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gamma-aminobutyric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511229/hplc-based-activity-profiling-for-gabaa-receptor-modulators-in-searsia-pyroides-using-a-larval-zebrafish-locomotor-assay
#1
Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli, Hannes van der Merwe, Maria De Mieri, Anke Wilhelm, Marco Stadler, Pieter C Zietsman, Steffen Hering, Kenneth Swart, Matthias Hamburger
A dichloromethane extract from leaves of Searsia pyroides potentiated gamma aminobutyric acid-induced chloride currents by 171.8 ± 54% when tested at 100 µg/mL in Xenopus oocytes transiently expressing gamma aminobutyric acid type A receptors composed of α1β2γ2s subunits. In zebrafish larvae, the extract significantly lowered pentylenetetrazol-provoked locomotion when tested at 4 µg/mL. Active compounds of the extract were tracked with the aid of HPLC-based activity profiling utilizing a previously validated zebrafish larval locomotor activity assay...
May 16, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489041/effect-of-gamma-irradiation-on-2-acetyl-1-pyrroline-content-gaba-content-and-volatile-compounds-of-germinated-rice-thai-upland-rice
#2
Sompong Sansenya, Yanling Hua, Saowapa Chumanee, Kannika Phasai, Chanun Sricheewin
Aroma intensity in rice is related to the level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The accumulation of 2AP in rice has been synthesized via l-proline metabolism by inactive betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (BADH2), which activates 2AP accumulation. Meanwhile, active BADH2 inhibits 2AP accumulation but activates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation. The improvement of 2AP content in rice has been reported under certain conditions, such as high salinity, water treatment, and reduction of high intensity solar exposure...
May 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487639/reticular-formation-connections-underlying-horizontal-gaze-the-central-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-cmrf-as-a-conduit-for-the-collicular-saccade-signal
#3
Niping Wang, Eddie Perkins, Lan Zhou, Susan Warren, Paul J May
The central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF) occupies much of the core of the midbrain tegmentum. Physiological studies indicate that it is involved in controlling gaze changes, particularly horizontal saccades. Anatomically, it receives input from the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) and it has downstream projections to the brainstem, including the horizontal gaze center located in the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). Consequently, it has been hypothesized that the cMRF plays a role in the spatiotemporal transformation needed to convert spatially coded collicular saccade signals into the temporally coded signals utilized by the premotor neurons of the horizontal gaze center...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485933/hplc-based-activity-profiling-for-gabaa-receptor-modulators-in-extracts-validation-of-an-approach-utilizing-a-larval-zebrafish-locomotor-assay
#4
Fahimeh Moradi-Afrapoli, Samad Nejad Ebrahimi, Martin Smiesko, Matthias Hamburger
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system and a target for numerous clinically important drugs used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy. A series of allosteric GABAA receptor agonists was identified previously with the aid of HPLC-based activity profiling, whereby activity was tracked with an electrophysiological assay in Xenopus laevis oocytes. To accelerate the discovery process, an approach has been established for HPLC-based profiling using a larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) seizure model induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a pro-convulsant GABAA receptor antagonist...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480987/gaba-metabolism-and-its-role-in-gamma-band-oscillatory-activity-during-auditory-processing-an-mrs-and-eeg-study
#5
Christine Wyss, Desmond H Y Tse, Michael Kometer, Jürgen Dammers, Rita Achermann, N Jon Shah, Wolfram Kawohl, Irene Neuner
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are believed to have inhibitory and exhibitory neuromodulatory effects that regulate the brain's response to sensory perception. Furthermore, frequency-specific synchronization of neuronal excitability within the gamma band (30-80 Hz) is attributable to a homeostatic balance between excitation and inhibition. However, our understanding of the physiological mechanism underlying gamma rhythms is based on animal models. Investigations of the relationship between GABA concentrations, glutamate concentrations, and gamma band activity in humans were mostly restricted to the visual cortex and are conflicting...
