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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449429/heterogeneous-origins-of-human-sleep-spindles-in-different-cortical-layers
#1
Donald J Hagler, Istvan Ulbert, Lucia Wittner, Lorand Erőss, Joseph R Madsen, Orrin Devinsky, Werner Doyle, Daniel Fabo, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren
Sleep spindles are a cardinal feature in human NREM sleep and may be important for memory consolidation. We studied the intracortical organization of spindles in men and women by recording spontaneous sleep spindles from different cortical layers using linear microelectrode arrays. Two patterns of spindle generation were identified using visual inspection, and confirmed with factor analysis. Spindles (10-16Hz) were largest and most common in upper and middle channels, with limited involvement of deep channels...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439689/acceptability-of-financial-incentives-for-maintenance-of-weight-loss-in-mid-older-adults-a-mixed-methods-study
#2
Bronwyn McGill, Blythe J O'Hara, Anne C Grunseit, Adrian Bauman, Dale Osborne, Luke Lawler, Philayrath Phongsavan
BACKGROUND: Health insurers worldwide implement financial incentive schemes to encourage health-related behaviours, including to facilitate weight loss. The maintenance of weight loss is a public health challenge, and as non-communicable diseases become more prevalent with increasing age, mid-older adults could benefit from programs which motivate weight loss maintenance. However, little is understood about their perceptions of using financial incentives to maintain weight loss. METHODS: We used mixed methods to explore the attitudes and views of participants who had completed an Australian weight loss and lifestyle modification program offered to overweight and obese health insurance members with weight-related chronic diseases, about the acceptability and usefulness of different types of financial incentives to support weight loss maintenance...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435673/an-eco-efficient-and-economical-optimum-evaluation-technique-for-the-forest-road-networks-the-case-of-the-mountainous-forest-of-metsovo-greece
#3
Stergios Tampekis, Fani Samara, Stavros Sakellariou, Athanassios Sfougaris, Olga Christopoulou
The sustainable forest management can be achieved only through environmentally sound and economically efficient and feasible forest road networks and transportation systems that can potentially improve the multi-functional use of forest resources. However, road network planning and construction suggest long-term finance that require a capital investment (cash outflow), which would be equal to the value of the total revenue flow (cash inflow) over the whole lifecycle project. This paper emphasizes in an eco-efficient and economical optimum evaluation method for the forest road networks in the mountainous forest of Metsovo, Greece...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414145/factors-affecting-subjective-appearance-evaluations-among-patients-with-congenital-craniofacial-conditions-an-application-of-cash-s-cognitive-behavioural-model-of-body-image-development
#4
REVIEW
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Nicola Marie Stock
Satisfaction with appearance is of central importance for psychological well-being and health. For individuals with an unusual appearance, such as congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFA), appearance evaluations could be especially important. However, few, if any papers have presented a comprehensive synthesis of the factors found to affect subjective satisfaction with appearance among children, adolescents, and adults born with a CFA. Further, only a handful of craniofacial studies have applied psychological theories or models to their findings, resulting in an overall lack of guidance for researchers in the field...
January 30, 2018: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387175/patient-preferences-for-types-of-community-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-programme
#5
Shermain Chia, Xin Yi Wong, Min Li Toon, Yi Seah, Angela Frances Yap, Cindy Lim, Hung Yong Tay, Warren Fong, Lian Leng Low, Yu Heng Kwan
Introduction: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves mortality, morbidity and quality of life of cardiovascular patients. However, its uptake is poor especially in the hospitals due to long travel distances and office hours constraints. Community-based CR is a possible solution. Objectives: To understand the type of community-based CR preferred and identify patient characteristics associated with certain programme combinations. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to a randomised list of patients at risk for or with cardiovascular diseases at two community-based CR centres...
2018: Heart Asia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368578/human-rights-and-political-crisis-in-brazil-public-health-impacts-and-challenges
#6
Monica Malta
In 31 August 2016, Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff was impeached and replaced by her vice president Michel Temer. Herein, we examine how the conservative agenda of Mr Temer and his supporters is influencing key decisions in the human rights and public health arena in Brazil. The government's austerity agenda includes severe cuts in critical areas such as health, education and science, jeopardising well-known strategies such as the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and nationwide cash transfer program, 'Bolsa Familia' - both benefited millions and were the largest of their kind in the world...
