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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449883/production-of-2r-3r-2-3-butanediol-using-engineered-pichia-pastoris-strain-construction-characterization-and-fermentation
#1
Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
Background: 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is a bulk platform chemical with various potential applications such as aviation fuel. 2,3-BD has three optical isomers: (2R, 3R)-, (2S, 3S)- and meso-2,3-BD. Optically pure 2,3-BD is a crucial precursor for the chiral synthesis and it can also be used as anti-freeze agent due to its low freezing point. 2,3-BD has been produced in both native and non-native hosts. Several pathogenic bacteria were reported to produce 2,3-BD in mixture of its optical isomers including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449130/the-nasa-task-load-index-as-a-measure-of-overall-workload-among-neonatal-paediatric-and-adult-intensive-care-nurses
#2
Heather L Tubbs-Cooley, Constance A Mara, Adam C Carle, Ayse P Gurses
INTRODUCTION: The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a subjective workload assessment scale developed for use in aviation and increasingly applied to healthcare. The scale purports to measure overall workload as a single variable calculated by summing responses to six items. Since no data address the validity of this scoring approach in health care, we evaluated the single factor structure of the NASA-TLX as a measure of overall workload among intenisive care nurses. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis of data from two studies of nurse workload in neonatal, paediatric, and adult intensive care units...
February 12, 2018: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445419/highly-efficient-conversion-of-plant-oil-to-bio-aviation-fuel-and-valuable-chemicals-by-combination-of-enzymatic-transesterification-olefin-cross-metathesis-and-hydrotreating
#3
Meng Wang, Mojin Chen, Yunming Fang, Tianwei Tan
Background: The production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources is increasingly important due to the environmental concern and depletion of fossil fuel. Despite the fast technical development in the production of aviation fuels, there are still several shortcomings such as a high cost of raw materials, a low yield of aviation fuels, and poor process techno-economic consideration. In recent years, olefin metathesis has become a powerful and versatile tool for generating new carbon-carbon bonds...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436291/helicopter-pilots-views-of-air-traffic-controller-responsibilities-a-mismatch
#4
Daniel Martin, Jim Nixon
Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes...
February 13, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428150/equal-to-or-better-than-the-application-of-statistical-non-inferiority-to-fatigue-risk-management
#5
Amanda Lamp, Jane M C Chen, David McCullough, Gregory Belenky
In December 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) completed a major revision of the rules and regulations governing flight and duty time in commercial aviation (Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 117). Scientists were included in the revision process and provided insights into sleep, sleep loss, the circadian rhythm, and their effects on performance that were incorporated into the new rule. If a planned flight was non-compliant with the regulation, for example if it exceeded flight and duty time limits, it could only be flown under an FAA-approved Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) as meeting an Alternative Method of Compliance (AMOC)...
February 7, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425345/recurrent-central-serous-retinopathy-with-permanent-visual-loss-in-a-u-s-naval-fighter-pilot
#6
Ryan R Richmond, Matthew Rings
Central serous retinopathy (CSR) is a disease process that involves accumulation of serous fluid within the macular retina. This fluid accumulation can temporarily or permanently disrupt vision and in many patients is often a recurrent problem. This case describes recurrent CSR in an experienced U.S. Naval F/A-18 fighter pilot. The patient had been troubled by recurrent CSR for several years which required him to be removed from a flying status. After several episodes and treatment with laser photocoagulation and finasteride, the patient's vision and disease process stabilized, but with permanent defective visual acuity in the right eye...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421067/patient-safety-movement-history-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Meghan E Lark, Kay Kirkpatrick, Kevin C Chung
Despite progress within the past 15 years, improving patient safety in health care remains an important public health issue. The history of safety policies, research, and development has revealed that this issue is more complex than initially perceived and is pertinent to all health care settings. Solutions, therefore, must be approached at the systems level and supplemented with a change in safety culture, especially in higher risk fields such as surgery. To do so, health care agents at all levels have started to prioritize the improvement of nontechnical skills such as teamwork, communication, and accountability, as reflected by the development of various checklists and safety campaigns...
