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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777720/delay-differential-analysis-of-seizures-in-multichannel-electrocorticography-data
#1
Claudia Lainscsek, Jonathan Weyhenmeyer, Sydney S Cash, Terrence J Sejnowski
High-density electrocorticogram (ECoG) electrodes are capable of recording neurophysiological data with high temporal resolution with wide spatial coverage. These recordings are a window to understanding how the human brain processes information and subsequently behaves in healthy and pathologic states. Here, we describe and implement delay differential analysis (DDA) for the characterization of ECoG data obtained from human patients with intractable epilepsy. DDA is a time-domain analysis framework based on embedding theory in nonlinear dynamics that reveals the nonlinear invariant properties of an unknown dynamical system...
August 4, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775252/conflict-between-conservation-and-development-cash-forest-encroachment-in-asian-elephant-distributions
#2
Peng Liu, Hui Wen, Franziska K Harich, Changhuan He, Lanxin Wang, Xianming Guo, Jianwei Zhao, Aidong Luo, Hongpei Yang, Xiao Sun, Yang Yu, Shaobo Zheng, Jing Guo, Li Li, Li Zhang
Over the last 4 decades, China has undergone major economic development, resulting in considerable impacts on its wildlife populations and habitats. It is essential to quantify the conflict between development and conservation to assist with policy-making because forestry policies and market trends affected indirectly the distribution of Asian elephants. Here, we mapped the historical distribution of elephants versus human land use. Elephant distributions appear to occur in unbroken natural forests only. However, over the 40-year period, the distribution ranges have become smaller and fragmented, with natural forest area also declining by 16%...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769964/application-of-mycorrhiza-and-soil-from-a-permaculture-system-improved-phosphorus-acquisition-in-naranjilla
#3
Sarah Symanczik, Michelle Gisler, Cécile Thonar, Klaus Schlaeppi, Marcel Van der Heijden, Ansgar Kahmen, Thomas Boller, Paul Mäder
Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a perennial shrub plant mainly cultivated in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America where it represents an important cash crop. Current cultivation practices not only cause deforestation and large-scale soil degradation but also make plants highly susceptible to pests and diseases. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can offer a possibility to overcome these problems. AMF can act beneficially in various ways, for example by improving plant nutrition and growth, water relations, soil structure and stability and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757149/motivation-and-short-term-memory-in-visual-search-attention-s-accelerator-revisited
#4
Daniel Schneider, Claudia Bonmassar, Clayton Hickey
A cue indicating the possibility of cash reward will cause participants to perform memory-based visual search more efficiently. A recent study has suggested that this performance benefit might reflect the use of multiple memory systems: when needed, participants may maintain the to-be-remembered object in both long-term and short-term visual memory, with this redundancy benefitting target identification during search (Reinhart, McClenahan & Woodman, 2016). Here we test this compelling hypothesis. We had participants complete a memory-based visual search task involving a reward cue that either preceded presentation of the to-be-remembered target (pre-cue) or followed it (retro-cue)...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755244/a-brief-smoking-cessation-advice-by-youth-counselors-for-the-smokers-in-the-hong-kong-quit-to-win-contest-2010-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Sophia Siu Chee Chan, Yee Tak Derek Cheung, Yee Man Bonny Wong, Antonio Kwong, Vienna Lai, Tai-Hing Lam
Smoking cessation counseling by healthcare professionals is effective, but very few healthcare professionals can deliver these interventions in the busy clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief smoking cessation advice delivered by briefly-trained youth counselors at the enrolment of an incentive-based smoking cessation campaign. The study design was a cluster 2-arm randomized controlled trial of 831 Chinese adult smokers who were recruited in public areas to participate in the Hong Kong Quit to Win Contest 2010...