January 25, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334885/2016-united-kingdom-national-guideline-on-the-sexual-health-care-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#7
Dan Clutterbuck, David Asboe, Tristan Barber, Carol Emerson, Nigel Field, Stuart Gibson, Gwenda Hughes, Rachael Jones, Martin Murchie, Achyuta V Nori, Michael Rayment, Ann Sullivan
This guideline is intended for use in UK Genitourinary medicine clinics and sexual health services but is likely to be of relevance in all sexual health settings, including general practice and Contraception and Sexual Health (CASH) services, where men who have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual health care or where addressing the sexual health needs of MSM may have public health benefits. For the purposes of this document, MSM includes all gay, bisexual and all other males who have sex with other males and both cis and trans men...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314094/empowering-the-poor-a-field-study-of-the-social-psychological-consequences-of-receiving-autonomy-or-dependency-aid-in-panama
#8
Katherina Alvarez, Esther van Leeuwen, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Mark van Vugt
This field study investigated the consequences of receiving poverty aid through conditional transfer programmes in the form of autonomy-oriented help (i.e., cash) or dependency-oriented help (i.e., vouchers) in impoverished rural communities in Panama. The empowering effects of autonomy- (vs. dependency-) help have so far only been studied in laboratory settings, or in settings where help could easily be refused. Little is known about the reactions of people who rely on help for extended periods of time. This study provides insights into how aid recipients are influenced by the type of aid they receive...
January 4, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294978/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-women-s-past-year-physical-ipv-perpetration-and-victimization-in-tanzania
#9
Bianka M Reese, May S Chen, Manali Nekkanti, Marta I Mulawa
Recent studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) in high-resource countries suggest that men and women may perpetrate similar rates of violence against their partners, yet the prevalence and etiology of female-perpetrated IPV, especially in comparison with IPV victimization among females, remains largely understudied in low-resource, high-prevalence countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Using multivariate logistic regression models, the current study examines the prevalence of and risk factors associated with past 12-month experiences of isolated physical IPV perpetration (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245022/cost-effective-way-to-reduce-stimulant-abuse-among-gay-bisexual-men-and-transgender-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial-with-a-cost-comparison
#10
S X Zhang, S Shoptaw, C J Reback, K Yadav, A M Nyamathi
OBJECTIVES: A randomized controlled study was conducted with 422 homeless, stimulant-using gay/bisexual (G/B) men and 29 transgender women (n = 451) to assess two community-based interventions to reduce substance abuse and improve health: (a) a nurse case-managed program combined with contingency management (NCM + CM) versus (b) standard education plus contingency management (SE + CM). STUDY DESIGN: Hypotheses tested included: a) completion of hepatitis A/B vaccination series; b) reduction in stimulant use; and c) reduction in number of sexual partners...
December 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220823/patterns-of-progressive-atrophy-vary-with-age-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#11
Cassidy M Fiford, Gerard R Ridgway, David M Cash, Marc Modat, Jennifer Nicholas, Emily N Manning, Ian B Malone, Geert Jan Biessels, Sebastien Ourselin, Owen T Carmichael, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
Age is not only the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but also a key modifier of disease presentation and progression. Here, we investigate how longitudinal atrophy patterns vary with age in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Data comprised serial longitudinal 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 153 AD, 339 MCI, and 191 control subjects. Voxel-wise maps of longitudinal volume change were obtained and aligned across subjects. Local volume change was then modeled in terms of diagnostic group and an interaction between group and age, adjusted for total intracranial volume, white-matter hyperintensity volume, and apolipoprotein E genotype...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209487/first-steps-of-laparoscopic-surgery-in-a-sub-saharan-african-setting-a-nine-month-review-at-the-douala-gynaeco-obstetric-and-pediatric-hospital-cameroon
#12
J T Fouogue, F Y Fouelifack, J H Fouedjio, R Tchounzou, Z Sando, E T Mboudou
Objectives: To describe the first laparoscopic surgeries in a tertiary hospital in Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a descriptive study at the Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (DGOPH). We examined the files of the 45 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery from November 1, 2015 to July 31, 2016. Descriptive statistics were computed for patients' characteristics and surgical parameters. Results: Mean (SD) age was 36.8(11...
