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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047933/lidar-algorithms-for-atmospheric-slant-range-visibility-meteorological-conditions-detection-and-atmospheric-layering-measurements
#1
Alexandros Pantazis, Alexandros Papayannis, Georgios Georgousis
Visibility at airports has to do, in many ways, with flight and ground safety. We present a novel method and algorithms based on lidar measurements and signal noise subtraction to provide atmospheric layering and estimated visibility values for tower controllers and meteorologists as well as from the pilot's point of view, according to the International Civil Aviation Organization and World Meteorological Organization requirements.
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046172/readability-of-new-aviation-chart-symbology-in-day-and-nvg-reading-conditions
#2
Anthony S Wagstaff, Terje Larsen
BACKGROUND: The Swedish Air Force (SwAF) conducted a study in 2010 to harmonize portrayal of aeronautical info (AI) on SwAF charts with NATO standards. A mismatch was found concerning vertical obstructions (VO). Norway regarded Sweden's existing symbology as a way to solve the problem of overcrowded air charts and the two countries started to cooperate. The result of this development was a new set of symbology for obstacles. The aim of this study was to test the readability of the new obstacle and power line symbols compared to the old symbols...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040454/to-fly-as-a-pilot-after-cardiac-surgery
#3
Thomas Syburra, Ed Nicol, Stuart Mitchell, Denis Bron, Ulrich Rosendahl, John Pepper
Aircrew are responsible for safe and reliable aircraft operations. Cardiovascular disease accounts for 50% of all pilot licences declined or withdrawn for medical reasons in Western Europe and is the most common cases of sudden incapacitation in flight. Aircrew retirement age is increasing (up to age 65) in a growing number of airlines and the burden of subclinical, but potentially significant, coronary atherosclerosis is unknown in qualified pilots above age 40. Safety considerations are paramount in aviation medicine, and the most dreaded cardiovascular complications are thromboembolic events and rhythm disturbances due to their potential for sudden incapacitation...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036543/pilot-reported-beta-blockers-identified-by-forensic-toxicology-analysis-of-postmortem-specimens
#4
Dennis V Canfield, Kurt M Dubowski, James M Whinnery, Estrella M Forster
Introduction: This study compared beta-blockers reported by pilots with the medications found by postmortem toxicology analysis of specimens received from fatal aviation accidents between 1999 and 2015. Several studies have compared drugs using the standard approach: Compare the drug found by toxicology analysis with the drug reported by the pilot. This study uniquely examined first the pilot-reported medication and then compared it to that detected by toxicology analysis. This study will serve two purposes: (i) to determine the capability of a toxicology laboratory to detect reported medications, and (ii) to identify pilots with medications below detectable limits...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036445/development-validation-and-demonstration-of-the-nthu-flight-dose-calculator
#5
An-Lun Li, Wei-Fan Pan, Rong-Jiun Sheu
Galactic cosmic-ray-induced air showers constitute the largest source of radiation exposure for aircrew and passengers. To facilitate the evaluation of effective doses received by this population, a database containing dose rates of various radiation components in the atmosphere was established; the parameterization accounted for altitude, geomagnetic rigidity and solar modulation. Energy spectra of secondary cosmic rays and effective dose rates were calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. An auxiliary MATLAB program with a graphical user interface was developed to estimate the aviation route dose through interpolation and integration...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033468/the-aviation-paradox-why-we-can-know-jetliners-but-not-reactors
#6
John Downer
Publics and policymakers increasingly have to contend with the risks of complex, safety-critical technologies, such as airframes and reactors. As such, 'technological risk' has become an important object of modern governance, with state regulators as core agents, and 'reliability assessment' as the most essential metric. The Science and Technology Studies (STS) literature casts doubt on whether or not we should place our faith in these assessments because predictively calculating the ultra-high reliability required of such systems poses seemingly insurmountable epistemological problems...
