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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506682/colorectal-cancer-inflammatory-bowel-disease-nexus-and-felony-of-escherichia-coli
#1
REVIEW
Abdul Arif Khan, Zakir Khan, Abdul Malik, Mohd Abul Kalam, Phillip Cash, Mohd Tashfeen Ashraf, Aws Alshamsan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a multifactorial etiology. Although the exact cause behind CRC is still elusive, recent studies have indicated microbial involvement in its etiology. Escherichia coli has emerged as an important factor in CRC development since the bacterium can cause changes in the gut that lead to cancerous transformation. A number of studies indicate that chronic inflammation induced by microorganisms, including E. coli, during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposes an individual to CRC. The evidence that support the role of E...
May 12, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506226/institutional-delivery-service-utilization-and-associated-factors-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-the-mobile-pastoral-community-of-the-liban-district-in-guji-zone-oromia-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Wako Golicha Wako, Dejene Hailu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2013. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Mobility of pastoralists is a well-recognized survival strategy in arid and semi-arid land of sub-Saharan Africa. However governments often encourage settlement as a solution to the difficulty of providing health services for mobile pastoralists. This study aimed to assess utilization of institutional delivery and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji zone, Oromia, Ethiopia...
May 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499423/could-cash-and-good-parenting-affect-child-cognitive-development-a-cross-sectional-study-in-south-africa-and-malawi
#3
Lorraine Sherr, Ana Macedo, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Lucie Dale Cluver
BACKGROUND: Social protection interventions, including cash grants and care provision have been shown to effectively reduce some negative impacts of the HIV epidemic on adolescents and families. Less is known about the role of social protection on younger HIV affected populations. This study explored the impact of cash grants on children's cognitive development. Additionally, we examined whether combined cash and care (operationalised as good parenting) was associated with improved cognitive outcomes...
May 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480617/comparison-of-arterial-spin-labeling-registration-strategies-in-the-multi-center-genetic-frontotemporal-dementia-initiative-genfi
#4
Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Jan Petr, David L Thomas, Enrico de Vita, David M Cash, Matthias J P van Osch, Xavier Golay, Paul F C Groot, Sebastien Ourselin, John van Swieten, Robert Laforce, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Barbara Borroni, Daniela Galimberti, James B Rowe, Caroline Graff, Francesca B Pizzini, Elizabeth Finger, Sandro Sorbi, Miguel Castelo Branco, Jonathan D Rohrer, Mario Masellis, Bradley J MacIntosh
PURPOSE: To compare registration strategies to align arterial spin labeling (ASL) with 3D T1-weighted (T1w) images, with the goal of reducing the between-subject variability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multi-center 3T ASL data were collected at eight sites with four different sequences in the multi-center GENetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative (GENFI) study. In a total of 48 healthy controls, we compared the following image registration options: (I) which images to use for registration (perfusion-weighted images [PWI] to the segmented gray matter (GM) probability map (pGM) (CBF-pGM) or M0 to T1w (M0-T1w); (II) which transformation to use (rigid-body or non-rigid); and (III) whether to mask or not (no masking, M0-based FMRIB software library Brain Extraction Tool [BET] masking)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467193/a-global-comprehensive-review-of-economic-interventions-to-prevent-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviours
#5
Andrew Gibbs, Jessica Jacobson, Alice Kerr Wilson
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. RESULTS: Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452692/a-cash-back-rebate-program-for-healthy-food-purchases-in-south-africa-selection-and-program-effects-in-self-reported-diet-patterns
#6
Ruopeng An, Roland Sturm
OBJECTIVES: A South African insurer launched a rebate program for healthy food purchases for its members, but only available in program-designated supermarkets. To eliminate selection bias in program enrollment, we estimated the impact of subsidies in nudging the population towards a healthier diet using an instrumental variable approach. METHODS: Data came from a health behavior questionnaire administered among members in the health promotion program. Individual and supermarket addresses were geocoded and differential distances from home to program-designated supermarkets versus competing supermarkets were calculated...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417432/evaluating-community-measures-of-healthy-food-access
#7
Melissa L Santorelli, Janice O Okeke
