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hyaluronan matrix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734086/the-role-of-serum-hyaluronic-acid-determination-in-the-diagnosis-of-liver-fibrosis
#1
Monika Gudowska, Bogdan Cylwik, Lech Chrostek
The common pathway leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is growing deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). It results from molecular and histological rearrangement of collagens, glycoproteins and hyaluronans. Hyaluronic acid is a chief component of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues and plays the main structural role in the formation of ECM. The most important organ involved in the synthesis of hyaluronic acid is the liver. In this paper the meaning of hyaluronic acid in the diagnostics of liver diseases is discussed...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730511/intermediate-molecular-mass-hyaluronan-and-cd44-receptor-interactions-enhance-neutrophil-phagocytosis-and-il-8-production-via-p38-and-erk1-2-mapk-signalling-pathways
#2
Cheng-Hsun Lu, Chia-Huei Lin, Ko-Jen Li, Chieh-Yu Shen, Cheng-Han Wu, Yu-Min Kuo, Ting-Syuan Lin, Chia-Li Yu, Song-Chou Hsieh
CD44 is a common leukocyte adhesion molecule expressed on the surface of various cells. Hyaluronan (HA), the natural ligand of CD44, is a simple repeated disaccharide with variable molecular mass that is widely distributed on cell surfaces and the connective tissue matrix. The binding of small molecular mass HA (SMM-HA, MW < 80 kDa) to CD44 on immune-related cells elicits cell proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production. However, the effects and molecular basis of intermediate molecular mass HA (IMM-HA, MW ≈ 500 kDa)-CD44 interactions on polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions have not been elucidated...
July 20, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706307/effect-of-shock-induced-cavitation-bubble-collapse-on-the-damage-in-the-simulated-perineuronal-net-of-the-brain
#3
Yuan-Ting Wu, Ashfaq Adnan
The purpose of this study is to conduct modeling and simulation to understand the effect of shock-induced mechanical loading, in the form of cavitation bubble collapse, on damage to the brain's perineuronal nets (PNNs). It is known that high-energy implosion due to cavitation collapse is responsible for corrosion or surface damage in many mechanical devices. In this case, cavitation refers to the bubble created by pressure drop. The presence of a similar damage mechanism in biophysical systems has long being suspected but not well-explored...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687009/post-surgery-fluids-promote-transition-of-cancer-stem-cell-to-endothelial-and-akt-mtor-activity-contributing-to-relapse-of-giant-cell-tumors-of-bone
#4
Flavio Fazioli, Gianluca Colella, Roberta Miceli, Mariano Giuseppe Di Salvatore, Michele Gallo, Serena Boccella, Annarosaria De Chiara, Carlo Ruosi, Filomena de Nigris
Giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) are rare sarcomas with a high rate of unpredictable local relapse. Studies suggest that surgical methods affect recurrence, supporting the idea that local disease develops from re-growth of residual cancer cells. To identify early prognostic markers of individual risk of recurrence, we evaluated the effect of post-surgery fluids from a cohort of GCTB patients on growth of primary and established sarcoma cell lines, and mice xenographts. Post-surgery fluids increased cell growth and enhanced expression of CD44++, the principal receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan and the mesenchymal stem marker CD117+...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684419/versican-g1-domain-enhances-adenoviral-mediated-transgene-expression-and-can-be-modulated-by-inhibitors-of-the-janus-kinase-jak-stat-and-src-family-kinase-pathways
#5
Patricia Y Akinfenwa, Wesley S Bond, Cristhian J Ildefonso, Mary Y Hurwitz, Richard L Hurwitz
To examine the biochemical influences that may contribute to the success of gene therapy for ocular disorders, the role of versican, a vitreous component, in adenoviral-mediated transgene expression was examined. Versican is a large chondroitin sulfate-containing, hyaluronic acid-binding proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and in ocular vitreous body. Y79 retinoblastoma cells and CD44-negative SK-N-DZ neuroblastoma cells transduced with adenoviral vectors in the presence of versican respond with an activation of transgene expression...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682809/mechanisms-of-erosion-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#6
Thibaut Quillard, Grégory Franck, Thomas Mawson, Eduardo Folco, Peter Libby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review explores the mechanisms of superficial intimal erosion, a common cause of thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Human coronary artery atheroma that give rise to thrombosis because of erosion differ diametrically from those associated with fibrous cap rupture. Eroded lesions characteristically contain few inflammatory cells, abundant extracellular matrix, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Innate immune mechanisms such as engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on cultured endothelial cells can impair their viability, attachment, and ability to recover a wound...
