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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817332/individual-versus-community-level-risk-compensation-following-preexposure-prophylaxis-of-hiv
#1
Martin Holt, Dean A Murphy
We analyzed the concept of risk compensation and how it has been applied in HIV prevention, paying particular attention to the strategy of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In risk compensation, reduced perceptions of risk after the introduction of a preventative intervention lead to more frequent risk-taking behavior. Such a change may undermine the intervention's protective benefits. We found that many studies purporting to investigate risk compensation do not assess or report changes in perceptions of risk, instead relying on behavioral measures...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816825/is-two-level-cervical-disc-replacement-more-cost-effective-than-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-at-7-years
#2
Robert K Merrill, Steven J McAnany, Todd J Albert, Sheeraz A Qureshi
STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the 7-year cost-effectiveness of two-level cervical disc replacement (CDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: CDR and ACDF are both effective treatment strategies for managing degenerative conditions of the cervical spine. CDR has been shown to be a more-cost effective intervention in the short term, but the long-term cost-effectiveness has not been established...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782996/an-assessment-of-willingness-to-pay-by-maize-and-groundnut-farmers-for-aflatoxin-biocontrol-product-in-northern-nigeria
#3
Bamikole Ayedun, Godwin Okpachu, Victor Manyong, Joseph Atehnkeng, Adebayo Akinola, G A Abu, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Tahirou Abdoulaye
In Nigeria, Aflasafe is a registered biological product for reducing aflatoxin infestation of crops from the field to storage, making the crops safer for consumption. The important questions are whether farmers will purchase and apply this product to reduce aflatoxin contamination of crops, and if so under what conditions. A study was carried out to address these questions and assess determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for the product among maize and groundnut farmers in Kano and Kaduna states in Nigeria...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782905/dog-ecology-and-its-implications-for-rabies-control-in-gwagwalada-federal-capital-territory-abuja-nigeria
#4
P P Mshelbwala, D K Akinwolemiwa, B V Maikai, R G Otolorin, N A Maurice, J S Weese
The objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of a dog population, including their accessibility to vaccination and health care, in urban and semiurban areas of Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Direct street counts and a house-to-house survey of city streets were performed. A total of 451 households were surveyed comprising 43.7% urban and 53.3% semiurban areas. A total of 848 owned dogs were identified, along with 3,115 corresponding humans. With a dog-to-human ratio of 1:3.7, the dog population in the study area was estimated as 103,758...
August 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781935/procedures-in-child-deaths-in-the-netherlands-a-comparison-with-child-death-review
#5
Sandra Gijzen, Jessica Petter, Monique P L'Hoir, Magda M Boere-Boonekamp, Ariana Need
AIM: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent procedures of organizations involved in the (health) care for children in The Netherlands cover these four objectives of CDR. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Organizations in the Eastern part of The Netherlands and Dutch umbrella organizations involved in child (health) care were asked to provide their protocols, guidelines or other working agreements that describe their activities and responsibilities in case of a child's death...
