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Shishi Wu, Helena Legido-Quigley, Julia Spencer, Richard James Coker, Mishal Sameer Khan
BACKGROUND: In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs...
February 23, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Clara Berridge
BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen an influx of location-tracking, activity-monitoring sensors, and Web-cameras to remotely monitor the safety of older adults in their homes and to reduce reliance on in-person assistance. The state of research on these monitoring technologies leaves open crucial financial, social, and ethical cost-benefit questions, which have prevented widespread use. Medicaid is now the first large third-party payer in the United States to pay for these technologies, and their use is likely to increase as states transition to managed long-term services and supports (MLTSS)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Anastasia G Sares, Nicholas E V Foster, Kachina Allen, Krista L Hyde
Purpose: Musical training is often linked to enhanced auditory discrimination, but the relative roles of pitch and time in music and speech are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether pitch and time processing are correlated across individuals and how they may be affected by attention. This study aimed to examine pitch and time processing in speech and tone sequences, taking musical training and attention into account. Method: Musicians (16) and nonmusicians (16) were asked to detect pitch or timing changes in speech and tone sequences and make a binary response...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Zheng-Yi Zhou, Alex Mutebi, Simeng Han, Arielle G Bensimon, Marie Louise Ricculli, Jipan Xie, Anand Dalal, Ken Culver
AIMS: To assess the cost-effectiveness of first-line ceritinib versus crizotinib and platinum doublet chemotherapy for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from a US third-party payer's perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A partitioned survival model with three health states (stable disease, progressive disease, death) was developed over a 20-year time horizon. Ceritinib's efficacy inputs (progression-free and overall survival) were estimated from ASCEND-4; parametric survival models extrapolated data beyond the trial period...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Charles McCrea, Sukhvinder Johal, Shuo Yang, Justin Doan
Background: We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab versus everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from a US payer perspective. Methods: A partitioned survival model consisting of three health states, progression-free survival (PFS), progressive disease, and death, was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravenous nivolumab versus oral everolimus over a lifetime. The proportion of patients in each state was calculated based on parametric distributions fitted to PFS and overall survival (OS) data from CheckMate 025 (N = 821), a large randomized phase 3 trial of nivolumab versus everolimus for advanced RCC...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
Willings Botha, Natasha Donnolley, Marian Shanahan, Georgina M Chambers
INTRODUCTION: In Australia, societal and individual preferences for funding fertility treatment remain largely unknown. This has resulted in a lack of evidence about willingness to pay (WTP) for fertility treatment by either the general population (the funders) or infertile individuals (who directly benefit). Using a stated preference discrete choice experiment (SPDCE) approach has been suggested as a more appropriate method to inform economic evaluations of fertility treatment. We outline the protocol for an ongoing study which aims to assess fertility treatment preferences of both the general population and infertile individuals, and indirectly estimate their WTP for fertility treatment...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Marlena H Shin, Peter E Rivard, Michael Shwartz, Ann Borzecki, Enzo Yaksic, Kelly Stolzmann, Lisa Zubkoff, Amy K Rosen
BACKGROUND: Given that patient safety measures are increasingly used for public reporting and pay-for performance, it is important for stakeholders to understand how to use these measures for improvement. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) are one particularly visible set of measures that are now used primarily for public reporting and pay-for-performance among both private sector and Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals. This trend generates a strong need for stakeholders to understand how to interpret and use the PSIs for quality improvement (QI)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Judith Pauwels, Amanda Weidner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numerous organizations are calling for the expansion of graduate medical education (GME) positions nationally. Developing new residency programs and expanding existing programs can only happen if financial resources are available to pay for the expenses of training beyond what can be generated in direct clinical income by the residents and faculty in the program. The goal of this study was to evaluate trended data regarding the finances of family medicine residency programs to identify what financial resources are needed to sustain graduate medical education programs...
February 2018: Family Medicine
Ozguc Takmaz, Mehmet Resit Asoglu, Mete Gungor
Robotic surgical platforms are now in widespread use in the practice of gynecology all over the world. The introduction of robotic surgery has required some modifications of patient positioning when compared to standard laparoscopic surgery. Optimal patient positioning is likely to be the most essential step of robotic surgery as it provides the technical feasibility to have adequate access to the pelvic structures for performing the surgery. It is prudent to pay attention to preventing patient shifting in Trendelenburg position because of tendency of sliding down toward the direction of the head...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Nadia A Seeteram, Victor Engel, Pallab Mozumder
The Everglades of south Florida, although degraded, imparts vital ecosystem benefits, including contributions to high quality drinking water supplies and habitat for a number of threatened and endangered species. Restoration of the Everglades can improve the provision of these benefits but also may impose tradeoffs with competing societal demands. This study focuses on understanding public preferences for Everglades restoration and estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) values for restored ecosystem services (ES) through the implementation of a discrete choice experiment (DCE)...