July 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668298/interstitial-fluid-flow-induced-growth-potential-and-hyaluronan-synthesis-of-fibroblasts-in-a-fibroblast-populated-stretched-collagen-gel-culture
#7
Natsumi Saito, Hiroaki Adachi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Satoru Nakata, Norifumi Kawada, Ken Oofusa, Katsutoshi Yoshizato
BACKGROUND: Tensioned collagen gels with dermal fibroblasts (DFs) as a dermis model are usually utilized in a static culture (SC) that lacks medium flowing. To make the model closer to its in vivo state, we created a device to perfuse the model with media flowing at a physiological velocity and examined the effects of medium flow (MF) on the cultures. METHODS: We constructed a medium perfusion device for human DF-embedded stretched collagen gels (human dermis model), exposed the model to media that flows upwardly at ~1mL/day, and examined water retention of the gels, cells' growth ability, metabolic activity, expression profiles of nine extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes...
June 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662901/sonic-hedgehog-pathway-inhibition-normalizes-desmoplastic-tumor-microenvironment-to-improve-chemo-and-nanotherapy
#8
Fotios Mpekris, Panagiotis Papageorgis, Christiana Polydorou, Chrysovalantis Voutouri, Maria Kalli, Athanassios P Pirentis, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
Targeting the rich extracellular matrix of desmoplastic tumors has been successfully shown to normalize collagen and hyaluronan levels and re-engineer intratumoral mechanical forces, improving tumor perfusion and chemotherapy. As far as targeting the abundant cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in desmoplastic tumors is concerned, while both pharmacologic inhibition of the sonic-hedgehog pathway and genetic depletion of fibroblasts have been employed in pancreatic cancers, the results between the two methods have been contradictory...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646530/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#9
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/a-histological-and-reference-system-for-the-analysis-of-mouse-intervertebral-disc
#10
Vivian Tam, Wilson C W Chan, Victor Y L Leung, Kathryn S E Cheah, Kenneth M C Cheung, Daisuke Sakai, Matthew R McCann, Jake Bedore, Cheryle A Séguin, Danny Chan
A new scoring system based on histo-morphology of mouse intervertebral disc (IVD) was established to assess changes in different mouse models of IVD degeneration and repair. IVDs from mouse strains of different ages, transgenic mice, or models of artificially-induced IVD degeneration were assessed. Morphological features consistently observed in normal, and early/later stages of degeneration were categorised into a scoring system focused on nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) changes. "Normal NP" exhibited a highly cellularised cell mass that decreased with natural ageing and in disc degeneration...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629001/biomimetic-electrospun-scaffolds-from-main-extracellular-matrix-components-for-skin-tissue-engineering-application-the-role-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-sulfated-hyaluronan
#11
Sirsendu Bhowmick, Sandra Rother, Heike Zimmermann, Poh S Lee, Stephanie Moeller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Veena Koul, Rainer Jordan, Vera Hintze, Dieter Scharnweber
Incorporation of bioactive components like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) into tissue engineering scaffolds, is a promising approach towards developing new generation functional biomaterial. Here, we have designed electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds made of gelatin and different concentrations of chemically sulfated or non-sulfated hyaluronan (sHA or HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Evenly distributed fiber morphology was observed with no differences between varying concentrations and types of GAGs. In vitro release kinetics revealed that GAGs release is driven by diffusion...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627617/sorafenib-controls-the-epithelial%C3%A2-mesenchymal-transition-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-via-egf-and-the-cd44%C3%A2-ha-signaling-pathway-in-a-cell-type%C3%A2-dependent-manner
#12
Ga Bin Park, Hyun-Suk Ko, Daejin Kim
Cluster of differentiation (CD) 44 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are closely involved in cellular migration and have been used as stem cell markers. Although the hyaluronan (HA)‑binding CD44 is responsible for enhanced cellular motility, the mechanism underlying its actions in various cell types and clinical conditions have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib was used to investigate the diverse effects of EGF stimulation on epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in ovarian cancer cells using immunoblotting and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#13
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606795/endothelium-independent-primitive-myxoid-vascularization-creates-invertebrate-like-channels-to-maintain-blood-supply-in-optic-gliomas
#14
Matija Snuderl, Guoan Zhang, Pamela Wu, Tara S Jennings, Seema Shroff, Valerio Ortenzi, Rajan Jain, Benjamin Cohen, Jason J Reidy, Mitchell S Dushay, Jeffrey H Wisoff, David H Harter, Matthias A Karajannis, David Fenyo, Thomas A Neubert, David Zagzag
