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E M Venturini, F A Drummond, A K Hoshide, A C Dibble, L B Stack
Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sarah A Johnson, Rafaela G Feresin, Negin Navaei, Arturo Figueroa, Marcus L Elam, Neda S Akhavan, Shirin Hooshmand, Shirin Pourafshar, Mark E Payton, Bahram H Arjmandi
Oxidative stress and inflammation are central to the development of a number of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and previous research suggests that blueberry consumption may attenuate these processes. The present study investigated the effects of blueberries on blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and antioxidant defense in postmenopausal women with pre- and stage 1-hypertension. In a randomized, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 pre- and stage 1-hypertensive postmenopausal women aged 45 to 65 years were randomly assigned to receive 22 g freeze-dried highbush blueberry powder per day (Blueberry) or 22 g placebo powder per day (Control) for 8 weeks...
January 6, 2017: Food & Function
Mayra L Sánchez-Villavicencio, Melinda Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Wilhelmina Kalt, Chantal Matar, Francisco J Alarcón Aguilar, Maria Del Carmen Escobar Villanueva, Pierre S Haddad
BACKGROUND: Obesity and Type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic status worldwide. Wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is a plant of the North American Aboriginal traditional pharmacopeia with antidiabetic potential, especially when it is fermented with Serratia vaccinii. METHODS: A phytochemical fractionation scheme was used to identify potential bioactive compounds as confirmed by HPLC retention times and UV-Vis spectra. 3 T3-L1 cells were differentiated for 7 days with either Normal Blueberry Extract (NBE), Fermented Blueberry Extract (FBE/F1), seven fractions and four pure compounds...
January 6, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
K Kanno
Iitate, a village in Fukushima Prefecture, suffered little damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake that struck on 11 March 2011. However, all village residents were belatedly ordered to evacuate 1 month after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. My family and I had to evacuate to the city of Fukushima, located 40 km from our home in Iitate. This came at a time when my husband and I were planning to start research on Natsuhaze (a type of blueberry grown in Japan) after his retirement...
January 1, 2017: Annals of the ICRP
Snehal Joshi, Amy B Howell, Doris H D'Souza
Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
Alison Lacombe, Brendan A Niemira, Joshua B Gurtler, Joseph Sites, Glenn Boyd, David H Kingsley, Xinhui Li, Haiqiang Chen
Viruses are currently the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks, most of which are associated with foods consumed raw. Cold plasma (CP) is an emerging novel nonthermal technology that can be used to surface decontaminate foods. This study investigated CP technology for the nonthermal inactivation of human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and murine norovirus (MNV), on the surface of blueberries. Blueberries (5 g) were weighed into sterile 4 oz. glass jars and inoculated with TV, 5 log PFU/g. Samples were treated with atmospheric CP for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s at a working distance of 7...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
Marwa F K Aly, Dylan A Kraus, Hannah J Burrack
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) attacks a wide range of host plants, including crops such as blueberries, cherries, caneberries, and strawberries. We evaluated the influence of three temperatures (1.1, 3.9, and 5.0 °C) and four exposure durations (6, 12, 24, and 72 h) that were selected to represent typical grower practices on survival and development time of immature D. suzukii in artificial diet and one temperature and duration (1.67 °C for 72 h) in fruit (blueberries and raspberries)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Long Tan, Hongpeng Yang, Wei Pang, Haiqiang Li, Wei Liu, Shoudan Sun, Nan Song, Wanqi Zhang, Yugang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Blueberry (BB) can provide a wide range of antioxidant benefits for AD. There have amounts of evidences shown that BB extracts could improve brain functions. However, the details are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible mechanism involved in the improvement of learning and memory capacity from BB extracts in AD. METHODS: APP/PS1 transgenic mice were fed BB extracts for 16 weeks. The capacity of learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) test, and long-term potentiation (LTP) was determined to evaluate hippocampal neuronal plasticity at the end of administration...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Tainara de Moraes Crizel, Vanessa Stahl Hermes, Alessandro de Oliveira Rios, Simone Hickmann Flôres
Millions of tons of fruit byproducts are discarded globally every day by food processing industries, which represents a considerable loss in terms of nutrients. The goal of this work was to evaluate the physico-chemical, technological, antioxidant properties and characterization of carotenoids for papaya, pineapple, olive byproducts and anthocyanins for blueberry byproducts. The results indicated that these byproducts are good sources of total dietary fiber, especially olive byproducts (53.68%). The powder from papaya byproducts showed the highest values for the technological characteristics of water holding capacity (8...