February 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christina Estela Brown, Mahadev G Bhat, Jennifer S Rehage, Ali Mirchi, Ross Boucek, Victor Engel, Jerald S Ault, Pallab Mozumder, David Watkins, Michael Sukop
This research develops an integrated methodology to determine the economic value to anglers of recreational fishery ecosystem services in Everglades National Park that could result from different water management scenarios. The study first used bio-hydrological models to link managed freshwater inflows to indicators of fishery productivity and ecosystem health, then link those models to anglers' willingness-to-pay for various attributes of the recreational fishing experience and monthly fishing effort. This approach allowed us to estimate the foregone economic benefits of failing to meet monthly freshwater delivery targets...
January 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pu Guo, Aimei Liu, Deyu Huang, Qinghua Wu, Zainab Fatima, Yanfei Tao, Guyue Cheng, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed, and is also present in processed cereal products. The most common route of T-2 toxin exposure in humans is through dietary ingestion. The cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin include modifications to feeding behavior, nervous disorders, cardiovascular alterations, immunosuppression, and hemostatic derangements. However, to date, effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have rarely been reported. In the present study, female Wistar rat were given a single dose of T-2 toxin at 2 mg/kg b...
January 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Chrisanne Wilks, Erik Krisle, Kimberly Westrich, Kristina Lunner, David Muhlestein, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Optimized medication use involves the effective use of medications for better outcomes, improved patient experience, and lower costs. Few studies systematically gather data on the actions accountable care organizations (ACOs) have taken to optimize medication use. OBJECTIVES: To (a) assess how ACOs optimize medication use; (b) establish an association between efforts to optimize medication use and achievement on financial and quality metrics; (c) identify organizational factors that correlate with optimized medication use; and (d) identify barriers to optimized medication use...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Manon K Schweinfurth, Michael Taborsky
The prevalence of reciprocal cooperation in non-human animals is hotly debated [1, 2]. Part of this dispute rests on the assumption that reciprocity means paying like with like [3]. However, exchanges between social partners may involve different commodities and services. Hitherto, there is no experimental evidence that animals other than primates exchange different commodities among conspecifics based on the decision rules of direct reciprocity. Here, we show that Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) apply direct reciprocity rules when exchanging two different social services: food provisioning and allogrooming...
January 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Dongdong Wang, Jingjing Wang, Yuhai Bi, Dandan Fan, Hong Liu, Ning Luo, Zongtong Yang, Shouchun Wang, Wenya Chen, Jianlin Wang, Shouzhen Xu, Jiming Chen, Yi Zhang, Yanbo Yin
H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been isolated from various species of wild birds and domestic poultry in the world, and occasionally transmitted to humans. Although H9N2 AIVs are seldom isolated from ostriches, seven such strains were isolated from sick ostriches in China between 2013 and 2014. Sequence analysis showed several amino acid changes relating to viral adaptation in mammals were identified. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that these isolates were quadruple reassortant viruses, which are different from the early ostrich isolates from South Africa or Israel...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lindsey E Greviskes, Leslie Podlog, Maria Newton, Leland E Dibble, Ryan D Burns, Wanda Pillow, Morgan S Hall, Christopher Hammer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence rates steadily increasing and long-term adherence to regular physical activity and exercise often difficult to achieve, it is imperative to investigate factors promoting adherence to secondary prevention programs (SPP) that help limit the progression of motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms of the disease. Caring interactions between patients and their rehabilitation team may be particularly germane to individuals with PD, given the physical and psychosocial issues that often accompany this disease (eg, loss of physical function, depression, apathy, and cognitive impairments)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
Carlos E Palant, Samir S Patel, Lakhmir S Chawla
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with both short- and long-term clinical consequences including progression to chronic kidney disease. Recovery of renal function has gained importance, as interventions to prevent or treat AKI are limited. Basing recovery on a return of serum creatinine values excludes mounting evidence that AKI, even when reversible, is a very serious clinical event that will result in a significant number of both renal and extra-renal complications such as late stage kidney disease, major cardiovascular events, and death...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
David He, Brian Grant, Ronald R Holden, Ian Gilron
Introduction: The distinction between pain at rest and pain evoked by touch or movement has important clinical implications and may be associated with different mechanisms. However, current methods of clinical pain assessment pay little attention to directly distinguishing between these contrasting components of symptom burden. Objectives: We developed the 10-item "Functional Impact of Neuropathic Evoked and Spontaneous Symptom Evaluation" questionnaire designed to distinguish between rest and evoked pain...
March 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Alessandro Bravetti, Pablo Padilla
Cooperation is a central mechanism for evolution. It consists of an individual paying a cost in order to benefit another individual. However, natural selection describes individuals as being selfish and in competition among themselves. Therefore explaining the origin of cooperation within the context of natural selection is a problem that has been puzzling researchers for a long time. In the paradigmatic case of the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), several schemes for the evolution of cooperation have been proposed...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Henry Wc Leung, Agnes Lf Chan, Shyh-Yau Wang
Objectives To model the cost-utility of trastuzumab combined with docetaxel for patients with HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancer (mBC) without prior other chemotherapy. Methods A Markov cohort simulation was used to model the cost-utility of trastuumab combined with docetaxel (TD) for women with HER-2 positive metastatic breast cancer without prior chemotherapy from the perspective of Taiwan National Health Service (NHS). The clinical and economic data were retrieved directly from the Catastrophic Illness Patient Databases (CIPD)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
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