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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095475/the-influence-of-community-health-resources-on-effectiveness-and-sustainability-of-community-and-lay-health-worker-programs-in-lower-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#1
Daniel H de Vries, Robert Pool
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of practical knowledge and effective interventions required to reduce priority health problems in low-income countries, poor and vulnerable populations are often not reached. One possible solution to this problem is the use of Community or Lay Health Workers (CLHWs). So far, however, the development of sustainability in CLHW programs has failed and high attrition rates continue to pose a challenge. We propose that the roles and interests which support community health work should emerge directly from the way in which health is organized at community level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095411/optimal-management-strategies-for-primary-hpv-testing-for-cervical-screening-cost-effectiveness-evaluation-for-the-national-cervical-screening-program-in-australia
#2
Kate T Simms, Michaela Hall, Megan A Smith, Jie-Bin Lew, Suzanne Hughes, Susan Yuill, Ian Hammond, Marion Saville, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Several countries are implementing a transition to HPV testing for cervical screening in response to the introduction of HPV vaccination and evidence indicating that HPV screening is more effective than cytology. In Australia, a 2017 transition from 2-yearly conventional cytology in 18-20 to 69 years to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in 25 to 74 years will involve partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 with direct referral to colposcopy for this higher risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal management of women positive for other high-risk HPV types (not 16/18) ('OHR HPV')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092005/investigation-of-diethylstilbestrol-residue-level-in-human-urine-samples-by-a-specific-monoclonal-antibody
#3
Dai Zhang, Lifang Zhou, Yajing Lei, Zhan Zhou, Jie Zhou, Shuqing Chen
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is used as a kind of animal feed additive and affects people's health through the food chain. The purpose of this study is to detect the residue level of DES in 576 human urine samples directly. DES-BSA was used to immunize Balb/c mice. The monoclonal antibody was produced by hybridoma that was screened through cell fusion techniques. Finally, we developed the indirect competitive ELISA method to analyze 576 human urine samples from Zhejiang Province, China. The IC50 of this method was 3...
January 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077769/dog-directed-speech-why-do-we-use-it-and-do-dogs-pay-attention-to-it
#4
Tobey Ben-Aderet, Mario Gallego-Abenza, David Reby, Nicolas Mathevon
Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075696/dual-eligibles-experience-of-care-with-north-carolina-s-patient-centered-medical-home
#5
Sarah Grantham, Debora Goetz Goldberg, Donna Lind Infeld
Although individuals enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligibles) are among those with the nation's greatest need, at $300 billion per year, their care is also expensive and beset by quality problems. Previous research found problems associated with inadequate coordination of benefits and services; however, these studies have largely used quantitative approaches and focused on providers-few studies have explored the perspective of dual eligible patients. In an effort to improve care and reduce costs, North Carolina (NC) developed a Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) model centered on a continuous relationship with a primary care provider who is responsible for coordination of services and addressing patients' health care needs by providing direct services or arranging care with other qualified professionals...
