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Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Lorenz Walthert, Isabelle Lesur, Andrea R Pluess, René Graf, Catherine Bodénès, Christoph Sperisen, Antoine Kremer, Felix Gugerli
Testing how populations are locally adapted and predicting their response to their future environment is of key importance in view of climate change. Landscape genomics is a powerful approach to investigate genes and environmental factors involved in local adaptation. In a pooled amplicon sequencing approach of 94 genes in 71 populations, we tested if >3'500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the three most common oak species in Switzerland (Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. robur) show an association with abiotic factors related to local topography, historical climate, and soil characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Giacomo Veronese, Federico Germini, Stella Ingrassia, Ombretta Cutuli, Valeria Donati, Luca Bonacchini, Maura Marcucci, Andrea Fabbri
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation is widely performed by emergency physicians. We aimed to determine the accuracy of interpretation of potential ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) ECGs by emergency physicians. METHODS: Thirty-six ECGs resulted in putative STEMI diagnoses were selected. Participants were asked to focus on whether or not the ECG in question met the diagnostic criteria for an acutely blocked coronary artery causing a STEMI...
October 19, 2016: Acute Cardiac Care
Suman Chowdhury, Debnarayan Jana
Inspired by the success of graphene, various two dimensional (2D) structures in free standing (FS) (hypothetical) form and on different substrates have been proposed recently. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, is predicted to possess massless Dirac fermions and to exhibit an experimentally accessible quantum spin Hall effect. Since the effective spin-orbit interaction is quite significant compared to graphene, buckling in silicene opens a gap of 1.55 meV at the Dirac point. This band gap can be further tailored by applying in plane stress, an external electric field, chemical functionalization and defects...
October 18, 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Q M J van der Vliet, N R Paulino Pereira, S J Janssen, F J Hornicek, M L Ferrone, J A M Bramer, C N van Dijk, J H Schwab
BACKGROUND: It would be helpful for the decision-making process of patients with metastatic bone disease to understand which patients are at risk for worse quality of life (QOL), pain, anxiety, and depression. Normative data, and where these stand compared with general population scores, can be useful to compare and interpret results of similar patients or patient groups, but to our knowledge, there are no such robust data. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We wished (1) to assess what factors are independently associated with QOL, pain interference, anxiety, and depression in patients with metastatic bone disease, and (2) to compare these outcomes with general US population values...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
M Iki, Y Fujita, J Tamaki, K Kouda, A Yura, Y Sato, J S Moon, A Harano, K Hazaki, E Kajita, M Hamada, K Arai, K Tomioka, N Okamoto, N Kurumatani
: Frail elderly individuals have elevated risks of both fracture and mortality. We found that incident fractures were associated with an increased risk of death even after adjusting for pre-fracture frailty status as represented by physical performance tests and laboratory tests for common geriatric diseases in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. INTRODUCTION: While fractures reportedly increase the risk of mortality, frailty may complicate this association, generating a false-positive result...
October 18, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Samuel Beaulieu, Antoine Comby, Baptiste Fabre, Dominique Descamps, Amélie Ferré, Gustavo Garcia, Romain Géneaux, Francois Légaré, Laurent Nahon, Stéphane Petit, Thierry Ruchon, Bernard Pons, Valérie Blanchet, Yann Mairesse
Measuring the ultrafast dynamics of chiral molecules in the gas phase has been a long standing and challenging quest of molecular physics. The main limitation to reach that goal has been the lack of highly sensitive chiroptical measurement. By enabling chiral discrimination with up to several 10% of sensitivity, photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) offers a solution to this issue. However, tracking ultrafast processes requires measuring PECD with ultrashort light pulses. Here we compare the PECD obtained with different light sources, from the extreme ultraviolet to the mid-infrared range, leading to different ionization regimes: single-photon, resonance-enhanced multiphoton, above-threshold and tunnel ionization...
October 18, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Thomas Schwartz, Louise Pyndt Diederichsen, Ingrid E Lundberg, Ivar Sjaastad, Helga Sanner
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM (JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also be affected as well. Even though clinically significant heart involvement is uncommon, heart disease is one of the major causes of death in IIM. Recent studies show an increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in JDM and DM/PM, which need attention...
2016: RMD Open
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
María Carolina Bermúdez Rey, Torin K Clark, Wei Wang, Tania Leeder, Yong Bian, Daniel M Merfeld
We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Degala Sai Krishna, Dey Soumadip
PURPOSE: The main aim of our study was to assess and evaluate the efficacy, long standing outcome and infection of porous polyethylene implants in treatment of orbital floor fractures. PATIENT AND METHODS: Twelve patients with fractures of orbital floor were included in the study. The cause of fracture was road traffic accident, self fall and cow hit respectively. They also complained of enophthalmos (n = 9), diplopia (n = 3), restricted eye movement (n = 2), impairment of infraorbital nerve (n = 3) and dystopia (n = 6)...
