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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233243/pilot-mental-health-negative-life-events-and-improving-safety-with-peer-support-and-a-just-culture
#1
Sanne Mulder, Diederik de Rooy
BACKGROUND: In the last 35 yr, 17 commercial aviation accidents and incidents, with 576 fatalities, could likely have been attributed to mental disease of a pilot. Screening tools for mental health risks in airline pilots are needed. There is growing interest in pilot peer-support programs and how to incorporate them in a just culture, meaning that pilots can report mental health complaints without a risk of job or income loss. We combined findings from aviation accidents and incidents with a search of scientific literature to provide data-based recommendations for screening, peer-support, and a just culture approach to mental health problems...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228515/aging-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-european-hems-pilots-an-assessment-of-occupational-old-age-limits-as-a-regulatory-risk-management-strategy
#2
Hans Bauer, Dennis Nowak, Britta Herbig
Old-age limits are imposed in some occupations in an effort to ensure public safety. In aviation, the "Age 60 Rule" limits permissible flight operations conducted by pilots aged 60 and over. Using a retrospective cohort design, we assessed this rule's validity by comparing age-related change rates of cardiometabolic incapacitation risk markers in European helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) pilots near age 60 with those in younger pilots. Specifically, individual clinical, laboratory, and electrocardiogram (ECG)-based risk markers and an overall cardiovascular event risk score were determined from aeromedical examination records of 66 German, Austrian, Polish, and Czech HEMS pilots (average follow-up 8...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212841/hyperbaric-oxygen-pretreatment-benefits-on-decompression-sickness-in-bama-pigs
#3
Long Qing, Hong-Jie Yi, Ye-Wei Wang, Quan Zhou, Dinesh K Ariyadewa, Wei-Gang Xu
Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when ambient pressure severely reduces during diving and aviation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) pretreatment has been proven to exert beneficial effects on DCS in rats via heat-shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesize that HBO pretreatment will also reduce DCS via HSPs in swine models. In part 1, six swine were subjected to a session of HBO treatment. HSP 32, 60, 70 and 90 were detected, before and at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 h following exposure in lymphocytes. In part 2, another ten swine were randomly assigned into 2 groups, 5 in each...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210756/the-survey-checklist-manifesto
#4
Hunter Gehlbach, Anthony R Artino
Checklists can mitigate a multitude of high-cost mistakes in fields ranging from surgery to aviation. As part of a standard protocol, checklists may provide many benefits, including improved equity and communication among team members and more efficient integration of different processes during complex tasks. Mostly, though, checklists serve as easy, efficient means to remind professionals of what they already know but can easily forget. By improving processes, checklists can reduce procedural errors, miscommunications, and even deaths...
November 28, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193997/predicting-airport-screening-officers-visual-search-competency-with-a-rapid-assessment
#5
Stephen R Mitroff, Justin M Ericson, Benjamin Sharpe
Objective The study's objective was to assess a new personnel selection and assessment tool for aviation security screeners. A mobile app was modified to create a tool, and the question was whether it could predict professional screeners' on-job performance. Background A variety of professions (airport security, radiology, the military, etc.) rely on visual search performance-being able to detect targets. Given the importance of such professions, it is necessary to maximize performance, and one means to do so is to select individuals who excel at visual search...
November 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192612/aviation-noise-impacts-state-of-the-science
#6
REVIEW
Mathias Basner, Charlotte Clark, Anna Hansell, James I Hileman, Sabine Janssen, Kevin Shepherd, Victor Sparrow
Noise is defined as "unwanted sound." Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children's learning, sleep disturbance, and health...