Optic gliomas are brain tumors characterized by slow growth, progressive loss of vision, and limited therapeutic options. Optic gliomas contain various amounts of myxoid matrix, which can represent most of the tumor mass. We sought to investigate biological function and protein structure of the myxoid matrix in optic gliomas to identify novel therapeutic targets. We reviewed histological features and clinical imaging properties, analyzed vasculature by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, and performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry on optic gliomas, which varied in the amount of myxoid matrix...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605029/the-pancreatic-cancer-microenvironment-a-true-double-agent
#15
REVIEW
Laleh G Melstrom, Marcela D Salazar, Don J Diamond
The tumor microenvironment in pancreatic cancer is a complex balance of pro- and anti-tumor components. The dense desmoplasia consists of immune cells, extracellular matrix, growth factors, cytokines, and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) or pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). There are a multitude of targets including hyaluronan, angiogenesis, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), CD40, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR-4), immunotherapy, and Vitamin D. The developing clinical therapeutics will be reviewed...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604766/the-deubiquitinating-enzymes-usp4-and-usp17-target-hyaluronan-synthase-2-and-differentially-affect-its-function
#16
M Mehić, V K de Sa, S Hebestreit, C-H Heldin, P Heldin
The levels of hyaluronan, a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan prominent in the extracellular matrix, is balanced through the actions of hyaluronan-synthesizing enzymes (HAS1, 2 and 3) and degrading hyaluronidases (Hyal 1, 2, 3 and PH20). Hyaluronan accumulates in rapidly remodeling tissues, such as breast cancer, due to deregulated expression of the HAS2 gene and/or alterations of HAS2 activity. The activity of HAS2 is regulated by post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination. In order to identify deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that are involved in de-ubiquitination of HAS2, a complementary (cDNA) library of 69 Flag-HA-tagged human DUBs cloned into retroviral vectors was screened in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells for their ability to de-ubiquitinate myc-tagged HAS2...
June 12, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591491/cover-image-volume-118-number-8-august-2017
#17
Léa Gaucherand, Ben A Falk, Stephen P Evanko, Gail Workman, Christina K Chan, Thomas N Wight
Cover: The cover image, by Léa Gaucherand et al., is based on the Article Crosstalk Between T Lymphocytes and Lung Fibroblasts: Generation of a Hyaluronan-Enriched Extracellular Matrix Adhesive for Monocytes, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25842.
August 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582436/is-hyaluronan-deposition-in-the-stroma-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-of-prognostic-significance
#18
Florian Gebauer, Marius Kemper, Guido Sauter, Peter Prehm, Udo Schumacher
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis and the number of PDAC-related deaths is rising. Recently the tumour stroma and in particular one of its main components, hyaluronan (HA), have attracted considerable attention as intravenous hyaluronidase treatment together with conventional chemotherapy considerably prolonged survival in HA-rich PDA patients. We therefore wanted to investigate the prognostic significance of HA deposition in PDA using both antibodies to HA and hyaluronan binding protein (HABP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564597/synaptic-remodeling-depends-on-signaling-between-serotonin-receptors-and-the-extracellular-matrix
#19
Monika Bijata, Josephine Labus, Daria Guseva, Michał Stawarski, Malte Butzlaff, Joanna Dzwonek, Jenny Schneeberg, Katrin Böhm, Piotr Michaluk, Dmitri A Rusakov, Alexander Dityatev, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Jakub Wlodarczyk, Evgeni Ponimaskin
Rewiring of synaptic circuitry pertinent to memory formation has been associated with morphological changes in dendritic spines and with extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Here, we mechanistically link these processes by uncovering a signaling pathway involving the serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), the hyaluronan receptor CD44, and the small GTPase Cdc42. We highlight a physical interaction between 5-HT7R and CD44 (identified as an MMP-9 substrate in neurons) and find that 5-HT7R stimulation increases local MMP-9 activity, triggering dendritic spine remodeling, synaptic pruning, and impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP)...
May 30, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552385/regional-distribution-of-phospholipids-in-porcine-vitreous-humor
#20
Abigail Schnepf, Marta Cecilia Yappert, Douglas Borchman
This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued...
May 25, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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