Several community level measures of healthy food access exist, but evaluation efforts have been limited leaving uncertainty about how to prioritize communities for intervention. This study aimed to assess several existing measures to inform statewide public health planning efforts in New Jersey, USA. We assessed agreement between community measures of healthy food access and then evaluated the predictive validity of each measure by describing its association with complete fruit and vegetable cash-value voucher redemption (proportion redeemed ≥70, ≥80, ≥90%) among 30,078 low-income households participating in the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) during 2013-2014...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416691/neurophysiological-dynamics-of-phrase-structure-building-during-sentence-processing
#8
Matthew J Nelson, Imen El Karoui, Kristof Giber, Xiaofang Yang, Laurent Cohen, Hilda Koopman, Sydney S Cash, Lionel Naccache, John T Hale, Christophe Pallier, Stanislas Dehaene
Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413249/agricultural-input-credit-in-sub-saharan-africa-telling-myth-from-facts
#9
Serge G Adjognon, Lenis Saweda O Liverpool-Tasie, Thomas A Reardon
Recent evidence shows that many Sub-Saharan African farmers use modern inputs, but there is limited information on how these inputs are financed. We use recent nationally representative data from four countries to explore input financing and the role of credit therein. A number of our results contradict "conventional wisdom" found in the literature. Our results consistently show that traditional credit use, formal or informal, is extremely low (across credit type, country, crop and farm size categories). Instead, farmers primarily finance modern input purchases with cash from nonfarm activities and crop sales...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410338/multiple-sources-of-prescription-payment-and-risky-opioid-therapy-among-veterans
#10
William C Becker, Brenda T Fenton, Cynthia A Brandt, Erin L Doyle, Joseph Francis, Joseph L Goulet, Brent A Moore, Virginia Torrise, Robert D Kerns, Peter W Kreiner
BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose and other related harms are a major source of morbidity and mortality among US Veterans, in part due to high-risk opioid prescribing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether having multiple sources of payment for opioids-as a marker for out-of-system access-is associated with risky opioid therapy among veterans. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional study examining the association between multiple sources of payment and risky opioid therapy among all individuals with Veterans Health Administration (VHA) payment for opioid analgesic prescriptions in Kentucky during fiscal year 2014-2015...
April 13, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398014/brain-responsive-neurostimulation-in-patients-with-medically-intractable-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#11
Eric B Geller, Tara L Skarpaas, Robert E Gross, Robert R Goodman, Gregory L Barkley, Carl W Bazil, Michael J Berg, Gregory K Bergey, Sydney S Cash, Andrew J Cole, Robert B Duckrow, Jonathan C Edwards, Stephan Eisenschenk, James Fessler, Nathan B Fountain, Alicia M Goldman, Ryder P Gwinn, Christianne Heck, Aamar Herekar, Lawrence J Hirsch, Barbara C Jobst, David King-Stephens, Douglas R Labar, James W Leiphart, W Richard Marsh, Kimford J Meador, Eli M Mizrahi, Anthony M Murro, Dileep R Nair, Katherine H Noe, Yong D Park, Paul A Rutecki, Vicenta Salanova, Raj D Sheth, Donald C Shields, Christopher Skidmore, Michael C Smith, David C Spencer, Shraddha Srinivasan, William Tatum, Paul C Van Ness, David G Vossler, Robert E Wharen, Gregory A Worrell, Daniel Yoshor, Richard S Zimmerman, Kathy Cicora, Felice T Sun, Martha J Morrell
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the seizure-reduction response and safety of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) brain-responsive stimulation in adults with medically intractable partial-onset seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin. METHODS: Subjects with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were identified from prospective clinical trials of a brain-responsive neurostimulator (RNS System, NeuroPace). The seizure reduction over years 2-6 postimplantation was calculated by assessing the seizure frequency compared to a preimplantation baseline...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386523/risk-management-issues-when-taking-locum-tenens-assignments
#12
Charles D Cash
This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company...
January 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378958/child-poverty-the-great-recession-and-the-social-safety-net-in-the-united-states
#13
Marianne Bitler, Hiliary Hoynes, Elira Kuku
In this paper, we comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recession on child poverty, with particular attention to the role of the social safety net in mitigating the adverse effects of shocks to earnings and income. Using a state panel data model and data for 2000 to 2014, we estimate the relationship between the business cycle and child poverty, and we examine how and to what extent the safety net is providing protection to at-risk children. We find compelling evidence that the safety net provides protection; that is, the cyclicality of after-tax-and-transfer child poverty is significantly attenuated relative to the cyclicality of private income poverty...
