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Jared Ament, Zhuo Yang, Bart Thaci, Edwin Kulubya, Wellington Hsu, Gerrit Bouma, Kee D Kim
STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility analysis of an annular closure device (ACD) based on data from a prospective, multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) OBJECTIVE.: Determine the cost-effectiveness of a novel ACD in a patient population at high risk for recurrent herniation following discectomy SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Lumbar disc herniation patients with annular defect widths ≥ 6 mm are at high risk for recurrent herniation following limited discectomy. Recurrent herniation is associated with worse clinical outcomes and greater healthcare costs...
June 20, 2018: Spine
Younan Xia, Thenner S Rodrigues, Ming Zhao, Tung-Han Yang, Kyle D Gilroy, Anderson G M da Silva, Pedro H C Camargo
There is a growing interest in controlling the synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals and thus tailoring their properties toward various applications. In this context, choosing an appropriate combination of reagents (e.g., salt precursor, reductant, capping agent, and stabilizer) plays a pivotal role in enabling the synthesis of metal nanocrystals with diversified sizes, shapes, and structures. Here we present a comprehensive review that highlights one of the key reagents for the synthesis of metal nanocrystals via chemical reduction: the reductants...
June 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
April M Randle, Rachel B Spigler, Susan Kalisz
Coexisting plant congeners often experience strong competition for resources. Competition for pollinators can result in direct fitness costs via reduced seed set or indirect costs via heterospecific pollen transfer (HPT), causing subsequent gamete loss and unfit hybrid offspring production. Autonomous selfing may alleviate these costs, but to preempt HPT, selfing should occur early, before opportunities for HPT occur (i.e. "preemptive selfing hypothesis"). We evaluated conditions for this hypothesis in Collinsia sister species, C...
June 19, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Tarundeep Singh, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Gopal Singh, Manmeet Kaur, Sukhvinder Kaur, Preeti Thaware, Rajesh Kumar
Objective: To determine pattern of health care utilization and extent of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure in rural areas of Punjab in India. Methods: Using multi stage sampling procedure, 660 participants were selected from 110 villages, out of all 22 districts; 440 participants had utilized outpatient care in past 15 days, and 220 had been hospitalized in past one year. Pretested semistructured questionnaires were used to enquire about household and healthcare expenditures...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Paul R Torgerson, Simon Rüegg, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Arie H Havelaar, Alexandra P M Shaw, Jonathan Rushton, Niko Speybroeck
The burden of human diseases in populations, or for an individual, is frequently estimated in terms of one of a number of Health Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). The Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a widely accepted HALY metric and is used by the World Health Organization and the Global Burden of Disease studies. Many human diseases are of animal origin and often cause ill health and production losses in domestic animals. The economic losses due to disease in animals are usually estimated in monetary terms...
June 2018: One Health
Shuyan Yang, Elsie Yan, Xue Bai
BACKGROUND: The subject of sexuality in older adults has remained grossly understudied in China, despite the country having the largest older population in the world. OBJECTIVE: Guided by the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study used path analysis to test an integrated path model for sexual activity with sexual interest as a mediator. METHODS: Survey data was collected from a representative sample of 688 community-dwelling older Chinese adults aged 60 or above residing in Tianjin, China...
June 1, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Ingrid Liodden, Are Hugo Pripp, Arne Johan Norheim
BACKGROUND: Patients entering a treatment have expectancy to outcome based on their previous experience, the information received, and the credibility of the treatment. Once the treatment has started, patients may detect and interpret contextual cues and somatic state. Influenced and conditioned by positive or negative interpretations, their reappraisal may improve or worsen the treatment outcome. The aims were to investigate whether parental pre-treatment expectancies towards acupuncture differ compared to post-treatment expectancies, and assess predictors for possible change of parental expectancy...
June 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yang Hu, Lisheng He, Lei Zhang, Thorben Wölk, Jean-Claude Dreher, Bernd Weber
People tend to pay the generosity they receive from a person forward to someone else even if they have no chance to reciprocate directly. This phenomenon, known as paying-it-forward (PIF) reciprocity, crucially contributes to the maintenance of a cooperative human society by passing kindness among strangers and has been widely studied in evolutionary biology. To further examine its neural implementation and underlying computations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) together with computational modeling...
June 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Wolfgang G Kunz, Myriam G Hunink, Konstantinos Dimitriadis, Thomas Huber, Franziska Dorn, Felix G Meinel, Bastian O Sabel, Ahmed E Othman, Maximilian F Reiser, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Wieland H Sommer, Kolja M Thierfelder
Purpose To determine the impact of patient age on the cost-effectiveness of endovascular therapy (EVT) in addition to standard care (SC) in large-vessel-occlusion stroke for patients aged 50 to 100 years in the United States. Materials and Methods A decision-analytic Markov model was used to estimate direct and indirect lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Age-dependent input parameters were obtained from the literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis for age at index stroke were used...
June 12, 2018: Radiology
Claire L Adida, Adam Chabi Bouko, Alex Verink, Ganz Chockalingam, Jennifer Burney
We present a rationale for, and results from, the pilot of a direct individual-to-institution remittance system in the context of school fee payment in rural Benin. Data confirm that school fees act as an impediment to educational attainment, and in very rural poor settings such as northern Benin, students often depend on extended family and kinship networks to pay fees. But existing remittance options are costly, in terms of fees, time, and risk. We pilot a new technology bundle in a single public high school in northeastern Benin, and evaluate its effectiveness...
