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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199860/a-qualitative-study-of-factors-impacting-accessing-of-institutional-delivery-care-in-the-context-of-india-s-cash-incentive-program
#1
Sukumar Vellakkal, Hanimi Reddy, Adyya Gupta, Anil Chandran, Jasmine Fledderjohann, David Stuckler
Not all eligible women use the available services under India's Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides cash incentives to encourage pregnant women to use institutional care for childbirth; limited evidence exists on demand-side factors associated with low program uptake. This study explores the views of women and ASHAs (community health workers) on the use of the JSY and institutional delivery care facilities. In-depth qualitative interviews, carried out in September-November 2013, were completed in the local language by trained interviewers with 112 participants consisting of JSY users/non-users and ASHAs in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167511/incentive-based-intervention-to-maintain-breastfeeding-among-low-income-puerto-rican-mothers
#2
Yukiko Washio, Mara Humphreys, Elisa Colchado, Maria Sierra-Ortiz, Zugui Zhang, Bradley N Collins, Linda M Kilby, Donna J Chapman, Stephan T Higgins, Kimberly C Kirby
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite maternal and child health benefits, breastfeeding rates are relatively low among low-income Puerto Rican mothers. This study examined the hypothesis that monthly financial incentives would significantly increase the proportion of breastfeeding mothers at 6 months postpartum compared with Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services only among Puerto Rican mothers. METHODS: A randomized, 2-arm parallel-group design, from February 2015 through February 2016...
February 6, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167339/poverty-and-perceived-stress-evidence-from-two-unconditional-cash-transfer-programs-in-zambia
#3
Lisa Hjelm, Sudhanshu Handa, Jacobus de Hoop, Tia Palermo
INTRODUCTION: Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. METHOD: Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months...
January 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113913/low-power-8-channel-eeg-recorder-and-seizure-detector-asic-for-a-subdermal-implantable-system
#4
Bruno G Do Valle, Sydney S Cash, Charles G Sodini
EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients who have infrequent seizures. These systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition cannot be given. This work aims to address this need by proposing a subdermal implantable, eight-channel EEG recorder and seizure detector that has two modes of operation: diagnosis and seizure counting...
April 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107221/cash-vs-food-assistance-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-tanzania-a-randomized-trial
#5
Sandra I McCoy, Prosper F Njau, Carolyn Fahey, Ntuli Kapologwe, Suneetha Kadiyala, Nicholas P Jewell, William H Dow, Nancy S Padian
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of short-term cash and food assistance to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in care among people living with HIV in Tanzania. METHODS: At three clinics, 805 participants were randomized to three groups in a 3 : 3 : 1 ratio, stratified by site : nutrition assessment and counseling (NAC) and cash transfers (∼$11/month, n = 347), NAC and food baskets (n = 345), and NAC-only (comparison group, n = 113, clinicaltrials...
January 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105955/small-rna-profiles-in-soybean-primary-root-tips-under-water-deficit
#6
Yun Zheng, Vandana Hivrale, Xiaotuo Zhang, Babu Valliyodan, Christine Lelandais-Brière, Andrew D Farmer, Gregory D May, Martin Crespi, Henry T Nguyen, Ramanjulu Sunkar
BACKGROUND: Soybean (Glycine max) production is significantly hampered by frequent droughts in many regions of the world including the United States. Identifying microRNA (miRNA)-controlled posttranscriptional gene regulation under drought will enhance our understanding of molecular basis of drought tolerance in this important cash crop. Indeed, miRNA profiles in soybean exposed to drought were studied but not from the primary root tips, which is not only a main zone of water uptake but also critical for water stress sensing and signaling...
December 5, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086856/the-addition-of-a-sagittal-image-fusion-improves-the-prostate-cancer-detection-in-a-sensor-based-mri-ultrasound-fusion-guided-targeted-biopsy
#7
Karsten Günzel, Hannes Cash, John Buckendahl, Maximilian Königbauer, Patrick Asbach, Matthias Haas, Jörg Neymeyer, Stefan Hinz, Kurt Miller, Carsten Kempkensteffen
BACKGROUND: To explore the diagnostic benefit of an additional image fusion of the sagittal plane in addition to the standard axial image fusion, using a sensor-based MRI/US fusion platform. METHODS: During July 2013 and September 2015, 251 patients with at least one suspicious lesion on mpMRI (rated by PI-RADS) were included into the analysis. All patients underwent MRI/US targeted biopsy (TB) in combination with a 10 core systematic prostate biopsy (SB). All biopsies were performed on a sensor-based fusion system...