2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780384/influences-of-microgap-and-micromotion-of-implant-abutment-interface-on-marginal-bone-loss-around-implant-neck
#6
REVIEW
Yang Liu, Jiawei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To review the influences and clinical implications of micro-gap and micro-motion of implant-abutment interface on marginal bone loss around the neck of implant. DESIGN: Literatures were searched based on the following Keywords: implant-abutment interface/implant-abutment connection/implant-abutment conjunction, microgap, micromotion/micromovement, microleakage, and current control methods available. The papers were then screened through titles, abstracts, and full texts...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776867/pain-and-dualism-which-dualism
#7
Elisa Arnaudo
In the literature, the allegation to pursue approaches grounded on Cartesian dualism in medicine is widespread. In this paper, I argue that dualism informing biomedicine has not only to do with a Cartesian view of mind and body, but that multiple dualisms are at play in biomedical approach to disease, especially regarding complex pain conditions. A form of epistemological dualism entailing the primacy of the physician's model of knowledge on the patient's direct experience of suffering is pointed out as the source of the inadequate medical attitude towards pain, particularly in relation to its complex forms such as fibromyalgic syndrome...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771775/outcomes-of-interventions-for-nurse-leaders-wellbeing-at-work-a-quantitative-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Arja Häggman-Laitila, Johanna Romppanen
AIM: To gather, assess and synthesise current research knowledge on interventions that aimed to improve nurse leaders' well-being at work. BACKGROUND: The research evidence on interventions for nurse leaders' well-being at work has been sporadic and there are a lack of evidence-based recommendations for effective interventions that inform practice, future studies and education. DESIGN: A quantitative systematic review, in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration procedures and the reporting guidance in the PRISMA statement...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766185/when-your-mind-skips-what-your-eyes-fixate-how-forced-fixations-lead-to-comprehension-illusions-in-reading
#9
Elizabeth R Schotter, Mallorie Leinenger, Titus von der Malsburg
The phenomenon of forced fixations suggests that readers sometimes fixate a word (due to oculomotor constraints) even though they intended to skip it (due to parafoveal cognitive-linguistic processing). We investigate whether this leads readers to look directly at a word but not pay attention to it. We used a gaze-contingent boundary paradigm to dissociate parafoveal and foveal information (e.g., the word phone changed to scarf once the reader's eyes moved to it) and asked questions about the sentence to determine which one the reader encoded...
August 1, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765710/cost-utility-of-collaborative-care-for-the-treatment-of-comorbid-major-depressive-disorder-in-outpatients-with-chronic-physical-conditions-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-the-general-hospital-setting-cc-dim
#10
Maartje Goorden, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Kirsten M van Steenbergen-Weijenburg, Eva K Horn, Aartjan Tf Beekman, Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen
PURPOSE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent in patients with a chronic physical condition, and this comorbidity has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Research has shown that collaborative care (CC) may be a cost-effective treatment. However, its cost-effectiveness in this patient group has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of CC for the treatment of comorbid MDD in chronically ill patients in the outpatient general hospital setting...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764762/housing-conditions-of-urban-households-with-aboriginal-children-in-nsw-australia-tenure-type-matters
#11
Melanie J Andersen, Anna B Williamson, Peter Fernando, Darryl Wright, Sally Redman
BACKGROUND: Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH)...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764679/economic-evaluation-of-stepped-care-versus-usual-care-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-older-adults-with-vision-impairment-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Hilde P A van der Aa, Ger H M B van Rens, Judith E Bosmans, Hannie C Comijs, Ruth M A van Nispen
BACKGROUND: A stepped-care program was found effective in preventing depressive and anxiety disorders in older adults with vision impairment. However, before a decision can be made about implementation, the cost-effectiveness of this program should be investigated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of stepped-care versus usual care within low vision rehabilitation. METHODS: An economic evaluation from a societal perspective was performed alongside a multicenter randomized controlled trial...
