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Antonio R Hidalgo-Muñoz, Damien Mouratille, Nadine Matton, Mickaël Causse, Yves Rouillard, Radouane El-Yagoubi
In aviation, emotion and cognitive workload can considerably increase the probability of human error. An accurate online physiological monitoring of pilot's mental state could prevent accidents. The heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) of 21 private pilots were analysed during two realistic flight simulator scenarios. Emotion was manipulated by a social stressor and cognitive workload with the difficulty of a secondary task. Our results confirmed the sensitivity of the HR to cognitive demand and training effects, with increased HR when the task was more difficult and decreased HR with training (time-on-task)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Terouz Pasha, Paul R A Stokes
Background: The 2015 Germanwings Flight 9525 disaster, in which 150 people were killed after the co-pilot may have intentionally crashed the plane in a suicide attempt, highlights the importance of better understanding the mental health of commercial airline pilots. However, there have been few systematic reviews investigating the topic of mental health in commercial aviation. This systematic review aims to identify the types and prevalence of mental health disorders that commercial airline pilots experience with a focus on mood disorders and suicide risk...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Samantha L Case, Kyle M Moller, Nancy A Nix, Devin L Lucas, Elizabeth H Snyder, Mary B O'Connor
Aviation is a critical component of life in Alaska, connecting communities off the road system across the state. Crash-related fatalities in the state are well understood and many intervention efforts have been aimed at reducing aircraft crashes and resulting fatalities; however, nonfatal injuries among workers who perform aviation-related duties have not been studied in Alaska. This study aimed to characterize hospitalized nonfatal injuries among these workers using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry. During 2000-2013, 28 crash-related and 89 non-crash injuries were identified, spanning various occupational groups...
April 2018: Safety Science
Tobias Schripp, Bruce E Anderson, Ewan Crosbie, Richard H Moore, Friederike Herrmann, Patrick Osswald, Claus Wahl, Manfred Kapernaum, Markus Köhler, Patrick Le Clercq, Bastian Rauch, Philipp Eichler, Tomas Mikoviny, Armin Wisthaler
The application of fuels from renewable sources ("alternative fuels") in aviation is important for the reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, but may also attribute to reduced release of particles from jet engines. The present experiment describes ground-based measurements in the framework of the ECLIF (Emission and Climate Impact of Alternative Fuels) campaign using an Airbus A320 (V2527-A5 engines) burning six fuels of chemically different composition. Two reference Jet A-1 with slightly different chemical parameters were applied and further used in combination with a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene (FT-SPK) to prepare 3 semi synthetic jet fuels (SSJF) of different aromatic content...
March 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Michael R Kazior, Jacob Wang, Marjorie P Stiegler, Dung Nguyen, Annette Rebel, Robert S Isaak
Background: Emergency manuals, which are safety essentials in non-medical high-reliability organizations (e.g., aviation), have recently gained acceptance in critical medical environments. Of the existing emergency manuals in anesthesiology, most are geared towards intraoperative settings. Additionally, most evidence supporting their efficacy focuses on the study of physicians with at least some meaningful experience as a physician. Our aim was to evaluate whether an emergency manual would improve the performance of novice physicians (post-graduate year [PGY] 1 or first year resident) in managing a critical event in the intensive care unit (ICU)...
July 2017: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Silke Bauer, Jason W Chapman, Don R Reynolds, José A Alves, Adriaan M Dokter, Myles M H Menz, Nir Sapir, Michał Ciach, Lars B Pettersson, Jeffrey F Kelly, Hidde Leijnse, Judy Shamoun-Baranes
Migratory animals provide a multitude of services and disservices-with benefits or costs in the order of billions of dollars annually. Monitoring, quantifying, and forecasting migrations across continents could assist diverse stakeholders in utilizing migrant services, reducing disservices, or mitigating human-wildlife conflicts. Radars are powerful tools for such monitoring as they can assess directional intensities, such as migration traffic rates, and biomass transported. Currently, however, most radar applications are local or small scale and therefore substantially limited in their ability to address large-scale phenomena...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
Peter Ryan, Alexander Treble, Nirmal Patel, Nicholas Jufas
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the published evidence relating to the prevention of otic barotrauma in aviation. In particular, this review sought to identify procedures, techniques, devices, and medications for the prevention of otic barotrauma as well as evaluate the evidence relating to their efficacy. DATA SOURCES: Ten databases including Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched using the full historical range...
March 27, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Tommaso Sanna, Ilaria Battistoni, Marco Marini, Serafina Valente
The presence of high-risk features on candidates to percutaneous revascularization is increasingly leading to Impella®-assisted procedures (IAPs). While IAPs are safe and effective procedures, they still require managing a degree of complexity. Clinicians often rely on their ability to recall every step of operative procedures. However, during stressful situations, levels of cognitive function are compromised leading to planning and execution failures and decreased safety. Many high-risk activities such as aviation, aerospace industry, and nuclear plants have been using protocols, standardized procedures and checklists for many years...
