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Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Yumi Lee, Sang Hwa Song, Taesu Cheong
In this paper, we examine a real-world case related to the consumer product supply chain to analyze the value of supply chain coordination under the condition of moral hazard. Because of the characteristics of a buyback contract scheme employed in the supply chain, the supplier company's sales department encourages retailers to order more inventory to meet their sales target, whereas retailers pay less attention to their inventory level and leftovers at the end of the season. This condition induces moral hazard problems in the operation of the supply chain, as suppliers suffer from huge returns of leftover inventory...
2018: PloS One
Ellen Carr
Some consider spring the preparation for summer, a dress rehearsal for the primary season of high expectations to recharge. But spring for oncology nurses means coming together at the annual Oncology Nursing Society Congress.
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Alisa L Gallant, Walt Sadinski, Jesslyn F Brown, Gabriel B Senay, Mark F Roth
Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km² landscape blocks...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Amber D Tripodi, James P Strange
Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
Jimena López-Arrabé, Pat Monaghan, Alejandro Cantarero, Winnie Boner, Lorenzo Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan Moreno
Oxidative stress can contribute to an acceleration of telomere erosion, leading to cellular senescence and aging. Increased investment in reproduction is known to accelerate senescence, generally resulting in reduced future reproductive potential and survival. To better understand the role played by oxidative status and telomere dynamics in the conflict between maintenance and reproduction, it is important to determine how these factors are related in parents and their offspring. We investigated the relationship between oxidative status and telomere measurements in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca)...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Brodie Pearson, Baylor Fox-Kemper
Data from turbulent numerical simulations of the global ocean demonstrate that the dissipation of kinetic energy obeys a nearly log-normal distribution even at large horizontal scales O(10  km). As the horizontal scales of resolved turbulence are larger than the ocean is deep, the Kolmogorov-Yaglom theory for intermittency in 3D homogeneous, isotropic turbulence cannot apply; instead, the down-scale potential enstrophy cascade of quasigeostrophic turbulence should. Yet, energy dissipation obeys approximate log-normality-robustly across depths, seasons, regions, and subgrid schemes...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Stefanie Lutz, Jenine McCutcheon, James B McQuaid, Liane G Benning
The Arctic is being disproportionally affected by climate change compared with other geographic locations, and is currently experiencing unprecedented melt rates. The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be regarded as the largest supraglacial ecosystem on Earth, and ice algae are the dominant primary producers on bare ice surfaces throughout the course of a melt season. Ice-algal-derived pigments cause a darkening of the ice surface, which in turn decreases albedo and increases melt rates. The important role of ice algae in changing melt rates has only recently been recognized, and we currently know little about their community compositions and functions...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Maryam Dastoorpoor, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Narges Khanjani, Esmaeil Idani, Hamidreza Aghababaeian, Abbas Bahrampour
OBJECTIVES: There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac death in the Middle East. This study aimed to investigate the relation between air pollutants and cardiovascular mortality (based on ICD-10) in Ahvaz. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this ecological study, the data about cardiovascular disease mortality and air pollutants from March 2008 until March 2015 was inquired from the Ahvaz City Authority and the Khuzestan Province Environmental Protection Agency...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Jie Liu, Yi Song, Xiaoguang Lu, Tuo Chen, Wenxiu Guo, Zhiwei Fan, Xin Kang, Yu Wang, Yi Wang
Recently, several studies have indicated that the intestinal microbiota can be regulated by the individual attributes, and even the alternation of circadian rhythm. Inspired by this, we speculated that seasonal variation might also have some effect on the intestinal microbiota. A total of 11 Sprague-Dawley male rats, weighing 250-280 g, were divided into summer group (n = 5) and winter group (n = 6). Cages were individually ventilated at 20 ± 2 °C and 45-65% relative humidity with a circadian rhythm of 12/12 h...