February 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420775/algorithm-for-management-of-the-refractive-aerosinusitis-patient
#8
Andrew G Boston, K Christopher McMains, Philip G Chen, Erik K Weitzel
Introduction: For some career military aviators, their ability to continue on flight status is limited by the pressure and pain of aerosinusitis, which is present only while in the flying environment. Failure to treat their disease process can mean the end of their flying careers and the loss of valuable assets trained with taxpayer dollars. Because some medications commonly used in treatment of sinus diseases are not allowed in aviation, this presents a unique problem for their medical management...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419283/trading-off-aircraft-fuel-burn-and-nox-emissions-for-optimal-climate-policy
#9
Sarah Freeman, David Lee, Ling Ling Lim, Agnieszka Maria Skowron, Ruben Rodriguez De Leon
Aviation emits pollutants that affect climate, including CO2 and NOx; NOx indirectly so, through the formation of tropospheric ozone and reduction of ambient methane. To improve the fuel performance of engines, combustor temperatures and pressures often increase, increasing NOx emissions. Conversely, combustor modifications to reduce NOx may increase CO2. Hence, a technology tradeoff exists, which also translates to a tradeoff between short lived climate forcers and a long-lived greenhouse gas, CO2. Moreover, the NOx-O3-CH4 system responds in a non-linear manner, according to both aviation emissions and background NOx...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414344/empirical-analysis-of-the-effect-of-descent-flight-path-angle-on-primary-gaseous-emissions-of-commercial-aircraft
#10
Enis T Turgut, Oznur Usanmaz, Marc A Rosen
In this study, the effects of descent flight path angle (between 1.25° and 4.25°) on aircraft gaseous emissions (carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides) are explored using actual flight data from aircraft flight data recording system and emissions indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization. All emissions parameters are corrected to flight conditions using Boeing Fuel Flow Method2, where the ambient air pressure, temperature and humidity data are obtained from long-term radiosonde data measured close to the arrival airport...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411612/aviation-related-impacts-on-ultrafine-particle-number-concentrations-outside-and-inside-residences-near-an-airport
#11
N Hudda, M C Simon, W Zamore, J L Durant
Jet engine exhaust is a significant source of ultrafine particles and aviation-related emissions can adversely impact air quality over large areas surrounding airports. We investigated outdoor and indoor ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC) from 16 residences located in two study areas in the greater Boston metropolitan area (MA, USA) for evidence of aviation-related impacts. During winds from the direction of Logan International Airport, that is, impact-sector winds, an increase in outdoor and indoor PNC was clearly evident at all seven residences in the Chelsea study area (∼4-5 km from the airport) and three out of nine residences in the Boston study area (∼5-6 km from the airport); the median increase during impact-sector winds compared to other winds was 1...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402220/design-of-a-novel-multifunction-decision-support-display-for-anesthesia-care-alertwatch%C3%A2-or
#12
Kevin K Tremper, Jenny J Mace, Jan M Gombert, Theodore T Tremper, Justin F Adams, James P Bagian
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the design of a multifunction alerting display for intraoperative anesthetic care. The design was inspired by the multifunction primary flight display used in modern aviation. RESULTS: The display retrieves live data from multiple sources; the physiologic monitors, the anesthesia information management system, the laboratory values and comorbidities from patient's problem summary list, medical history or history & physical. This information is integrated into a display composed of readily identifiable icons of organ systems, which are color coded to signify normal range, marginal range, abnormal range (by green, yellow, red respectively) and orange outlines for comorbidities/risk factors...
February 5, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399730/postmortem-radiological-case-series-of-acetabular-fractures-after-fatal-aviation-accidents
#13
Henri M de Bakker, Melanie Tijsterman, Bela Kubat, Vidija Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Rick R van Rijn, Bernadette S de Bakker
The purpose of this study was to describe radiological fracture patterns of the acetabulum sustained after fatal small aircraft aviation accidents, aiming at facilitating a better understanding of trauma mechanisms in a forensic setting. Postmortem conventional radiographs or CT scans of 29 victims of 20 small aircraft aviation accidents were analyzed for skeletal acetabular trauma. Among the 29 fatalities (27 males and 2 females, median age 55 years (range: 21-76 years)), 20 victims had pelvic fractures (69%), of which 19 victims (66%) had one or more acetabular fractures...