July 28, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699098/effects-of-a-2014-statewide-policy-change-on-cash-value-voucher-redemptions-for-fruits-vegetables-among-participants-in-the-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-wic
#6
Janice O Okeke, Ruwani M Ekanayake, Melissa L Santorelli
Purpose In 2014, the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began requiring WIC-authorized stores to stock at least two fresh fruits and two fresh vegetables. We aimed to evaluate the effect of this policy change on fruit and vegetable purchases among WIC-participating households and to assess variation by household access to a healthy food store such as a supermarket or large grocery store. Description Households with continuous WIC enrollment from June 2013 to May 2015 were included (n = 16,415)...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#7
Hayam Hamodat, Meghan K Cash, John D Fisk, Sultan Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625855/children-s-purchase-behavior-in-the-snack-market-can-branding-or-lower-prices-motivate-healthier-choices
#8
Monika Hartmann, Sean B Cash, Ching-Hua Yeh, Stefanie C Landwehr, Anna R McAlister
BACKGROUND: Children's dietary-related diseases and their associated costs have expanded dramatically in many countries, making children's food choice a policy issue of increasing relevance. As children spend a considerable amount of money on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) products, a better understanding of the main drivers of children's independent food purchase decisions is crucial to move this behavior toward healthier options. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to investigate the role of branding and price in motivating children to choose healthier snack options...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566529/unconditional-seasonal-cash-transfer-increases-intake-of-high-nutritional-value-foods-in-young-burkinabe-children-results-of-24-hour-dietary-recall-surveys-within-the-moderate-acute-malnutrition-out-mam-out-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Audrey Tonguet-Papucci, Freddy Houngbe, Lieven Huybregts, Myriam Ait-Aissa, Chiara Altare, Patrick Kolsteren, Jean-François Huneau
Background: Cash transfer programs have the potential to improve dietary intake by improving accessibility to food. However, quantitative data on the impact of cash transfer programs on children's energy and nutrient intakes are lacking.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal unconditional cash transfers on children's energy, micro- and macronutrient, and food group intakes during the lean season in Burkina Faso.Methods: Within the framework of the MAM'Out (Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out) cluster-randomized controlled trial, two 24-h dietary recall surveys were conducted in July and August 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551540/bisphenol-a-alternatives-in-thermal-paper-from-the-netherlands-spain-sweden-and-norway-screening-and-potential-toxicity
#10
Maria K Björnsdotter, Willem Jonker, Jessica Legradi, Jeroen Kool, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez
Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the presence and toxicological effects of alternatives other than BPS. In this study, thermal paper is screened by direct probe ambient mass spectrometry (rapid pre-screening method not requiring sample preparation) and by liquid chromatography (LC) with high resolution time-of flight (TOF-MS) mass spectrometry...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542506/impact-evaluation-of-different-cash-based-intervention-modalities-on-child-and-maternal-nutritional-status-in-sindh-province-pakistan-at-6-mo-and-at-1-y-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bridget Fenn, Tim Colbourn, Carmel Dolan, Silke Pietzsch, Murtaza Sangrasi, Jeremy Shoham
BACKGROUND: Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529873/white-matter-hyperintensities-are-seen-only-in-grn-mutation-carriers-in-the-genfi-cohort
#12
Carole H Sudre, Martina Bocchetta, David Cash, David L Thomas, Ione Woollacott, Katrina M Dick, John van Swieten, Barbara Borroni, Daniela Galimberti, Mario Masellis, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, James B Rowe, Caroline Graff, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Giovanni Frisoni, Robert Laforce, Elizabeth Finger, Alexandre de Mendonça, Sandro Sorbi, Sébastien Ourselin, M Jorge Cardoso, Jonathan D Rohrer
Genetic frontotemporal dementia is most commonly caused by mutations in the progranulin (GRN), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) genes. Previous small studies have reported the presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in genetic FTD but this has not been systematically studied across the different mutations. In this study WMH were assessed in 180 participants from the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) with 3D T1- and T2-weighed magnetic resonance images: 43 symptomatic (7 GRN, 13 MAPT and 23 C9orf72), 61 presymptomatic mutation carriers (25 GRN, 8 MAPT and 28 C9orf72) and 76 mutation negative non-carrier family members...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506682/colorectal-cancer-inflammatory-bowel-disease-nexus-and-felony-of-escherichia-coli
#13
REVIEW
Abdul Arif Khan, Zakir Khan, Abdul Malik, Mohd Abul Kalam, Phillip Cash, Mohd Tashfeen Ashraf, Aws Alshamsan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a multifactorial etiology. Although the exact cause of CRC is still elusive, recent studies have indicated microbial involvement in its etiology. Escherichia coli has emerged as an important factor in CRC development since the bacterium can cause changes in the gut that lead to cancerous transformation. A number of studies indicate that chronic inflammation induced by microorganisms, including E. coli, during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposes an individual to CRC. The evidence that support the role of E...