September 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
D Zbogar, J J Eng, W C Miller, A V Krassioukov, M C Verrier
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. SETTING: Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. METHODS: Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
Pramod K Guru, Devon M Ramaeker, Arundhathi Jeybalan, Nirav A Shah, Sheldon Bastacky, Kelly V Liang
Pregnancy-related renal diseases are unique and need special attention, both for diagnosis and management. The major confounding factors for diagnosis are the physiological multiorgan changes that occur throughout the gestational period. Proper diagnosis of the renal disease is also important, given the impact of varied management options both on the maternal and fetal health. A young middle-aged female with a long-standing history of diabetes presented to the hospital with worsening proteinuria in her second trimester of pregnancy...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Wael M Hamza, Hanan H Ali, Samia M Gabal, Sawsan A Fadda
The chronic dysfunction stands as the most common cause of renal allograft loss. During the nineties of the past century, this condition was referred to as chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Since 2005, CAN has been assigned by the eighth Banff schema to four main categories via histopathological and immunohistochemical findings including chronic antibodymediated rejection (CAMR), chronic T-cell-mediated rejection (CTMR), chronic cyclosporine toxicity (CNITOX), and "interstitial fibrosis (IF)/tubular atrophy; not otherwise specified (NOS)" to eliminate the term CAN...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Nikolaus E Wolter, Sharon L Cushing, Luis D Vilchez Madrigal, Adrian L James, Jennifer Campos, Blake C Papsin, Karen A Gordon
OBJECTIVE: To determine if children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (UHL) demonstrate impaired balance compared with their normal hearing (NH) peers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, case-control study. METHODS: Balance was assessed in14 UHL and 14 NH children using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test-2 (BOT-2) and time to fall (TTF) in an immersive, virtual-reality laboratory. Postural control was quantified by center of pressure (COP) using force plates...
September 30, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Johann Lebon, Razieh Barsalani, Hélène Payette, Martin Brochu, Isabelle J Dionne
: Background/Study context: Determining whether C-reactive protein (CRP), blood lipids, total and trunk fat mass (FM), and waist circumference (WC) are associated with changes in physical capacity over 3 years (Δ) in elderly. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two men and women 68-83 years of age participated in a 3-year follow-up study. Physical capacity was measured using five objective tests: (1) Timed Up and Go (TUG), (2) chair stand (CS), (3) normal walking speed (NWS), (4) fast walking speed (FWS), and (5) one-leg stand (LS), along with physical performance score (PPS) at baseline (T1) and 3 years later (T4)...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Peter Schickhofer, Dušan Hamar
: Background/Study Context: The study estimates the reliability of peak velocity and peak power during chair rising and chair jumping tests and their ability to discriminate between different age and physical activity level groups. METHODS: Physically active and sedentary individuals (N = 262) of different ages (young: 22.9 ± 2.0 years, range: 21-25 years; older: 63.1 ± 1.8 years, range: 61-65 years) performed, in random order, chair rising and chair jumping tests on a force plate...
October 2016: Experimental Aging Research
Je-Hyung Kim, Christopher J K Richardson, Richard P Leavitt, Edo Waks
Interactions between solid-state quantum emitters and cavities are important for a broad range of applications in quantum communication, linear optical quantum computing, nonlinear photonics, and photonic quantum simulation. These applications often require combining many devices on a single chip with identical emission wavelengths in order to generate two-photon interference, the primary mechanism for achieving effective photon-photon interactions. Such integration remains extremely challenging due to inhomogeneous broadening and fabrication errors that randomize the resonant frequencies of both the emitters and cavities...
October 17, 2016: Nano Letters
L Tyler Mix, Julia Kirpich, Masato Kumauchi, Jie Ren, Mikas Vengris, Wouter D Hoff, Delmar S Larsen
We explored the photoisomerization mechanisms in novel homologs of Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP) from Leptospira biflexa to identify conserved features and functional diversity in the primary photochemistry of this family of photoreceptors. In close agreement with the prototypical PYP from Halorhodospira halophila, we observe excited state absorbance near 375 nm and stimulated emission near 500 nm, with triphasic excited state decay. While the excited state decay for Lbif PYP is the slowest among known PYPs due to the redistribution of the amplitudes of the three decay components, the quantum yield for productive photocycle entry is very similar to that of Hhal PYP...
October 17, 2016: Biochemistry
Zahed Shami, Seyed Mojtaba Amininasab, Pegah Shakeri
A straightforward approach was successfully developed to fabricate a well-designed three-dimensional rough sheetlike MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) array to stand vertically on poly(acrylonitrile) porous nanofibrous membranes based on an electrospun-nanofiber-templated in situ hydrothermal strategy, and then the surface was modified with cyclohexanecarboxylic acid. The as-spun highly dense ordered sheetlike LDH porous nanofabric exhibited a superior durability in superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, which has achieved high oil-removing capability including both oil harvesting and oil separation to harvest/separate a wide range of organic solvents and oils from an oil-water mixture and, especially, exhibited a very good recycling and reusing performance...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elyse N Mowle, Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, M Brent Donnellan, Shannon Toney Smith, Dustin B Wygant, Martin Sellbom
Inconsistent or careless responding to self-report measures is estimated to occur in approximately 10% of university research participants and may be even more common among offender populations. Inconsistent responding may be a result of a number of factors including inattentiveness, reading or comprehension difficulties, and cognitive impairment. Many stand-alone personality scales used in applied and research settings, however, do not include validity indicators to help identify inattentive response patterns...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Assessment
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