March 28, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
Rosa Sun, Dominic C Marshall, Mark C Sykes, Mahiben Maruthappu, Joseph Shalhoub
BACKGROUND: The aviation industry pioneered formalised crew training in order to improve safety and reduce consequences of non-technical error. This formalised training has been successfully adapted and used to in the field of surgery to improve post-operative patient outcomes. The need to implement teamwork training as an integral part of a surgical programme is increasingly being recognised. We aim to systematically review the impact of surgical teamwork training on post-operative outcomes...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Matthew A Struckhoff, Carl E Orazio, Donald E Tillitt, David K Shaver, Diana M Papoulias
Palmyra Atoll, once a WWII U.S. Navy air station, is now a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge with nearly 50km2 of coral reef and 275ha of emergent lands with forests of Pisonia grandis trees and colonies of several bird species. Due to the known elemental and organic contamination from chemicals associated with aviation, power generation and transmission, waste management, and other air station activities, a screening survey to map elemental concentrations was conducted. A map of 1944 Navy facilities was georeferenced and identifiable features were digitized...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xiao-Bing Hu, Hang Li, XiaoMei Guo, Pieter H A J M van Gelder, Peijun Shi
A hazard is often spatially local in a network system, but its impact can spread out through network topology and become global. To qualitatively and quantitatively assess the impact of spatially local hazards on network systems, this article develops a new spatial vulnerability model by taking into account hazard location, area covered by hazard, and impact of hazard (including direct impact and indirect impact), and proposes an absolute spatial vulnerability index (ASVI) and a relative spatial vulnerability index (RSVI)...
March 23, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Jing Dai, Min Luo, Wendong Hu, Jin Ma, Zhihong Wen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the fatigue risk is an important challenge in improving flight safety in aviation industry. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive fatigue risk management indicators system and a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots. METHODS: Participants included 74 (all males) civil aviation pilots. They finished the questionnaire in 20 minutes before a flight mission. The estimation of internal consistency with Cronbach's α and Student's t test as well as Pearson's correlation analysis were the main statistical methods...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Julio A Chalela
BACKGROUND: Headaches among military personnel are very common and headgear wear is a frequently identified culprit. Helmet wear may cause migrainous headaches, external compression headache, other primary cranial neuralgias, and occipital neuralgia. The clinical features and the response to treatment allow distinction between the different types of headaches. Headaches among aviators are particularly concerning as they may act as distractors while flying and the treatment options are often incompatible with flying status...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Guan Sen Kew, Brian See
INTRODUCTION: Zolpidem is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that has been approved by the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) for aircrew sleep management since 2005. Prior to consuming zolpidem for operational reasons, each RSAF aircrew member is required to undergo a ground test to exclude operationally relevant adverse drug effects. This study describes the RSAF's zolpidem ground testing outcomes over a 12.5-yr period. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 578 RSAF aircrew members who underwent zolpidem test dosing from 1 January 2005 to 30 June 2017...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Daniel J Geyer, Adam T Biggs
Virtual simulations offer nearly unlimited training potential for naval aviation due to the wide array of scenarios that can be simulated in a safe, reliable, and cost-effective environment. This versatility has created substantial interest in using existing and emerging virtual technology to enhance training scenarios. However, the virtual simulations themselves may hinder training initiatives by inducing simulator sickness among the trainees, which is a series of symptoms similar to motion sickness that can arise from simulator use...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Lora J Wu, Philippa H Gander, Margo van den Berg, T Leigh Signal
BACKGROUND: Many civilian aviation regulators favor evidence-based strategies that go beyond hours-of-service approaches for managing fatigue risk. Several countries now allow operations to be flown outside of flight and duty hour limitations, provided airlines demonstrate an alternative method of compliance that yields safety levels "at least equivalent to" the prescriptive regulations. Here we discuss equivalence testing in occupational fatigue risk management. We present suggested ratios/margins of practical equivalence when comparing operations inside and outside of prescriptive regulations for two common aviation safety performance indicators: total in-flight sleep duration and psychomotor vigilance task reaction speed...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Vincent Denault, Louise M Jupe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Miguel Ángel Sánchez-Tena, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina, Mª Carolina Valbuena-Iglesias, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera
Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Derek Wakeman, Max R Langham
The operating room (OR) is a special place wherein groups of highly skilled individuals must work in a coordinated and harmonious fashion to deliver optimal patient care. Team dynamics and human factors principles were initially studied by the aviation industry to better understand and prevent airline accidents. As a result, crew resource management (CRM) training was designed for all flight personnel to create a highly reliable industry with a commitment to a culture of safety. CRM has since been adapted to health care, resulting in care improvement and harm reduction across a wide variety of medical specialties...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Tongyang Li, Shaoping Wang, Enrico Zio, Jian Shi, Wei Hong
Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system's lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system's ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
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