May 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479740/effect-of-shankhpushpi-on-alcohol-addiction-in-mice
#6
Mahi Heba, Sana Faraz, Sugato Banerjee
Alcohol addiction is a worldwide problem. It has mainly two components: dependence and withdrawal. Characteristic properties of most anti-addictive compounds include anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and nootropic actions. Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis. Convolvulaceae), known ethnopharmacologically as brain tonic, possess all the properties mentioned above. Here, we screen shankhpushpi for possible anti-addictive potential. Effect of shankhpushpi churna was measured on ethanol withdrawal anxiety using elevated plus maze...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470724/evolutionary-mechanisms-that-generate-morphology-and-neural-circuit-diversity-of-the-cerebellum
#7
REVIEW
Masahiko Hibi, Koji Matsuda, Miki Takeuchi, Takashi Shimizu, Yasunori Murakami
The cerebellum is derived from the dorsal part of the anterior-most hindbrain. The vertebrate cerebellum contains glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic Purkinje cells (PCs). These cerebellar neurons are generated from neuronal progenitors or neural stem cells by mechanisms that are conserved among vertebrates. However, vertebrate cerebella are widely diverse with respect to their gross morphology and neural circuits. The cerebellum of cyclostomes, the basal vertebrates, has a negligible structure...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456768/corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-antagonist-differentially-inhibits-freezing-behavior-and-changes-gamma-aminobutyric-acidergic-activity-in-the-amygdala-in-low-and-high-anxiety-rats
#8
A Skorzewska, A Wislowska-Stanek, M Lehner, D Turzynska, A Sobolewska, P Krzascik, A Plaznik
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of non-peptide corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist (antalarmin) administration on rat conditioned fear responses and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic brain activity (GAD67 expression and GABA concentration) in low-anxiety (LR) and high-anxiety (HR) rats. The animals were divided into the LR and HR groups based on the duration of their conditioned freezing response in the first contextual fear test. After 28 days, the animals were re-subjected to the contextual fear training and test...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456544/gastroprotective-effect-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-on-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-injury
#9
Min Xie, Haihong Chen, Shaoping Nie, Wei Tong, Junyi Yin, Mingyong Xie
The present study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury and gastric epithelial cells injury. Rats were divided into control group, vehicle group and GABA-treated group (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day). After GABA ingestion for 14 days, rats except the control group were given 1 mL pure ethanol by oral gavage in order to induce acute gastric mucosal lesion. The human gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 was incubated with GABA (100, 200 and 400 μM) for 24 h, followed by treatment with 8% ethanol for 3 h to induce cell injury...
April 26, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453773/increased-cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-gaba-testosterone-and-estradiol-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#10
Jennifer F Kawwass, Kristen M Sanders, Tammy L Loucks, Lisa Cencia Rohan, Sarah L Berga
STUDY QUESTION: Do cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) differ in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as compared to eumenorrheic, ovulatory women (EW)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with PCOS displayed higher CSF levels of GABA and E2, and possibly T, than EW. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The chronic anovulation characteristic of PCOS has been attributed to increased central GnRH drive and resulting gonadotropin aberrations...
April 27, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452429/metabolomic-profiling-distinction-of-human-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-from-a-common-rat-model
#11
JianHua Han, Anika L Dzierlenga, Zhengqiang Lu, Dean D Billheimer, Elmira Torabzadeh, April D Lake, Hui Li, Petr Novak, Petia Shipkova, Nelly Aranibar, Donald Robertson, Michael D Reily, Lois D Lehman-McKeeman, Nathan J Cherrington
OBJECTIVE: Characteristic pathological changes define the progression of steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and are correlated to metabolic pathways. A common rodent model of NASH is the methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet. The objective of this study was to perform full metabolomic analyses on liver samples to determine which pathways are altered most pronouncedly in this condition in humans, and to compare these changes to rodent models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
April 28, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450504/complete-genome-sequence-of-the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-producing-strain-streptococcus-thermophilus-apc151
#12
Daniel M Linares, Silvia Arboleya, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton
Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%.