January 13, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018988/gsk249320-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-the-axon-outgrowth-inhibition-molecule-myelin-associated-glycoprotein-improves-outcome-of-rodents-with-experimental-stroke
#8
Diana Cash, Alanna C Easton, Michel Mesquita, John Beech, Steve Williams, Andrew Lloyd, Elaine Irving, Steven C Cramer
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is an inhibitor of axon growth. MAG levels increase after stroke. GSK249320 is a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes MAG-mediated inhibition and so may promote axon outgrowth and improve post-stroke outcomes. The current study tested the hypothesis that GSK249320 initiated 24 hours or 7 days after experimental stroke improves behavioural outcomes. Rats with right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes were randomized to receive 6 weeks of intravenous (a) GSK249320 starting 24 hours post-stroke, (b) GSK249320 starting 7 days post-stroke, or (c) vehicle...
2016: J Neurol Exp Neurosci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997571/assessing-the-impact-of-u-s-food-assistance-delivery-policies-on-child-mortality-in-northern-kenya
#9
Alex Nikulkov, Christopher B Barrett, Andrew G Mude, Lawrence M Wein
The U.S. is the main country in the world that delivers its food assistance primarily via transoceanic shipments of commodity-based in-kind food. This approach is costlier and less timely than cash-based assistance, which includes cash transfers, food vouchers, and local and regional procurement, where food is bought in or nearby the recipient country. The U.S.'s approach is exacerbated by a requirement that half of its transoceanic food shipments need to be sent on U.S.-flag vessels. We estimate the effect of these U...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984406/correlates-of-interorganizational-relationship-strategies-among-critical-access-hospitals
#10
Larry R Hearld, Nathaniel W Carroll, Kristine R Hearld, William Opoku-Agyeman
BACKGROUND: Interorganizational relationships (IORs) between hospitals and other health care providers have many potential benefits for critical access hospitals (CAHs) that operate in resource-constrained environments. Given the potential benefits of IORs, especially for CAHs, it is important to identify the conditions that support or hinder IOR development. However, most research examining IORs isolates individual types of relationships while ignoring the practical reality that many hospitals participate in a portfolio of relationships simultaneously...
December 15, 2016: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982370/conditional-cash-transfer-programs-and-the-health-and-nutrition-of-latin-american-children
#11
Sofia Segura-Pérez, Rubén Grajeda, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Objective: To 1) describe the benefits, conditions, coverage, funding, goals, governance, and structure of well-established conditional cash transfer programs (CCTs) in Latin America and 2) identify their health and nutritional impacts among children under 5 years old. Methods: A realist review was conducted. CCTs were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: 1) current national-level program; 2) coverage of at least 50% of the target population; 3) continuous operation at scale for 10+ years; 4) clear description of structure, funding sources, and governance; 5) both health/nutrition- and education-related conditions for participation; and 6) available impact evaluation studies with health, development, and/or nutrition indicators among children under 5 years old...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957387/pests-diseases-and-crop-protection-practices-in-the-smallholder-sweetpotato-production-system-of-the-highlands-of-papua-new-guinea
#12
Geoff M Gurr, Jian Liu, Anne C Johnson, Deane N Woruba, Gunnar Kirchhof, Ryosuke Fujinuma, William Sirabis, Yapo Jeffery, Ramakrishna Akkinapally
Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatans) is a food crop of global significance. The storage roots and foliage of crop are attacked by a wide range of pests and diseases. Whilst these are generally well controlled in developed countries using approaches such as clean planting material and monitoring with pheromone traps to guide insecticide use, research into methods suitable for developing countries has lagged. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), sweetpotato is grown extensively as a subsistence crop and commercial production as a cash crop is developing...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917765/safeguarding-maternal-and-child-health-in-south-africa-by-starting-the-child-support-grant-before-birth-design-lessons-from-pregnancy-support-programmes-in-27-countries
#13
M F Chersich, S Luchters, D Blaauw, F Scorgie, E Kern, A Van den Heever, H Rees, E Peach, S Kharadi, S Fonn
BACKGROUND: Deprivation during pregnancy and the neonatal period increases maternal morbidity, reduces birth weight and impairs child development, with lifelong consequences. Many poor countries provide grants to mitigate the impact of poverty during pregnancy. South Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support during pregnancy, informed by lessons learnt from similar grants. OBJECTIVES: To review design and operational features of pregnancy support programmes, highlighting features that promote their effectiveness and efficiency, and implications thereof for SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885775/the-coffee-leaf-rust-pathogen-hemileia-vastatrix-one-and-a-half-centuries-around-the-tropics
