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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917765/safeguarding-maternal-and-child-health-in-south-africa-by-starting-the-child-support-grant-before-birth-design-lessons-from-pregnancy-support-programmes-in-27-countries
#1
M F Chersich, S Luchters, D Blaauw, F Scorgie, E Kern, A Van den Heever, H Rees, E Peach, S Kharadi, S Fonn
BACKGROUND: Deprivation during pregnancy and the neonatal period increases maternal morbidity, reduces birth weight and impairs child development, with lifelong consequences. Many poor countries provide grants to mitigate the impact of poverty during pregnancy. South Africa (SA) offers a post-delivery Child Support Grant (CSG), which could encompass support during pregnancy, informed by lessons learnt from similar grants. OBJECTIVES: To review design and operational features of pregnancy support programmes, highlighting features that promote their effectiveness and efficiency, and implications thereof for SA...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885775/the-coffee-leaf-rust-pathogen-hemileia-vastatrix-one-and-a-half-centuries-around-the-tropics
#2
Pedro Talhinhas, Dora Batista, Inês Diniz, Ana Vieira, Diogo N Silva, Andreia Loureiro, Sílvia Tavares, Ana Paula Pereira, Helena G Azinheira, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Vítor Várzea, Maria do Céu Silva
Taxonomy and history: Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Broome (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) was described in 1869 in Eastern Africa and Ceylon as the agent of Coffee Leaf Rust and spread to all coffee cultivation areas worldwide. Major disease outbreaks in Asia, Africa and America caused and continue to cause severe yield losses, making this the most important disease of Arabica coffee, a cash crop for many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Life cycle and disease symptoms: Hemileia vastatrix is a hemicyclic fungus with the urediniosporic life cycle as its most important (if not only) source of inoculum...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#3
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859327/conditional-and-unconditional-cash-transfers-to-improve-use-of-contraception-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#4
M E Khan, Avishek Hazra, Aastha Kant, Moazzam Ali
This systematic review synthesizes evidence on the impact of conditional and unconditional cash transfers (CCT and UCT) on contraception in low- and middle-income countries. Scientific and gray literature databases were searched from 1994 to 2016 and 11 papers from ten studies were included. Most of the studies had low risk of bias. Cash transfers were used for increasing school attendance or improving health and nutrition, but not directly for contraception. Three studies showed positive impact on contraceptive use and four showed a decrease in fertility outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859313/paying-for-performance-to-improve-the-delivery-and-uptake-of-family-planning-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#5
Claire Blacklock, Ekelechi MacPepple, Setor Kunutsor, Sophie Witter
Paying for performance is a strategy to meet the unmet need for family planning in low and middle income countries; however, rigorous evidence on effectiveness is lacking. Scientific databases and grey literature were searched from 1994 to May 2016. Thirteen studies were included. Payments were linked to units of targeted services, usually modified by quality indicators. Ancillary components and payment indicators differed between studies. Results were mixed for family planning outcome measures. Paying for performance was associated with improved modern family planning use in one study, and increased user and coverage rates in two more...
November 17, 2016: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833805/whole-brain-ex-vivo-quantitative-mri-of-the-cuprizone-mouse-model
#6
Tobias C Wood, Camilla Simmons, Samuel A Hurley, Anthony C Vernon, Joel Torres, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Steve C R Williams, Diana Cash
Myelin is a critical component of the nervous system and a major contributor to contrast in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. However, the precise contribution of myelination to multiple MR modalities is still under debate. The cuprizone mouse is a well-established model of demyelination that has been used in several MR studies, but these have often imaged only a single slice and analysed a small region of interest in the corpus callosum. We imaged and analyzed the whole brain of the cuprizone mouse ex-vivo using high-resolution quantitative MR methods (multi-component relaxometry, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and morphometry) and found changes in multiple regions, including the corpus callosum, cerebellum, thalamus and hippocampus...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821498/established-t-cell-inflamed-tumors-rejected-after-adaptive-resistance-was-reversed-by-combination-sting-activation-and-pd-1-pathway-blockade
#7
Ellen Moore, Paul E Clavijo, Ruth Davis, Harrison Cash, Carter Van Waes, Young Kim, Clint Allen
Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma harbor T cell-inflamed and non-T cell-inflamed tumors. Despite this, only 20% of patients respond to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy. Lack of induction of innate immunity through pattern-recognition receptors, such as the stimulator of interferon (IFN) genes (STING) receptor, may represent a significant barrier to the development of effective antitumor immunity. Here, we demonstrate robust control of a T cell-inflamed (MOC1), but not non-T cell-inflamed (MOC2), model of head and neck cancer by activation of the STING pathway with the synthetic cyclic dinucleotide RP,RP dithio-c-di-GMP...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797687/pseudo-underage-assessment-of-compliance-with-identification-regulations-at-retail-marijuana-outlets-in-colorado