July 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506226/institutional-delivery-service-utilization-and-associated-factors-among-women-of-reproductive-age-in-the-mobile-pastoral-community-of-the-liban-district-in-guji-zone-oromia-southern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Wako Golicha Wako, Dejene Hailu Kassa
BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2013. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Mobility of pastoralists is a well-recognized survival strategy in arid and semi-arid land of sub-Saharan Africa. However governments often encourage settlement as a solution to the difficulty of providing health services for mobile pastoralists. This study aimed to assess utilization of institutional delivery and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji zone, Oromia, Ethiopia...
May 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499423/could-cash-and-good-parenting-affect-child-cognitive-development-a-cross-sectional-study-in-south-africa-and-malawi
#15
Lorraine Sherr, Ana Macedo, Mark Tomlinson, Sarah Skeen, Lucie Dale Cluver
BACKGROUND: Social protection interventions, including cash grants and care provision have been shown to effectively reduce some negative impacts of the HIV epidemic on adolescents and families. Less is known about the role of social protection on younger HIV affected populations. This study explored the impact of cash grants on children's cognitive development. Additionally, we examined whether combined cash and care (operationalised as good parenting) was associated with improved cognitive outcomes...
May 12, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480617/comparison-of-arterial-spin-labeling-registration-strategies-in-the-multi-center-genetic-frontotemporal-dementia-initiative-genfi
#16
Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Jan Petr, David L Thomas, Enrico De Vita, David M Cash, Matthias J P van Osch, Xavier Golay, Paul F C Groot, Sebastien Ourselin, John van Swieten, Robert Laforce, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Barbara Borroni, Daniela Galimberti, James B Rowe, Caroline Graff, Francesca B Pizzini, Elizabeth Finger, Sandro Sorbi, Miguel Castelo Branco, Jonathan D Rohrer, Mario Masellis, Bradley J MacIntosh
PURPOSE: To compare registration strategies to align arterial spin labeling (ASL) with 3D T1-weighted (T1w) images, with the goal of reducing the between-subject variability of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multi-center 3T ASL data were collected at eight sites with four different sequences in the multi-center GENetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative (GENFI) study. In a total of 48 healthy controls, we compared the following image registration options: (I) which images to use for registration (perfusion-weighted images [PWI] to the segmented gray matter (GM) probability map (pGM) (CBF-pGM) or M0 to T1w (M0-T1w); (II) which transformation to use (rigid-body or non-rigid); and (III) whether to mask or not (no masking, M0-based FMRIB software library Brain Extraction Tool [BET] masking)...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467193/a-global-comprehensive-review-of-economic-interventions-to-prevent-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviours
#17
Andrew Gibbs, Jessica Jacobson, Alice Kerr Wilson
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. RESULTS: Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452692/a-cash-back-rebate-program-for-healthy-food-purchases-in-south-africa-selection-and-program-effects-in-self-reported-diet-patterns
#18
Ruopeng An, Roland Sturm
OBJECTIVES: A South African insurer launched a rebate program for healthy food purchases for its members, but only available in program-designated supermarkets. To eliminate selection bias in program enrollment, we estimated the impact of subsidies in nudging the population towards a healthier diet using an instrumental variable approach. METHODS: Data came from a health behavior questionnaire administered among members in the health promotion program. Individual and supermarket addresses were geocoded and differential distances from home to program-designated supermarkets versus competing supermarkets were calculated...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417432/evaluating-community-measures-of-healthy-food-access
#19
Melissa L Santorelli, Janice O Okeke
Several community level measures of healthy food access exist, but evaluation efforts have been limited leaving uncertainty about how to prioritize communities for intervention. This study aimed to assess several existing measures to inform statewide public health planning efforts in New Jersey, USA. We assessed agreement between community measures of healthy food access and then evaluated the predictive validity of each measure by describing its association with complete fruit and vegetable cash-value voucher redemption (proportion redeemed ≥70, ≥80, ≥90%) among 30,078 low-income households participating in the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) during 2013-2014...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416691/neurophysiological-dynamics-of-phrase-structure-building-during-sentence-processing
#20
Matthew J Nelson, Imen El Karoui, Kristof Giber, Xiaofang Yang, Laurent Cohen, Hilda Koopman, Sydney S Cash, Lionel Naccache, John T Hale, Christophe Pallier, Stanislas Dehaene
Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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