunity against self-antigens, and destruction of tissues. However, the specific factors within the tissue microenvironment that contribute to local immune dysregulation in autoimmunity are poorly understood. One particular tissue component implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases is hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix (ECM) polymer...
April 3, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Marie-Elena Brett, Heather E Bomberger, Geneva R Doak, Matthew A Price, James B McCarthy, David K Wood
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of altered hyaluronan metabolism to malignant progression of multiple tumor types, including breast carcinomas. Increased hyaluronan (HA) metabolism in the stroma of primary tumors promotes activation of oncogenic signaling pathways that impact tumor initiation, growth, and invasion. Carcinoma cell synthesis and assembly of HA-rich pericellular matrices induces a stromal-independent phenotype, which is associated with cancer progression. Although the pro-tumorigenic role of stromal HA is well established, a novel but unexplored hypothesis is that carcinoma cell-associated HA pericellular matrices promote metastasis of circulating tumor cells...
April 6, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos, Lance L Munn, Rakesh K Jain
A solid tumor is like an aberrant organ - comprised of cancer cells and a variety of host cells embedded in an extracellular matrix - nourished by blood vessels and drained by lymphatic vessels. In its journey from the blood stream to cancer cells, a therapeutic agent must cross the vessel wall and the extracellular matrix that cancer cells are ensconced in. Growth of tumors in a confined space along with deposition of matrix components, including collagen (yellow) and hyaluronan (pink), increases 'solid stress', which compresses blood and lymphatic vessels and impairs their function...
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
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