January 11, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071785/bioactive-polyphenols-and-cardiovascular-disease-chemical-antagonists-pharmacological-agents-or-xenobiotics-that-drive-an-adaptive-response
#6
REVIEW
Katarzyna Goszcz, Garry G Duthie, Derek Stewart, Stephen J Leslie, Ian L Megson
Polyphenols are widely regarded to have a wide range of health-promoting qualities, including in the sphere of cardiovascular disease. Historically, the benefits have been linked to their well-recognised powerful antioxidant activity. However, the concept that the beneficial effects are attributable to direct antioxidant activity in vivo does not pay sufficient heed to the fact that polyphenols degrade rapidly, are poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolised, resulting in very low bioavailability. This review explores alternative mechanisms by which polyphenols, or their metabolites, exert biological activity via mechanisms that can be activated by physiologically relevant concentrations...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065213/the-ecology-of-social-learning-in-animals-and-its-link-with-intelligence
#7
Carel van Schaik, Sereina Graber, Caroline Schuppli, Judith Burkart
Classical ethology and behavioral ecology did not pay much attention to learning. However, studies of social learning in nature reviewed here reveal the near-ubiquity of reliance on social information for skill acquisition by developing birds and mammals. This conclusion strengthens the plausibility of the cultural intelligence hypothesis for the evolution of intelligence, which assumes that selection on social learning abilities automatically improves individual learning ability. Thus, intelligent species will generally be cultural species...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048555/su-c-207b-01-a-novel-graphics-processing-units-gpu-implementation-of-discrete-wavelet-transformation
#8
A Liu, M Chen, S Jiang, W Lu
PURPOSE: To design and implement a GPU-based discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) to be used in medical image reconstruction, image processing, and data compression. DWTs are widely used in medical physics, but the computation of DWTs is time consuming for large volumetric data. An efficient parallel implementation of DWTs is essential for many time sensitive applications, such as 4DCT. METHODS: We choose Daubechies wavelet transformations as a benchmark, implementing both DWT and inverse DWT (IDWT)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025295/dynamic-recrystallization-during-deformation-of-polycrystalline-ice-insights-from-numerical-simulations
#9
Maria-Gema Llorens, Albert Griera, Florian Steinbach, Paul D Bons, Enrique Gomez-Rivas, Daniela Jansen, Jens Roessiger, Ricardo A Lebensohn, Ilka Weikusat
The flow of glaciers and polar ice sheets is controlled by the highly anisotropic rheology of ice crystals that have hexagonal symmetry (ice lh). To improve our knowledge of ice sheet dynamics, it is necessary to understand how dynamic recrystallization (DRX) controls ice microstructures and rheology at different boundary conditions that range from pure shear flattening at the top to simple shear near the base of the sheets. We present a series of two-dimensional numerical simulations that couple ice deformation with DRX of various intensities, paying special attention to the effect of boundary conditions...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012612/paying-the-price-for-body-evolution-the-role-of-evolution-in-disorders-of-body-representation
#10
Francesca G Magnani, Anna Sedda
Since its beginning, research about cognitive representation of our bodies has debated over multiple representations models. Furthermore, recent years have seen a rise in the study of body representation disorders and related impairments. However, why human beings manifest so many deficits is still a mystery. Considering human evolution, frontal brain regions are well known for their changes in dimensions and connections. Less known is that parietal and temporal lobes encountered similar changes. These areas, especially in the right hemisphere, are crucial for body representation...
January 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009055/life-history-evolution-reproduction-and-the-origins-of-sex-dependent-aging-and-longevity
#11
Robert C Brooks, Michael G Garratt
Males and females in many species differ in how they age and how long they live. These differences have motivated much research, concerning both their evolution and the underlying mechanisms that cause them. We review how differences in male and female life histories have evolved to shape patterns of aging and some of the mechanisms and pathways involved. We pay particular attention to three areas where considerable potential for synergy between mechanistic and evolutionary research exists: (1) the role of estrogens, androgens, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in sex-dependent growth and reproduction; (2) sexual conflict over mating rate and fertility, and how mate presence or mating can become an avenue for males and females to directly affect each other's life span; and (3) the link between dietary restriction and aging, and the emerging understanding that only the restriction of certain nutrients is involved and that this is linked to reproduction...
December 23, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006012/potential-cost-effectiveness-of-an-influenza-vaccination-program-offering-microneedle-patch-for-vaccine-delivery-in-children
#12
Carlos Wong, Minghuan Jiang, Joyce H S You
OBJECTIVE: The influenza vaccine coverage rate of children is low in Hong Kong. Microneedle patches (MNPs) is a technology under development for painless delivery of vaccines. This study aimed to examine the potential clinical outcomes and direct medical costs of an influenza program offering MNP vaccine to children who have declined intramuscular (IM) vaccine in Hong Kong. METHODS: A decision model was designed to compare potential outcomes between IM vaccine program and a program offering MNP vaccine to those declined IM vaccine (IM/MNP program) in a hypothetical cohort of children over one-year time horizon...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002834/cost-effectiveness-and-budget-effect-analysis-of-a-population-based-skin-cancer-screening
#13
Lore Pil, Isabelle Hoorens, Katrien Vossaert, Vibeke Kruse, Isabelle Tromme, Niko Speybroeck, Lieven Annemans, Lieve Brochez
Importance: Several epidemiological studies show an alarming global increase in incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives: To examine the cost-effectiveness of 2 population-based skin cancer screening methods and to assess their budget effect and the influence on skin cancer epidemiological findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A Markov model with a latent period of 20 years and a time horizon of 50 years was used to analyze the cost-effectiveness (societal perspective) and budget effect (public health care payer perspective) of 2 population-based skin cancer screening programs in Belgium compared with the absence of a screening program...