#8
David B Buller, W Gill Woodall, Robert Saltz, Randall Starling
OBJECTIVE: Four states are creating a regulated industry for the retail sale of cannabis products. This pilot study assessed refusal rates of sales to underage-appearing individuals without valid identification (ID) at retail outlets in Colorado. METHOD: State-licensed retail marijuana outlets (n = 20) in Colorado were included in the sample. Pseudo-underage assessment teams of a buyer and an observer visited each retail outlet once between 11 A.M. and 5 P.M. on four weekdays in August 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794386/biotechnological-intervention-in-betelvine-piper-betle-l-a-review-on-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#9
REVIEW
Suryasnata Das, Reena Parida, I Sriram Sandeep, Sanghamitra Nayak, Sujata Mohanty
Betelvine (Piper betle L.) is cultivated for its deep green heart shaped leaf for (15-20) million Indian and 2 billion foreign consumers annually. The crop provides Rs (6000-7000) million of national income per year and at the same time leaves worth Rs (30-40) million is exported to other countries. The leaves are not only used directly for chewing purposes but also possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Besides, the leaves also contain eugenol rich essential oil (1%-3%) which is the source for medicine, stimulant, antiseptic, tonic and other ayurvedic formulations...
October 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762408/a-review-of-stereochemical-implications-in-the-generation-of-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-isoprene-oxidation
#10
James M Cash, Mathew R Heal, Ben Langford, Julia Drewer
The atmospheric reactions leading to the generation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of isoprene are generally assumed to produce only racemic mixtures, but aspects of the chemical reactions suggest this may not be the case. In this review, the stereochemical outcomes of published isoprene-degradation mechanisms contributing to high amounts of SOA are evaluated. Despite evidence suggesting isoprene first-generation oxidation products do not contribute to SOA directly, this review suggests the stereochemistry of first-generation products may be important because their stereochemical configurations may be retained through to the second-generation products which form SOA...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761610/avoiding-psychological-pitfalls-in-aesthetic-medical-procedures
#11
Qiuyu Wang, Chuan Cao, Rui Guo, Xiaoge Li, Lele Lu, Wenping Wang, Shirong Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in an aesthetic surgery setting in the region of Southwest China, and to ascertain the differences in terms of body images between patients in the aesthetic setting and general Chinese population. This study tracked patient satisfaction with their body image changes while undergoing aesthetic medical procedures to identify whether the condition of patients who were presenting with BDD symptoms or their psychological symptoms could be improved by enhancing their appearance...
December 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754135/os-26-04-targeting-care-gaps-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-quality-improvement-project-utilizing-emr-hypertension-dashboards-and-a-chronic-disease-coordinator
#12
Daniel Ngui, Michael J H Qiu, Michael Mann
OBJECTIVE: In order to address the systematic and practice management issues associated with managing hypertension, we undertook a quality improvement project at a multi-physician clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We piloted an evidence-based electronic medical record (EMR) hypertension management dashboard based on the 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) guideline recommendations. Since June 1, 2015, our chronic disease coordinator utilized our EMR HTN Dashboard to generate patient recalls, create physician reminders and to enhance internal clinic referrals to provide 1:1 patient hypertension self-management education by physicians and our clinical pharmacist team...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752856/gay-mostly-gay-or-bisexual-leaning-gay-an-exploratory-study-distinguishing-gay-sexual-orientations-among-young-men
#13
Ritch C Savin-Williams, Brian M Cash, Mark McCormack, Gerulf Rieger
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748620/promoting-child-development-through-group-based-parent-support-within-a-cash-transfer-program-experimental-effects-on-children-s-outcomes
#14
Lia C H Fernald, Rose M C Kagawa, Heather A Knauer, Lourdes Schnaas, Armando Garcia Guerra, Lynnette M Neufeld
We examined effects on child development of a group-based parenting support program (Educación Inicial - EI) when combined with Mexico's conditional cash transfer (CCT) program (Prospera, originally Oportunidades and Progresa). This cluster-randomized trial included 204 communities (n = 1,113 children in final sample), stratified by community indigenous status, and assigned to receive either: (T0) CCT only; (T1) CCT plus availability of EI in the community; or (T2) T1 plus promotion of the EI program by the CCT program...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748562/disentangling-the-photochemical-salinity-tolerance-in-aster-tripolium-l-connecting-biophysical-traits-with-changes-in-fatty-acid-composition