2018: PloS One
Hye Yin Park, Yun-Chul Hong, Ichiro Kawachi, Juhwan Oh
BACKGROUND: While controversies on limitation of coverage by the national health insurance and relatively high direct or "out-of-pocket" household payments by the national health insurance in South Korea still remain, potential unfavorable influence of the insufficiency of the universal health coverage on depression has not yet been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Baseline information were obtained from a community cohort (The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study) of middle-aged subjects without depression at enrollment period (2001-2002)...
2018: PloS One
Vivian Uchenna Onyia, Maduka Donatus Ughasoro, Obinna Emmanuel Onwujekwe
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy carries a proven huge health burden but the economic challenges have not been properly evaluated in Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based approach. Structured questionnaire was used to collect microeconomic data from pregnant women, on the medical and nonmedical cost of malaria to them. RESULTS: A total of 371 questionnaires were analysed (93%; 371/400), out of 400 respondents interviewed...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Anatolii M Hrynzovskyi, Irina A Holovanova, Sergei T Omelchuk, Olena V Kuzminska, Anastasia A Hrynzovska, Olena O Karlova, Vitalii Ye Kondratiuk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The public health system modernization history is based upon the progress in state country administration and administration of healthcare within the sectorwide approach. The WHO European Bureau pays much attention to the National Health Service systems development while implementing their basic policies. The Ukrainian state health service management was founded basing on the regulatory field of the Russian Empire, using the European healthcare promotion experience...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Lesia Lymar, Sergii Omelchuk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The article is dedicated to the motives of medical career choice studied by Ukrainian and foreign scientists, and by the authors themselves. The authors define the main motives, grouped into the pragmatic, social, scientific and professional ones, paying particular attention to the proposed reforms of the Healthcare of Ukraine "Health 2020". The aim: The study has been aimed at detection of the medical career choice factor groups and their possible correction during the medical training, defining possible influence of the Ukrainian Healthcare reformation onto alterations of the medical career choice...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Stanislav G Saksonov, Tetiana S Gruzeva, Oksana P Vitovska
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The effectiveness and efficiency of the medical sector workforce directly depend on health of medical professionals. Scientific literature pays considerable attention to the health of surgeons, physicians, obstetricians, gynecologists, infectionists and dentists paying very little, if any, attention to health problems of ophthalmologists. This study is intended to bridge this gap. The aim at revealing the current situation and characteristics of health status of ophthalmologists using the results of sociological research and identifying health problems of the respondents in order to determine reliable preventive measures...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Aabhash Shrestha, Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Antonio Tricoli, Sheng Dai, Shi Zhang Qiao
Quantum dots (QDs) of lead chacogenides (e.g. PbS, PbSe and PbTe) are attractive near-infrared (NIR) active materials that show great potential in a wide range of applications such as photovoltaics (PV), optoelectronics, sensors, bio-electronics and many others. The successful utilization of these functional materials requires deep understanding of their synthesis, properties and material modification process. The surface ligand plays an essential role in the production of QDs, post-synthesis modification and their integration to practical applications...
June 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Fereshteh Ahmadi, Pelin Erbil, Nader Ahmadi, Önver A Cetrez
The present paper looks at the influence of culture on Turkish cancer patients' use of meaning-making coping, paying particular attention to religious, spiritual, and existential coping methods. Data were collected using an interview study (n = 25, 18 women, age range 20-71). Individuals were recruited at an oncology center and a psychiatry clinic in Istanbul. The main focus of the study has been on existential meaning-making coping, which is characterized by finding power inside oneself, altruism, family love, a search for meaning by contemplating philosophical issues, and having a positive life perspective (shukran-thankfulness)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Hajime Sueki
In Japan, implementation of suicide prevention policies is mainly supported by public funds. However, it is unclear what kinds of suicide prevention strategies people prefer. We conducted a survey to clarify people's preferences regarding suicide prevention strategies adopted in Japan. This was a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey. Participants were recruited through a lecture held by the first author at their university. We distributed questionnaires to 324 people present at the lecture; 249 completed questionnaires were included in the final analysis...
June 6, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ute R Hülsheger, Alicia Walkowiak, Marie S Thommes
While previous work on mindfulness has focused predominantly on the benefits of mindfulness and of mindfulness interventions, the present article addresses the question of how natural experiences of mindfulness can be promoted in the context of work. Accordingly, this article sheds light on day-to-day fluctuations in workload and recovery experiences (psychological detachment and sleep quality) as antecedents of state mindfulness. Furthermore, this study extends extant research that has documented beneficial effects of mindfulness on subsequent recovery experiences by arguing that the relationship between mindfulness and recovery experiences is reciprocal rather than unidirectional...
June 2018: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Omondi Michelle Atieno, Sylvia Opanga, Antony Martin, Amanj Kurdi, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND: Currently the majority of cancer deaths occur in low and middle-income countries where there are appreciable funding concerns. In Kenya, most patients currently pay out of pocket for treatment and those who are insured are generally not covered for the full costs of treatment. This places a considerable burden on households if family members develop cancer. However, the actual cost of cancer treatment in Kenya is unknown. Such an analysis is essential to better allocate resources as Kenya strives towards universal healthcare...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
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