2017: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018179/exhaled-isoprene-for-monitoring-recovery-from-acute-hypoxic-stress
#7
Sean William Harshman, Brian A Geier, Anthony Qualley, Leslie A Drummond, Laura Flory, Maomian Fan, Rhonda Pitsch, Claude C Grigsby, Jeffrey B Phillips, Jennifer Martin
Hypoxia-like incidents in-flight have increased over the past decade causing severe safety concerns across the aviation community. As a result, the need to monitor flight crews in real-time for the onset of hypoxic conditions is paramount for continued aeronautical safety. Here, hypoxic events were simulated in the laboratory via a reduced oxygen-breathing device to determine the effect of recovery gas oxygen concentration (21% and 100%) on exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) composition. Data from samples collected both serially (throughout the exposure), prior to, and following exposures yielded 326 statistically significant features, 203 of which were unique...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994894/central-serous-chorioretinopathy-after-nasal-corticosteroids-in-the-aviator
#8
Samir Ben Salem, Anissa Sithom, Imed Ben Dhia, Touhami Khelifi, Habib Askri, A Ayed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994874/central-serous-chorioretinopathy-after-nasal-corticosteroids-in-the-aviator
#9
Samir Ben Salem, Anissa Sithom, Imed Ben Dhia, Touhami Khelifi, Habib Askri, Asma Ayed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992142/researching-safety-culture-deliberative-dialogue-with-a-restorative-lens
#10
Elisiane Lorenzini, Nelly D Oelke, Patricia Beryl Marck, Clarice Maria Dall'agnol
Safety culture is a key component of patient safety. Many patient safety strategies in health care have been adapted from high-reliability organizations (HRO) such as aviation. However, to date, attempts to transform the cultures of health care settings through HRO approaches have had mixed results. We propose a methodological approach for safety culture research, which integrates the theory and practice of restoration science with the principles and methods of deliberative dialogue to support active engagement in critical reflection and collective debate...
October 1, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966427/ellipsometric-measurements-of-the-thermal-stability-of-alternative-fuels
#11
Leigh Nash, Jennifer Klettlinger, Subith Vasu
Thermal stability is an important characteristic of alternative fuels that must be evaluated before they can be used in aviation engines. Thermal stability refers to the degree to which a fuel breaks down when it is heated prior to combustion. This characteristic is of great importance to the effectiveness of the fuel as a coolant and to the engine's combustion performance. The thermal stability of Sasol IPK, a synthetic alternative to Jet-A, with varying levels of naphthalene has been studied on aluminum and stainless steel substrates at 300 to 400 °C...
November 2017: Journal of Energy Resources Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964979/the-effectiveness-of-assertiveness-communication-training-programs-for-healthcare-professionals-and-students-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mieko Omura, Jane Maguire, Tracy Levett-Jones, Teresa Elizabeth Stone
BACKGROUND: Communication errors have a negative impact on patient safety. It is therefore essential that healthcare professionals have the skills and confidence to speak up assertively when patient safety is at risk. Although the facilitators to and barriers of assertive communication have been the subject of previous reviews, evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance assertive communication is lacking. Thus, this paper reports the findings from a systematic review of the effectiveness of assertiveness communication training programs for healthcare professionals and students...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963862/simulation-based-education-to-ensure-provider-competency-within-the-healthcare-system
#13
Sharon Griswold, Alise Fralliccardi, John Boulet, Tiffany Moadel, Douglas Franzen, Marc Auerbach, Danielle Hart, Varsha Goswami, Joshua Hui, James A Gordon
The acquisition and maintenance of individual competency is a critical component of effective emergency care systems. This article summarizes consensus working group deliberations and recommendations focusing on the topic: "Simulation-based education to ensure provider competency within the healthcare system." The authors presented this work for discussion and feedback at the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on ''Catalyzing System Change through Healthcare Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes,'' held on May 16, 2017, in Orlando, FL...