February 5, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394872/design-for-patient-safety-a-systems-based-risk-identification-framework
#14
M C Emre Simsekler, James R Ward, P John Clarkson
Current risk identification practices applied to patient safety in healthcare are insufficient. The situation can be improved, however, by studying systems approaches broadly and successfully utilised in other safety-critical industries, such as aviation and chemical industries. To illustrate this, this paper first investigates current risk identification practices in the healthcare field, and then examines the potential of systems approaches. A systems-based approach, called the Risk Identification Framework (RID Framework), is then developed to enhance improvement in risk identification...
February 2, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386715/aeromedical-solutions-for-aerospace-safety
#15
Pawan Kapoor, Deepak Gaur
All facets of activity in the speciality of Aviation Medicine are essentially aimed at enhancing aerospace safety. This paper highlights some innovative changes brought about by Aerospace Medicine in the three major fields of the speciality namely, medical evaluation, aeromedical training and research. Based on lab and field studies, military aircrew are now permitted flying with Modifinil as 'Go' Pill and Zolpidem as 'No-Go' Pill during sustained operations. Several other drugs for disabilities like Hypertension and CAD are now permitted for aviators...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376780/the-theatre-cockpit-lessons-from-aviation
#16
Adrian Jones, John Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365191/vape-and-aviate-electronic-cigarette-use-and-misuse-in-naval-aviation
#17
Matthew T Hall, Ryan P Austin, Tai A Do, Andrea McGlynn
Electronic cigarettes (EC) are an emerging form of nicotine replacement that has had a discernible increase in prevalence in the general population. Little is known regarding EC use among different military demographic groups or the extent of influence that social determinants of health may have on the behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of EC use in a select population of active duty U.S. Naval personnel. This study is unique in that it allows for EC behavior comparison between a traditionally healthy demographic (aviators, a subset of aircrew) and a representative general military population sample...
January 20, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362394/improvement-in-creep-life-of-a-nickel-based-single-crystal-superalloy-via-composition-homogeneity-on-the-multiscales-by-magnetic-field-assisted-directional-solidification
#18
Weili Ren, Chunlin Niu, Biao Ding, Yunbo Zhong, Jianbo Yu, Zhongming Ren, Wenqing Liu, Liangpu Ren, Peter K Liaw
The improvement of the creep properties of single-crystal superalloys is always strongly motivated by the vast growing demand from the aviation, aerospace, and gas engine. In this study, a static magnetic-field-assisted solidification process significantly improves the creep life of single-crystal superalloys. The mechanism originates from an increase in the composition homogeneity on the multiscales, which further decreases the lattice misfit of γ/γ' phases and affects the phase precipitation. The phase-precipitation change is reflected as the decrease in the γ' size and the contents of carbides and γ/γ' eutectic, which can be further verified by the variation of the cracks number and raft thickness near the fracture surface...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349039/engineering-escherichia-coli-for-the-production-of-terpene-mixture-enriched-in-caryophyllene-and-caryophyllene-alcohol-as-potential-aviation-fuel-compounds
#19
Weihua Wu, Fang Liu, Ryan W Davis
Recent studies have revealed that caryophyllene and its stereoisomers not only exhibit multiple biological activities but also have desired properties as renewable candidates for ground transportation and jet fuel applications. This study presents the first significant production of caryophyllene and caryolan-1-ol by an engineered E. coli with heterologous expression of mevalonate pathway genes with a caryophyllene synthase and a caryolan-1-ol synthase. By optimizing metabolic flux and fermentation parameters, the engineered strains yielded 449 mg/L of total terpene, including 406 mg/L sesquiterpene with 100 mg/L caryophyllene and 10 mg/L caryolan-1-ol...
June 2018: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#20
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
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