March 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184137/potential-ash-impact-from-antarctic-volcanoes-insights-from-deception-island-s-most-recent-eruption
#7
A Geyer, A Marti, S Giralt, A Folch
Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions may disperse over vast areas of the globe posing a threat to human health and infrastructures and causing significant disruption to air traffic. In Antarctica, at least five volcanoes have reported historic activity. However, no attention has been paid to the potential socio-economic and environmental consequences of an ash-forming eruption occurring at high southern latitudes. This work shows how ash from Antarctic volcanoes may pose a higher threat than previously believed...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175087/iso-risk-air-no-decompression-limits-after-scoring-marginal-decompression-sickness-cases-as-non-events
#8
F Gregory Murphy, Ashleigh J Swingler, Wayne A Gerth, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) in humans is associated with reductions in ambient pressure that occur during diving, aviation, or certain manned spaceflight operations. Its signs and symptoms can include, but are not limited to, joint pain, radiating abdominal pain, paresthesia, dyspnea, general malaise, cognitive dysfunction, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and death. Probabilistic models of DCS allow the probability of DCS incidence and time of occurrence during or after a given hyperbaric or hypobaric exposure to be predicted based on how the gas contents or gas bubble volumes vary in hypothetical tissue compartments during the exposure...
November 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174807/impact-of-hydration-and-nutrition-on-personal-performance-in-the-clinical-workplace
#9
REVIEW
D Parry, R S Oeppen, H Gass, P A Brennan
As clinicians we sometimes fail to look after ourselves at work. We often do not drink enough during the day or miss lunch breaks while caring for patients, and this can be particularly evident during an all-day operating list when procedures are long and complex. Some operating theatre staff do not even eat breakfast regularly. Inadequate intake of fluids or nutrition can impair performance, lead to tiredness and headaches, and may compromise both our own health and the care we provide to patients. Other high-risk organisations, including aviation, have recognised that employees must look after themselves if they are to optimise their performance...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163278/can-limitations-of-visuospatial-attention-be-circumvented-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Basil Wahn, Peter König
In daily life, humans are bombarded with visual input. Yet, their attentional capacities for processing this input are severely limited. Several studies have investigated factors that influence these attentional limitations and have identified methods to circumvent them. Here, we provide a review of these findings. We first review studies that have demonstrated limitations of visuospatial attention and investigated physiological correlates of these limitations. We then review studies in multisensory research that have explored whether limitations in visuospatial attention can be circumvented by distributing information processing across several sensory modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157771/situational-awareness-in-critical-care-an-aviation-approach-to-reduce-error
#11
Adrian C Rodriguez, Darrell A Lee, Mary Beth Flynn Makic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157343/cross-sectional-analysis-of-commonly-prescribed-medications-in-military-aviation
#12
Lincoln G Ropp, Sean P Haight, Michael B Prudhomme, Elizabeth L Ropp
BACKGROUND: Medication use by naval aviators, either prescription or over-the-counter, is not always relayed to the flight surgeon, resulting in unsafe flying environments. Many medications have debilitating effects that prohibit their use during aviation. Education and availability of resources on approved medications for flight status personnel is lacking. METHODS: A retrospective search of the Department of Defense Composite Health Care System (DoD CHCS) was conducted from five geographic locations...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157341/glaucoma-in-u-s-civil-aviation-2005-2014
#13
Charles A DeJohn, William D Mills
INTRODUCTION: Until recently, glaucoma requiring treatment was disqualifying for U.S. pilots and required an aeromedical special issuance waiver. Since 2013 Aerospace Medical Examiners (AMEs) have been authorized to evaluate third-class pilots with mild glaucoma using similar protocols and issue medical certificates without a waiver if these criteria specified in the AME Guide are met. METHODS: The FAA's medical database was searched for pilots with glaucoma between 2005 and 2014...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157340/mindful-application-of-aviation-practices-in-healthcare
#14
Nicole Powell-Dunford, Peter A Brennan, Mohammad Farhad Peerally, Narinder Kapur, Jonny M Hynes, Peter D Hodkinson
INTRODUCTION: Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157334/in-flight-decision-making-by-general-aviation-pilots-operating-in-areas-of-extreme-thunderstorms
#15
Douglas D Boyd
BACKGROUND: General aviation (comprised mainly of noncommercial, light aircraft) accounts for 94% of civil aviation fatalities in the United States. Although thunderstorms are hazardous to light aircraft, little research has been undertaken on in-flight pilot decision-making regarding their avoidance. The study objectives were: 1) to determine if the thunderstorm accident rate has declined over the last two decades; and 2) assess in-flight (enroute/landing) airman decision-making regarding adherence to FAA separation minima from thunderstorms...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136055/skin-cancer-in-military-pilots-a-special-population-with-special-risk-factors
#16
Bart D Wilkison, Emily B Wong
Military pilots may be at greater risk for skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Military-specific studies are limited, but skin cancer rates in civilian pilots and aircrews have previously been examined. Risk factors for all pilots may include exposure to UV radiation (UVR) at higher altitudes, cosmic radiation, and electromagnetic energy from cockpit instruments, as well as altered sleep-wake cycles. The study of aviation-specific risk factors for skin cancer is relevant to all pilots and dermatologists who care for them...