April 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449569/baclofen-abuse-due-to-its-hypomanic-effect-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-and-comorbid-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Soumitra Ghosh, Dhrubajyoti Bhuyan
Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor agonist used as an anti-craving agent for treatment of alcohol dependence. It has gained popularity in the recent times because it is well tolerated even in patients with hepatic impairments. Herein we are summarizing the latest literature about baclofen induced hypomania and are reporting a case of baclofen abuse because of its mood elevating property in a patient of alcohol dependence with comorbid major depressive disorder. Literature review and case study of a 36-year-old male with alcohol dependence with comorbid major depressive disorder was prescribed with tablet baclofen as an anti-craving agent along with antidepressant medicines...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449558/in-silicomodel-driven-assessment-of-the-effects-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-deficiency-on-glutamate-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-implications-for-understanding-schizophrenia-pathophysiology
#14
Rimjhim Agrawal, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Objective: Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Methods: Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444767/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-dora-22-lowers-histamine-levels-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-prefrontal-cortex-without-lowering-hippocampal-acetylcholine
#15
Lihang Leon Yao, Andres Ramirez, Anthony J Roecker, Steven Fox, Jason Uslaner, Sean M Smith, Robert Hodgson, Paul J Coleman, John J Renger, Christopher J Winrow, Anthony L Gotter
Chronic insomnia is defined as a persistent difficulty with sleep initiation maintenance or non-restorative sleep. The therapeutic standard of care for this condition is treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor modulators, which promote sleep but are associated with a panoply of side effects, including cognitive and memory impairment. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) have recently emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach that acts via a distinct and more selective wake-attenuating mechanism with the potential to be associated with milder side effects...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443033/high-gama-aminobutyric-acid-contents-involved-in-abamectin-resistance-and-predation-an-interesting-phenomenon-in-spider-mites
#16
Zhifeng Xu, Yanchao Liu, Peng Wei, Kaiyang Feng, Jinzhi Niu, Guangmao Shen, Wencai Lu, Wei Xiao, Jinjun Wang, Guy J Smagghe, Qiang Xu, Lin He
Abamectin has been widely used as an insecticide/acaricide for more than 30 years because of its superior bioactivity. Recently, an interesting phenomenon was identified in the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, an important pest in agriculture. The gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in a laboratory abamectin resistant strain of T. cinnabarinus (AbR) were significantly increased. Decreases in activity and mRNA expression of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) were responsible for GABA accumulation in AbR mites...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442196/mechanism-of-neuronal-activity-and-synaptic-transmission-in-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla
#17
Liangchen Zhao, Tianji Liu, Rutao Xu, Liu He, Man Duan, Dejun Xu
Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays an essential role in blood pressure homeostasis. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of neuronal activity and synaptic transmission in the RVLM. Medulla oblongata slices were carefully obtained from brainstem of rats. With continues perfusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), the spontaneous firing of slices and amplitudes were assayed by conventional whole cell patch-clamp recording after addition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441273/case-report-of-physiologic-phenibut-dependence-treated-with-a-phenobarbital-taper-in-a-patient-being-treated-with-buprenorphine
#18
Emily Brunner, Robert Levy
: This case report describes the development of dependence to phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist, in a patient concurrently being treated with buprenorphine. The patient experienced withdrawal symptoms which were successfully treated with a phenobarbital taper based on a protocol to treat sedative use disorder. This case report provided an example of the development of a phenibut use disorder and also brought up a public health question of whether phenibut should therefore be officially classified and monitored...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438981/acute-inflammation-reveals-gabaa-receptor-mediated-nociception-in-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-via-pge2-receptor-4-signaling
#19
In Jeong Jang, Alexander J Davies, Nozomi Akimoto, Seung Keun Back, Pa Reum Lee, Heung Sik Na, Hidemasa Furue, Sung Jun Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Seog Bae Oh
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarizes dorsal root ganglia (DRG) primary afferent neurons through activation of Cl(-) permeable GABAA receptors but the physiologic role of GABAA receptors in the peripheral terminals of DRG neurons remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral GABAA receptors in nociception using a mouse model of acute inflammation. In vivo, peripheral administration of the selective GABAA receptor agonist muscimol evoked spontaneous licking behavior, as well as spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron firing, after pre-conditioning with formalin but had no effect in saline-treated mice...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434133/stiripentol-in-the-management-of-epilepsy
#20
REVIEW
Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell
Stiripentol is a structurally unique antiepileptic drug that has several possible mechanisms of action, including diverse effects on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and novel inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase. Because of its inhibition of several cytochrome P450 enzymes, it has extensive pharmacokinetic interactions, which often necessitates reduction in doses of certain co-therapies, particularly clobazam. Stiripentol also has a neuroprotective action, by reducing calcium-mediated neurotoxicity...
May 2017: CNS Drugs
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