June 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187788/scolytinae-in-hazelnut-orchards-of-turkey-clarification-of-species-and-identification-key-coleoptera-curculionidae
#13
Celal Tuncer, Milos Knizek, Juri Hulcr
Hazelnut, a very important cash crop in Turkey, is frequently colonized by bark and ambrosia beetle species (Scolytinae). Some scolytine species may cause economic damage while other species do not; therefore, proper identification is important in orchard management. Extensive sampling demonstrated that the most common pest species in Turkey's hazelnut orchards are Anisandrus dispar, Xylosandrus germanus, and Xyleborinus saxesenii. Hypothenemus eruditus can also be common, but only colonizes branches that are already dead...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172807/impact-of-coping-strategies-on-perceived-stress-depression-and-cortisol-profiles-among-gynecologic-cancer-patients
#14
Chelsea Siwik, Allison Hicks, Kala Phillips, Whitney N Rebholz, Lauren A Zimmaro, Inka Weissbecker, Elizabeth Cash, Sandra E Sephton
We explored associations between problem-focused, emotional processing, and emotional expression coping strategies and markers of stress including perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and diurnal cortisol profiles among women with gynecologic cancer. Problem-focused coping was associated with less perceived stress, fewer depressive symptoms, and more rhythmic diurnal salivary cortisol profiles. Emotional processing was associated with lower perceived stress and fewer depressive symptoms. Emotional expression was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and elevated diurnal mean and evening cortisol levels...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156248/the-symbolic-violence-of-outbreak-a-mixed-methods-quasi-experimental-impact-evaluation-of-social-protection-on-ebola-survivor-wellbeing
#15
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Osman Sesay, Michael D Drasher, Ishaan K Desai, Raphael Frankfurter, Paul E Farmer, Mohamed Bailor Barrie
Despite over 28,000 reported cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, we are only beginning to trace the complex biosocial processes that have promoted its spread. Important questions remain, including the effects on survivors of clinical sequelae, loss of family and livelihood, and other psychological and social trauma. Another poorly understood question is what effect social protection and job creation programs have had on survivors' wellbeing. Several clinical and social protection programs have been developed to respond to the needs of EVD survivors; however, little in the way of impact evaluation has taken place...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112693/comparison-of-two-cash-transfer-strategies-to-prevent-catastrophic-costs-for-poor-tuberculosis-affected-households-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-economic-modelling-study
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
William E Rudgard, Carlton A Evans, Sedona Sweeney, Tom Wingfield, Knut Lönnroth, Draurio Barreira, Delia Boccia
BACKGROUND: Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach)...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079249/code-conversion-impact-factor-and-cash-flow-impact-of-international-classification-of-diseases-10th-revision-on-a-large-multihospital-radiology-practice
#17
Aryan Jalilvand, Margaret Fleming, Courtney Moreno, Dan MacFarlane, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: The 2015 conversion of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) system from the ninth revision (ICD-9) to the 10th revision (ICD-10) was widely projected to adversely impact physician practices. We aimed to assess code conversion impact factor (CCIF) projections and revenue delay impact to help radiology groups better prepare for eventual conversion to ICD, 11th revision (ICD-11). METHODS: Studying 673,600 claims for 179 radiologists for the first year after ICD-10's implementation, we identified primary ICD-10 codes for the top 90th percentile of all examinations for the entire enterprise and each subspecialty division...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047365/the-weight-of-work-the-association-between-maternal-employment-and-overweight-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Vanessa M Oddo, Sara N Bleich, Keshia M Pollack, Pamela J Surkan, Noel T Mueller, Jessica C Jones-Smith
BACKGROUND: Maternal employment has increased in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) and is a hypothesized risk factor for maternal overweight due to increased income and behavioral changes related to time allocation. However, few studies have investigated this relationship in LMIC. METHODS: Using cross-sectional samples from Demographic and Health Surveys, we investigated the association between maternal employment and overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) among women in 38 LMIC (N = 162,768)...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037471/a-behavioral-economic-approach-to-improving-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#19
Rachel Caskey, E Grace Sherman, Kera Beskin, Rebecca Rapport, Yinglin Xia, Alan Schwartz
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to measure the impact of a behavioral economic intervention on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and series completion rates for adolescents and to measure the impact of the intervention on the receipt of a nonincentivized influenza vaccine. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-randomized trial to compare the impact of an escalating delayed cash incentive (intervention), compared with usual care (control), on HPV vaccination initiation and series completion rates among adolescents (11-17 years) at an urban medical center...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992388/impact-of-nutrition-interventions-on-pediatric-mortality-and-nutrition-outcomes-in-humanitarian-emergencies
#20
REVIEW
Kamna S Balhara, David M Silvestri, W Tyler Winders, Anand Selvam, Sean M Kivlehan, Torben K Becker, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition contributes to pediatric morbidity and mortality in disasters and complex emergencies, but summary data describing specific nutritional interventions in these settings are lacking. This systematic review aims to characterize such interventions and their effects on pediatric mortality, anthropometric measures, and serum markers of nutrition. METHODS: A systematic search of OVID Medline, Cochrane Library, and relevant grey literature was conducted...
October 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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