October 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129601/on-chip-signal-amplification-of-magnetic-bead-based-immunoassay-by-aviating-magnetic-bead-chains
#17
Uddin M Jalal, Gyeong Jun Jin, Kyu Shik Eom, Min Ho Kim, Joon S Shim
In this work, a Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform is used to electromagnetically actuate magnetic bead chains for an enhanced immunoassay. Custom-made electromagnets generate a magnetic field to form, rotate, lift and lower the magnetic bead chains (MBCs). The cost-effective, disposable LOC platform was made with a polymer substrate and an on-chip electrochemical sensor patterned via the screen-printing process. The movement of the MBCs is controlled to improve the electrochemical signal up to 230% when detecting beta-type human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG)...
November 6, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120515/the-effects-of-crew-resource-management-on-teamwork-and-safety-climate-at-veterans-health-administration-facilities
#18
Miriam E Schwartz, Deborah E Welsh, Douglas E Paull, Regina S Knowles, Lori D DeLeeuw, Robin R Hemphill, Keith E Essen, Gary L Sculli
Communication failure is a significant source of adverse events in health care and a leading root cause of sentinel events reported to the Joint Commission. The Veterans Health Administration National Center for Patient Safety established Clinical Team Training (CTT) as a comprehensive program to enhance patient safety and to improve communication and teamwork among health care professionals. CTT is based on techniques used in aviation's Crew Resource Management (CRM) training. The aviation industry has reached a significant safety record in large part related to the culture change generated by CRM and sustained by its recurrent implementation...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096518/the-truncated-conjugate-gradient-tcg-a-non-iterative-fixed-cost-strategy-for-computing-polarization-in-molecular-dynamics-fast-evaluation-of-analytical-forces
#19
Félix Aviat, Louis Lagardère, Jean-Philip Piquemal
In a recent paper [F. Aviat et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 13, 180-190 (2017)], we proposed the Truncated Conjugate Gradient (TCG) approach to compute the polarization energy and forces in polarizable molecular simulations. The method consists in truncating the conjugate gradient algorithm at a fixed predetermined order leading to a fixed computational cost and can thus be considered "non-iterative." This gives the possibility to derive analytical forces avoiding the usual energy conservation (i.e., drifts) issues occurring with iterative approaches...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094402/black-swans-cognition-and-the-power-of-learning-from-failure
#20
Allison S Catalano, Kent Redford, Richard Margoluis, Andrew T Knight
Failure carries undeniable stigma and is difficult to confront for individuals, teams, and organizations. Disciplines such as commercial and military aviation, medicine, and business have long histories of grappling with it, beginning with the recognition that failure is inevitable in every human endeavor. While conservation may arguably be more complex, conservation professionals can draw upon the research and experience of these other disciplines to institutionalize activities and attitudes that foster learning from failures, whether they are minor setbacks or major disasters...
November 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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