December 14, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993541/diabetes-microvascular-complications-a-clinical-update
#14
REVIEW
H Khalil
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to summarise the empirical evidence addressing diabetes microvascular complications and management. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Microvascular disease tends to occur predominantly in tissues where glucose uptake is independent of insulin activity because these tissues are exposed to glucose levels that correlate very closely with blood glucose levels. These metabolic injuries cause altered blood flow and changes in endothelial permeability, extravascular protein deposition and coagulation resulting in organ dysfunction which in turn lead to microvascular complications...
December 13, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993331/honoring-the-past-and-looking-to-the-future-updates-on-seminal-behavior-therapy-publications-on-current-therapies-and-future-directions
#15
Michelle G Newman
This is the introduction to the second of two special issues in honor of the 50(th) anniversary of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. The goal of this issue is to pay tribute to prior seminal Behavior Therapy publications on current therapies and future directions, to provide an updated review of important topics covered by these papers, and to make recommendations for the future. Each invited paper in this issue highlights a particular Behavior Therapy publication's contribution to our understanding and also provides an updated review or meta-analysis on the topic of the original paper...
November 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991983/-financial-allocations-in-the-system-for-social-protection-in-health-in-mexico-challenges-for-strategic-purchasing
#16
Miguel Ángel González-Block, Alejandro Figueroa, Ignacio García-Téllez, José Alarcón
Objective: The financial coordination of the System of Social Protection in Health (SPSS) was analyzed to assess its support to strategic purchasing. Materials and methods: Official reports and surveys were analyzed. Results: SPSS covers a capita of 2 765 Mexican pesos, equivalent to 0.9% of GDP. The Ministry of Health contributed 35% of the total, state governments 16.7% and beneficiaries 0.06%. The National Commission for Social Protection in Health received 48...
September 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982384/use-of-and-access-to-oral-and-injectable-contraceptives-in-brazil
#17
Mareni Rocha Farias, Silvana Nair Leite, Noemia Urruth Leão Tavares, Maria Auxiliadora Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Tatiane da Silva Dal Pizzol, Vera Lucia Luiza, Luiz Roberto Ramos, Sotero Serrate Mengue
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of current use of oral and injectable contraceptives by Brazilian women, according to demographic and socioeconomic variables and issues related to access to those medicines. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based analytical study with probability sampling based on data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), carried out between September 2013 and February 2014 in 20,404 Brazilian urban households...
December 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981151/a-review-on-cost-effectiveness-and-cost-utility-of-psychosocial-care-in-cancer-patients
#18
REVIEW
Femke Jansen, Valesca van Zwieten, Veerle M H Coupé, C René Leemans, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
Several psychosocial care interventions have been found effective in improving psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients. At present, there is increasingly being asked for information on the value for money of this type of intervention. This review therefore evaluates current evidence from studies investigating cost-effectiveness or cost-utility of psychosocial care in cancer patients. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science yielding 539 unique records, of which 11 studies were included in the study...
April 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977679/an-extended-normalization-model-of-attention-accounts-for-feature-based-attentional-enhancement-of-both-response-and-coherence-gain
#19
Philipp Schwedhelm, B Suresh Krishna, Stefan Treue
Paying attention to a sensory feature improves its perception and impairs that of others. Recent work has shown that a Normalization Model of Attention (NMoA) can account for a wide range of physiological findings and the influence of different attentional manipulations on visual performance. A key prediction of the NMoA is that attention to a visual feature like an orientation or a motion direction will increase the response of neurons preferring the attended feature (response gain) rather than increase the sensory input strength of the attended stimulus (input gain)...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971453/direct-cost-estimation-of-psoriatic-arthritis-treatment-in-turkey-results-from-a-delphi-panel
#20
S Akar, I Irtenli, Y Karaaslan, S Kiraz, S Malhan, E Oksuz, S Pay, S Cavusoglu Sezen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
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