March 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Dipesh Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Zhiyuan Cong, Lekhendra Tripathee, Arnico K Panday, Brent N Holben
For the first time, aerosol optical properties are measured over Lumbini, Nepal, with CIMEL sunphotometer of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program. Lumbini is a sacred place as the birthplace of Lord Buddha, and thus a UNESCO world heritage site, located near the northern edge of the central Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and before the Himalayan foothills (and Himalayas) to its north. Average aerosol optical depth (AOD) is found to be 0.64 ± 0.38 (0.06-3.28) over the sampling period (January 2013-December 2014), with the highest seasonal AOD during the post-monsoon season (0...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Claudia Di Napoli, Florian Pappenberger, Hannah L Cloke
In this work, the potential of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as a heat-related health risk indicator in Europe is demonstrated. The UTCI is a bioclimate index that uses a multi-node human heat balance model to represent the heat stress induced by meteorological conditions to the human body. Using 38 years of meteorological reanalysis data, UTCI maps were computed to assess the thermal bioclimate of Europe for the summer season. Patterns of heat stress conditions and non-thermal stress regions are identified across Europe...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Sarah Freitas Magalhães, Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Gerardo Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Ramón Mazzucchelli, Natalia Crespí-Villarías, Elia Pérez-Fernández, María Luz Durbán Reguera, Olalla Guzón Illescas, Javier Quirós, Alberto García-Vadillo, Loreto Carmona, Gil Rodriguez-Caravaca, Angel Gil de Miguel
Our aim was to analyze the seasonality and the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in a Southern European region. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work is to evaluate seasonality and the effect of weather conditions on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fracture in a Southern European region. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients admitted to Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital with a diagnosis of osteoporotic hip fracture between the years 1999 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Sangmin Lee, Amy Metcalfe, Maitreyi Raman, Yvette Leung, Fariba Aghajafari, Nicole Letourneau, Remo Panaccione, Gilaad G Kaplan, Cynthia H Seow
Background and Aims: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease, as well as in pregnant women; however, the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant women with IBD is unknown. This study assessed the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant women with IBD and the adequacy of recommended supplementation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease=61, ulcerative colitis=41) and without inflammatory bowel disease (n=574)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Ben Lopman, Rebecca Dahl, Minesh Shah, Umesh D Parashar
Rotavirus vaccines were introduced in the United States in 2006 and in the subsequent years have fundamentally altered seasonality and shifted disease from annual to biennial epidemics. We investigated whether season and year of birth have emerged as risk factors for rotavirus and affected vaccine performance. We constructed a retrospective birth cohort of US children <5 years using the 2001-2014 MarketScan Database. We evaluated the assocations of season of birth, even/odd year of birth and interactions with vaccination...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ling-Zhen Cao, Xiao-Wei Fu, Chao-Xing Hu, Kong-Ming Wu
Pantala flavescens (Fabricius 1798) (Odonata: Libellulidae) is one of the most common species of migratory dragonflies. P. flavescens adults were captured by a searchlight trap on Beihuang Island (BH Island; 38°24'N, 120°55'E) from 2003 to 2016, where there is no freshwater. This inspired our research to analyze the pattern of seasonal migration and population dynamics. Stable hydrogen isotope measurement and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) were used to simulate the migration pathway of P...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Andrea Raponi, Maria Cristina De Sanctis, Alessandro Frigeri, Eleonora Ammannito, Mauro Ciarniello, Michelangelo Formisano, Jean-Philippe Combe, Gianfranco Magni, Federico Tosi, Filippo Giacomo Carrozzo, Sergio Fonte, Marco Giardino, Steven P Joy, Carol A Polanskey, Marc D Rayman, Fabrizio Capaccioni, Maria Teresa Capria, Andrea Longobardo, Ernesto Palomba, Francesca Zambon, Carol A Raymond, Christopher T Russell
The dwarf planet Ceres is known to host a considerable amount of water in its interior, and areas of water ice were detected by the Dawn spacecraft on its surface. Moreover, sporadic water and hydroxyl emissions have been observed from space telescopes. We report the detection of water ice in a mid-latitude crater and its unexpected variation with time. The Dawn spectrometer data show a change of water ice signatures over a period of 6 months, which is well modeled as ~2-km2 increase of water ice. The observed increase, coupled with Ceres' orbital parameters, points to an ongoing process that seems correlated with solar flux...
March 2018: Science Advances
Heinz-Josef Koch, Kerrin Trimpler, Anna Jacobs, Nicol Stockfisch
In Europe, the framework for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers' survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ken Matsui, Makoto Ozawa, Maki Kiso, Makoto Yamashita, Toshihiko Maekawa, Minoru Kubota, Sumio Sugano, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. The emergence of viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel inhibitors underlines the need for alternate anti-influenza drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Here, we report the discovery of a host factor as a potential target of anti-influenza drugs. By using cell-based virus replication screening of a chemical library and several additional assays, we identified clonidine as a new anti-influenza agent in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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