2017: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364000/anti-pd-l1-efficacy-can-be-enhanced-by-inhibition-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-with-a-selective-inhibitor-of-pi3k%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#14
Ruth J Davis, Ellen C Moore, Paul E Clavijo, Jay Friedman, Harrison A Cash, Zhong Chen, Christopher Silvin, Carter Van Waes, Clint T Allen
Checkpoint inhibitors are relatively inefficacious in head and neck cancers, despite an abundance of genetic alterations and a T cell-inflamed phenotype. One significant barrier to efficacy may be the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) into the tumor microenvironment. Here we demonstrate functional inhibition of MDSC with IPI-145, an inhibitor of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ isoforms which enhances responses to PD-L1 blockade. Combination therapy induced CD8+ T lymphocyte-dependent primary tumor growth delay and prolonged survival only in T cell-inflamed tumor models of head and neck cancers...
March 31, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260842/time-discounting-and-credit-market-access-in-a-large-scale-cash-transfer-programme
#15
Sudhanshu Handa, Bruno Martorano, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Time discounting is thought to influence decision-making in almost every sphere of life, including personal finances, diet, exercise and sexual behavior. In this article we provide evidence on whether a national poverty alleviation program in Kenya can affect inter-temporal decisions. We administered a preferences module as part of a large-scale impact evaluation of the Kenyan Government's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Four years into the program we find that individuals in the treatment group are only marginally more likely to wait for future money, due in part to the erosion of the value of the transfer by inflation...
June 2016: Journal of African Economies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244417/favorable-local-control-from-consolidative-radiation-therapy-in-high-risk-neuroblastoma-despite-gross-residual-disease-positive-margins-or-nodal-involvement
#16
Matthew J Ferris, Hasan Danish, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Claudia Deng, Bradley A George, Kelly C Goldsmith, Karen J Wasilewski, W Thomas Cash, Mohammad K Khan, Bree R Eaton, Natia Esiashvili
PURPOSE: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237606/a-symptom-network-structure-of-the-psychosis-spectrum
#17
Geeske van Rooijen, Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Carin J Meijer, Claudia D van Borkulo, Henricus G Ruhé, Lieuwe de Haan
Current diagnostic systems mainly focus on symptoms needed to classify patients with a specific mental disorder and do not take into account the variation in co-occurring symptoms and the interaction between the symptoms themselves. The innovative network approach aims to further our understanding of mental disorders by focusing on meaningful connections between individual symptoms of a disorder and has thus far proven valuable insights to psychopathology. The aims of current study were to I) construct a symptom network and investigate interactions between a wide array of psychotic symptoms; II) identify the most important symptoms within this network and III) perform an explorative shortest pathway analysis between depressive and delusional symptoms...
February 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199860/a-qualitative-study-of-factors-impacting-accessing-of-institutional-delivery-care-in-the-context-of-india-s-cash-incentive-program
#18
Sukumar Vellakkal, Hanimi Reddy, Adyya Gupta, Anil Chandran, Jasmine Fledderjohann, David Stuckler
Not all eligible women use the available services under India's Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides cash incentives to encourage pregnant women to use institutional care for childbirth; limited evidence exists on demand-side factors associated with low program uptake. This study explores the views of women and ASHAs (community health workers) on the use of the JSY and institutional delivery care facilities. In-depth qualitative interviews, carried out in September-November 2013, were completed in the local language by trained interviewers with 112 participants consisting of JSY users/non-users and ASHAs in Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167511/incentive-based-intervention-to-maintain-breastfeeding-among-low-income-puerto-rican-mothers
#19
Yukiko Washio, Mara Humphreys, Elisa Colchado, Maria Sierra-Ortiz, Zugui Zhang, Bradley N Collins, Linda M Kilby, Donna J Chapman, Stephan T Higgins, Kimberly C Kirby
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite maternal and child health benefits, breastfeeding rates are relatively low among low-income Puerto Rican mothers. This study examined the hypothesis that monthly financial incentives would significantly increase the proportion of breastfeeding mothers at 6 months postpartum compared with Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services only among Puerto Rican mothers. METHODS: A randomized, 2-arm parallel-group design, from February 2015 through February 2016...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167339/poverty-and-perceived-stress-evidence-from-two-unconditional-cash-transfer-programs-in-zambia
#20
Lisa Hjelm, Sudhanshu Handa, Jacobus de Hoop, Tia Palermo
INTRODUCTION: Poverty is a chronic stressor that can lead to poor physical and mental health. This study examines whether two similar government poverty alleviation programs reduced the levels of perceived stress and poverty among poor households in Zambia. METHOD: Secondary data from two cluster randomized controlled trials were used to evaluate the impacts of two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia. Participants were interviewed at baseline and followed over 36 months...
January 19, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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