August 1, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751244/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-afatinib-versus-gefitinib-for-first-line-treatment-of-advanced-egfr-mutated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancers
#13
Christos Chouaid, Laura Luciani, Katell LeLay, Pascal Do, Jaafar Bennouna, Maurice Perol, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Alain Vergnengre, Gérard de Pouvourville
BACKGROUND: The irreversible ErbB-family-blocker afatinib and the reversible EGFR tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor gefitinib were compared in the multicenter, international, randomized, head-to-head phase-2b LUX-Lung 7 trial for first-line treatment of advanced EGFR-mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancers (EGFRm+ NSCLCs). Afatinib and gefitinib costs and patients' outcomes in France were assessed. METHODS: A partitioned survival model was designed to assess the cost-effectiveness of afatinib vs...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750092/cost-effectiveness-of-molecular-point-of-care-testing-for-influenza-viruses-in-elderly-patients-at-ambulatory-care-setting
#14
Joyce H S You, Lok-Pui Tam, Nelson L S Lee
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of antiviral therapy in elderly patients with influenza is associated with reduced risk of extra clinic visit, hospitalization and death. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of molecular POCT for detection of influenza viruses in Hong Kong elderly patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) in the outpatient clinics. METHODS: A decision analytic model was used to simulate outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of elderly patients presented with ILI at outpatient clinics during peak season of influenza with two diagnostic approaches: Rapid molecular assay (POCT-PCR group) and clinical judgement with no POCT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747952/human-permanent-ectoparasites-recent-advances-on-biology-and-clinical-significance-of-demodex-mites-narrative-review-article
#15
REVIEW
Dorota Litwin, WenChieh Chen, Ewa Dzika, Joanna Korycińska
BACKGROUND: Demodex is a genus of mites living predominantly in mammalian pilosebaceous units. They are commonly detected in the skin of face, with increasing numbers in inflammatory lesions. Causation between Demodex mites and inflammatory diseases, such as rosacea, blepharitis, perioral and seborrhoeic dermatitis or chalazion, is controversially discussed. Clinical observations indicate a primary form of human Demodex infection. The aim of this review was to highlight the biological aspects of Demodex infestation and point out directions for the future research...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747481/adaptation-to-public-goods-cheats-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Siobhán O'Brien, Adela M Luján, Steve Paterson, Michael A Cant, Angus Buckling
Cooperation in nature is ubiquitous, but is susceptible to social cheats who pay little or no cost of cooperation yet reap the benefits. The effect such cheats have on reducing population productivity suggests that there is selection for cooperators to mitigate the adverse effects of cheats. While mechanisms have been elucidated for scenarios involving a direct association between producer and cooperative product, it is less clear how cooperators may suppress cheating in an anonymous public goods scenario, where cheats cannot be directly identified...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740442/techniques-used-for-the-screening-of-hemoglobin-levels-in-blood-donors-current-insights-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Rajendra Chaudhary, Anju Dubey, Atul Sonker
Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb) estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors' health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients' health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738457/-survey-of-economic-burden-of-hepatitis-b-related-diseases-in-12-areas-in-china
#18
Q S Ma, S Liang, H W Xiao, S X Zhang, G H Zhuang, Y H Zou, H Z Tan, J C Liu, Y H Zhang, A Q Xu, L Zhang, X X Feng, D S Hu, F Z Wang, F Q Cui, X F Liang
Objective: Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China, so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking. This study aimed to analyze the direct, indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China. Methods: The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733871/a-mdr-transporter-contributes-to-the-different-extracellular-production-of-sesquiterpene-pyridine-alkaloids-between-adventitious-root-and-hairy-root-liquid-cultures-of-tripterygium-wilfordii-hook-f
#19
Guo-Peng Miao, Juan Han, Ji-Feng Zhang, Chuan-Shu Zhu, Xing Zhang
TwMDR1 transports sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, wilforine and wilforgine, into the hairy roots of T. wilfordii Hook.f. resulting in low secretion ratio of alkaloids. Hairy roots (HRs) exhibit high growth rate and biochemical and genetic stability. However, varying secondary metabolites in HR liquid cultures mainly remain in root tissues, and this condition may affect cell growth and cause inconvenience in downstream extraction. Studies pay less attention to adventitious root (AR) liquid cultures though release ratio of some metabolites in AR liquid cultures is significantly higher than that of HR...
July 21, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728463/perceived-accessibility-to-services-and-sites-among-israeli-older-adults
#20
Adi Vitman-Schorr, Liat Ayalon, Rabia Khalaila
OBJECTIVE: To explore the direct and indirect effects of settlement type (rural-kibbutz vs. urban mid-size cities) on perceived accessibility by sociospatial factors: (a) connection to the living area, (b) familiarity with the living area, (c) social participation, and (d) perceived safety of the living area. METHOD: A convenience sample of 279 older adults aged 65 and older was interviewed. Using bootstrapping, we tested the strength and significance of the conditional indirect effects of four simultaneous mediators of the relationship between settlement type and perceived accessibility...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
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