November 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Kevin B Rice, Brent D Short, Sharon K Jones, Tracy C Leskey
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in North America and Europe that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding the specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistencies in trap performance indicate the need for the development of improved monitoring and management techniques for this insect. Our studies focused on identifying attractive visual cues for adult D. suzukii and incorporating these cues into a potential attract-and-kill tactic for D...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Zachary Scott, Howard S Ginsberg, Steven R Alm
We identified 41 species of native bees from a total of 1,083 specimens collected at cultivated highbush blueberry plantings throughout Rhode Island in 2014 and 2015. Andrena spp., Bombus spp., and Xylocopa virginica (L.) were collected most often. Bombus griseocollis (DeGeer), B. impatiens Cresson, B. bimaculatus Cresson, B. perplexus Cresson, and Andrena vicina Smith collected the largest mean numbers of blueberry pollen tetrads. The largest mean percent blueberry pollen loads were carried by the miner bees Andrena bradleyi Viereck (91%), A...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
Ziyu Wang, Wei Pang, Congcong He, Yibo Li, Yugang Jiang, Changjiang Guo
Blueberry anthocyanin-enriched extracts (BAE) at three doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg) were administered by oral gavage to rats exposed to 10 mg/kg fine particulate matter (PM2.5) three times a week. A positive control group was exposed to PM2.5 without BAE treatment. We analyzed heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), and histopathology, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system injuries, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function, and apoptosis. Results indicated that BAE, particularly at 1...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Roberta Tranquillini, Nicoletta Scaramuzza, Elettra Berni
In this study, screening of some raw materials used to produce pasteurized products was carried out to determine the occurrence and ecological distribution of heat-resistant fungi. The search for Heat Resistant Mould Spores (HRMS) resulted in the isolation of a limited number of fungal genera: Arthrinium, Aspergillus with either Eurotium-type or Neosartorya-type ascoma, Byssochlamys, Hyphodermella, Monascus, Penicillium, Rasamsonia, Talaromyces and Thermoascus. Sexual aspergilli constituted an overwhelming percentage of the mycobiota, totaling 93...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Wenjie Wang, Jooyeoun Jung, Yanyun Zhao
For improving stability of fruit anthocyanins (ACN), this study investigated the use of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a macroion crosslinking agent to develop blueberry anthocyanin extract (BB)-loaded chitosan (CH)-CNC microcapsules, and compared with CH-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) ones. The yield of microcapsules (∼6.9g) and total monomeric anthocyanin recovery (∼94%) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in CH-CNC microcapsules than those (∼0.3g and ∼33%, respectively) in CH-TPP microcapsules. ACN distribution (%) in CH-CNC microcapsules was 61% on the surfaces, 12% bound with the matrix, and 27% in cores, but that in CH-TPP microcapsules was mostly presented on the surfaces (99%)...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qian Wu, Yang Zhang, Hu Tang, Yashu Chen, Bijun Xie, Chao Wang, Zhida Sun
Anthocyanins were isolated from blueberry wine lees using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (semipreparative HPLC) and then identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Our results show that malvidin-3-hexose (Mv-3-hex) and malvidin-3-(6'acetyl)-hexose (Mv-3-ace-hex) are the major components in the anthocyanin extracts of blueberry wine lees (>90%). The binding characteristics of Mv-3-hex and Mv-3-ace-hex with β-glucosidase were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and molecular docking...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M D López, P Jara, S Fischer, R Wilckens, H Serri, M Schoebitz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Ana Luengo Escobar, Miren Alberdi, Patricio Acevedo, Mariana Machado, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
Despite the Montreal protocol and the eventual recovery of the ozone layer over Antarctica, there are still concerns about increased levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation in the Southern Hemisphere. UV-B induces physiological, biochemical and morphological stress responses in plants, which are species-specific and different even for closely related cultivars. In woody plant species, understanding of long-term mechanisms to cope with UV-B-induced stress is limited. Therefore, a greenhouse UV-B daily course simulation was performed for 21 days with two blueberry cultivars (Legacy and Bluegold) under UV-BBE irradiance doses of 0, 0...
December 10, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Denise Nemeth, John G Lambrinos, Bernadine C Strik
Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
April J Stull
Blueberries are a rich source of polyphenols, which include anthocyanin bioactive compounds. Epidemiological evidence indicates that incorporating blueberries into the diet may lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). These findings are supported by pre-clinical and clinical studies that have shown improvements in insulin resistance (i.e., increased insulin sensitivity) after obese and insulin-resistant rodents or humans consumed blueberries. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps...
November 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Carol L Cheatham, Itzel Vazquez-Vidal, Amanda Medlin, V Saroja Voruganti
Blueberries are rich in antioxidants and may protect against disease. Uric acid accounts for about 50% of the antioxidant properties in humans. Elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to determine the effect of blueberries on SUA in older adults. Participants (n = 133, 65-80 years) experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomized in a double-blind 6-month clinical trial to either blueberry or placebo. A reference group with no MCI received no treatment...
November 29, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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