#15
B Duarte, M T Cabrita, C Gameiro, A R Matos, R Godinho, J C Marques, I Caçador
A profound analysis of A. tripolium photochemical traits under salinity exposure is lacking in the literature, with very few references focusing on its fatty acid profile role in photophysiology. To address this, the deep photochemical processes were evaluated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorometry coupled with a discrimination of its leaf fatty acid profile. Plants exposed to 125-250 mm NaCl showed higher photochemical light harvesting efficiencies and lower energy dissipation rates. under higher NaCl exposure, there is evident damage of the oxygen evolving complexes (OECs)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722978/an-improvement-to-a-multi-client-searchable-encryption-scheme-for-boolean-queries
#16
Han Jiang, Xue Li, Qiuliang Xu
The migration of e-health systems to the cloud computing brings huge benefits, as same as some security risks. Searchable Encryption(SE) is a cryptography encryption scheme that can protect the confidentiality of data and utilize the encrypted data at the same time. The SE scheme proposed by Cash et al. in Crypto2013 and its follow-up work in CCS2013 are most practical SE Scheme that support Boolean queries at present. In their scheme, the data user has to generate the search tokens by the counter number one by one and interact with server repeatedly, until he meets the correct one, or goes through plenty of tokens to illustrate that there is no search result...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717766/effectiveness-of-activity-trackers-with-and-without-incentives-to-increase-physical-activity-trippa-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Eric A Finkelstein, Benjamin A Haaland, Marcel Bilger, Aarti Sahasranaman, Robert A Sloan, Ei Ei Khaing Nang, Kelly R Evenson
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of activity trackers, little evidence exists that they can improve health outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether use of activity trackers, alone or in combination with cash incentives or charitable donations, lead to increases in physical activity and improvements in health outcomes. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, employees from 13 organisations in Singapore were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) with a computer generated assignment schedule to control (no tracker or incentives), Fitbit Zip activity tracker, tracker plus charity incentives, or tracker plus cash incentives...
December 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712706/impact-of-treatment-subsidies-and-cash-payouts-on-treatment-choices-at-the-end-of-life
#18
Eric Finkelstein, Chetna Malhotra, Junxing Chay, Semra Ozdemir, Akhil Chopra, Ravindran Kanesvaran
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which financial assistance, in the form of subsidies for life-extending treatments (LETs) or cash payouts, distorts the demand for end-of-life treatments. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was administered to 290 patients with cancer in Singapore to elicit preferences for LETs and only palliative care (PC). Responses were fitted to a latent class conditional logistic regression model. We also quantified patients' willingness to pay to avoid and willingness to accept a less effective LET or PC-only...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643062/os-26-04-targeting-care-gaps-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-quality-improvement-project-utilizing-emr-hypertension-dashboards-and-a-chronic-disease-coordinator
#19
Daniel Ngui, Michael J H Qiu, Michael Mann
OBJECTIVE: In order to address the systematic and practice management issues associated with managing hypertension, we undertook a quality improvement project at a multi-physician clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We piloted an evidence-based electronic medical record (EMR) hypertension management dashboard based on the 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) guideline recommendations. Since June 1, 2015, our chronic disease coordinator utilized our EMR HTN Dashboard to generate patient recalls, create physician reminders and to enhance internal clinic referrals to provide 1:1 patient hypertension self-management education by physicians and our clinical pharmacist team...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598562/context-influences-interpretation-of-eyewitness-confidence-statements
#20
Daniella K Cash, Sean M Lane
When an eyewitness makes an identification from a lineup, he or she is asked to provide a confidence statement to help jurors assess credibility. However, these are verbal statements and people must rely on metacognitive processes to correctly interpret them. Recently, Dodson and Dobolyi (2015) argued that a person's interpretation of a witness's verbal confidence is influenced by the diagnosticity of the features used to justify his or her identification. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments. Experiment 1 found that, relative to a confidence-only control, participants reduced their ratings of confidence when statements were justified using a facial feature that was shared by lineup members, but not when the feature was unique to the member chosen from the lineup...
September 5, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
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