#14
Pedro Talhinhas, Dora Batista, Inês Diniz, Ana Vieira, Diogo N Silva, Andreia Loureiro, Sílvia Tavares, Ana Paula Pereira, Helena G Azinheira, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Vítor Várzea, Maria do Céu Silva
Taxonomy and history: Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Broome (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) was described in 1869 in Eastern Africa and Ceylon as the agent of Coffee Leaf Rust and spread to all coffee cultivation areas worldwide. Major disease outbreaks in Asia, Africa and America caused and continue to cause severe yield losses, making this the most important disease of Arabica coffee, a cash crop for many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Life cycle and disease symptoms: Hemileia vastatrix is a hemicyclic fungus with the urediniosporic life cycle as its most important (if not only) source of inoculum...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#15
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859327/conditional-and-unconditional-cash-transfers-to-improve-use-of-contraception-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#16
M E Khan, Avishek Hazra, Aastha Kant, Moazzam Ali
This systematic review synthesizes evidence on the impact of conditional and unconditional cash transfers (CCT and UCT) on contraception in low- and middle-income countries. Scientific and gray literature databases were searched from 1994 to 2016 and 11 papers from ten studies were included. Most of the studies had low risk of bias. Cash transfers were used for increasing school attendance or improving health and nutrition, but not directly for contraception. Three studies showed positive impact on contraceptive use and four showed a decrease in fertility outcomes...
December 2016: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859313/paying-for-performance-to-improve-the-delivery-and-uptake-of-family-planning-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#17
Claire Blacklock, Ekelechi MacPepple, Setor Kunutsor, Sophie Witter
Paying for performance is a strategy to meet the unmet need for family planning in low and middle income countries; however, rigorous evidence on effectiveness is lacking. Scientific databases and grey literature were searched from 1994 to May 2016. Thirteen studies were included. Payments were linked to units of targeted services, usually modified by quality indicators. Ancillary components and payment indicators differed between studies. Results were mixed for family planning outcome measures. Paying for performance was associated with improved modern family planning use in one study, and increased user and coverage rates in two more...
December 2016: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833805/whole-brain-ex-vivo-quantitative-mri-of-the-cuprizone-mouse-model
#18
Tobias C Wood, Camilla Simmons, Samuel A Hurley, Anthony C Vernon, Joel Torres, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Steve C R Williams, Diana Cash
Myelin is a critical component of the nervous system and a major contributor to contrast in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. However, the precise contribution of myelination to multiple MR modalities is still under debate. The cuprizone mouse is a well-established model of demyelination that has been used in several MR studies, but these have often imaged only a single slice and analysed a small region of interest in the corpus callosum. We imaged and analyzed the whole brain of the cuprizone mouse ex-vivo using high-resolution quantitative MR methods (multi-component relaxometry, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and morphometry) and found changes in multiple regions, including the corpus callosum, cerebellum, thalamus and hippocampus...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821498/established-t-cell-inflamed-tumors-rejected-after-adaptive-resistance-was-reversed-by-combination-sting-activation-and-pd-1-pathway-blockade
#19
Ellen Moore, Paul E Clavijo, Ruth Davis, Harrison Cash, Carter Van Waes, Young Kim, Clint Allen
Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma harbor T cell-inflamed and non-T cell-inflamed tumors. Despite this, only 20% of patients respond to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. Lack of induction of innate immunity through pattern-recognition receptors, such as the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) receptor, may represent a significant barrier to the development of effective antitumor immunity. Here, we demonstrate robust control of a T cell-inflamed (MOC1), but not non-T cell-inflamed (MOC2), model of head and neck cancer by activation of the STING pathway with the synthetic cyclic dinucleotide RP,RP dithio-c-di-GMP...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797687/pseudo-underage-assessment-of-compliance-with-identification-regulations-at-retail-marijuana-outlets-in-colorado
#20
David B Buller, W Gill Woodall, Robert Saltz, Randall Starling
OBJECTIVE: Four states are creating a regulated industry for the retail sale of cannabis products. This pilot study assessed refusal rates of sales to underage-appearing individuals without valid identification (ID) at retail outlets in Colorado. METHOD: State-licensed retail marijuana outlets (n = 20) in Colorado were included in the sample. Pseudo-underage assessment teams of a buyer and an observer visited each retail outlet once between 11 A.M. and 5 P.M. on four weekdays in August 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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