September 30, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952885/predictors-of-attitudes-towards-non-technical-skills-in-farming
#14
Amy Irwin, Jill Poots
OBJECTIVES: Farming is a high risk sector with up to 170,000 worldwide fatalities reported per year; it is therefore vital to identify methods of mitigating the dangers of this industry. Research within high-risk industries, such as aviation, shipping, and agriculture, has identified the importance of non-technical skills (NTS) in maintaining effective, safe performance and reducing error and injury. However, there is a lack of research evaluating factors that may contribute to NTS attitudes and behaviors...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946673/avionic-air-data-sensors-fault-detection-and-isolation-by-means-of-singular-perturbation-and-geometric-approach
#15
Paolo Castaldi, Nicola Mimmo, Silvio Simani
Singular Perturbations represent an advantageous theory to deal with systems characterized by a two-time scale separation, such as the longitudinal dynamics of aircraft which are called phugoid and short period. In this work, the combination of the NonLinear Geometric Approach and the Singular Perturbations leads to an innovative Fault Detection and Isolation system dedicated to the isolation of faults affecting the air data system of a general aviation aircraft. The isolation capabilities, obtained by means of the approach proposed in this work, allow for the solution of a fault isolation problem otherwise not solvable by means of standard geometric techniques...
September 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937615/sfol-pulse-a-high-accuracy-dme-pulse-for-alternative-aircraft-position-and-navigation
#16
Euiho Kim, Jiwon Seo
In the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) performance based navigation strategy announced in 2016, the FAA stated that it would retain and expand the Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) infrastructure to ensure resilient aircraft navigation capability during the event of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) outage. However, the main drawback of the DME as a GNSS back up system is that it requires a significant expansion of the current DME ground infrastructure due to its poor distance measuring accuracy over 100 m...
September 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931007/medical-resource-inventory-model-for-emergency-preparation-with-uncertain-demand-and-stochastic-occurrence-time-under-considering-different-risk-preferences-at-the-airport
#17
Wei Pan, Ying Guo, Lei Jin, ShuJie Liao
With the high accident rate of civil aviation, medical resource inventory becomes more important for emergency management at the airport. Meanwhile, medical products usually are time-sensitive and short lifetime. Moreover, we find that the optimal medical resource inventory depends on multiple factors such as different risk preferences, the material shelf life and so on. Thus, it becomes very complex in a real-life environment. According to this situation, we construct medical resource inventory decision model for emergency preparation at the airport...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926391/medical-team-training-improves-team-performance-aoa-critical-issues
#18
James E Carpenter, James P Bagian, Rebecca G Snider, Kyle J Jeray
Effective teamwork and communication can decrease medical errors in environments where the culture of safety is enhanced. Health care can benefit from programs that are based on teamwork, as in other high-stress industries (e.g., aviation), with crew resource management programs, simulator use, and utilization of checklists. Medical team training (MTT) with a strong leadership commitment was used at our institution to focus specifically on creating open, yet structured, communication in operating rooms. Training included the 3 phases of the World Health Organization protocol to organize communication and briefings: preoperative verification, preincision briefing, and debriefing at or near the end of the surgical case...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923147/idiopathic-syringomyelia-in-a-military-helicopter-pilot
#19
Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923145/pulmonary-effects-from-a-simulated-long-duration-mission-in-a-confined-cockpit
#20
Jeremy Beer, Todd S Dart, Joseph Fischer, James Kisner
INTRODUCTION: A recent U-2 fatigue study, in which 10 subjects completed 2 simulated long-duration missions breathing either 100% oxygen or air in a hypobaric chamber, offered an opportunity to compare subjects' pulmonary function before and after remaining seated in a confined cockpit for 12 h. METHODS: In one U-2 mission configuration, the subject wore a full pressure suit and breathed aviator's breathing oxygen while chamber pressure was maintained at 4572 m (15,000 ft) above mean sea level...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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