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gamma-aminobutyric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033788/zinc-as-a-neuromodulator-in-the-central-nervous-system-with-a-focus-on-the-olfactory-bulb
#1
REVIEW
Laura J Blakemore, Paul Q Trombley
The olfactory bulb (OB) is central to the sense of smell, as it is the site of the first synaptic relay involved in the processing of odor information. Odor sensations are first transduced by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) before being transmitted, by way of the OB, to higher olfactory centers that mediate olfactory discrimination and perception. Zinc is a common trace element, and it is highly concentrated in the synaptic vesicles of subsets of glutamatergic neurons in some brain regions including the hippocampus and OB...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032011/sitagliptin-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-pregabalin-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-acute-epileptogenesis-in-mice-implication-of-oxidative-inflammatory-apoptotic-and-autophagy-pathways
#2
Manar A Nader, Hayam Ateyya, Mohamed El-Shafey, Nagla A El-Sherbeeny
The current investigation aimed at studying the anti-epileptogenic effect of sitagliptin. The possible effect of the drug in combination with pregabalin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- induced seizures was studied. In addition, the postulated mechanisms that could mediate such effect were explored namely, suppression of oxidative stress and neuro-inflammatory markers, autophagy and apoptosis. Seven days prior to PTZ (60 mg/kg, sc) injection, mice were treated with sitagliptin (5, 15, and 60 mg/kg, twice daily, orally) or pregabalin (30 mg/kg, once daily, orally) or their combination...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023146/is-there-a-role-for-combined-use-of-gabapentin-and-pregabalin-in-pain-control-too-good-to-be-true
#3
Helen Senderovich, Geetha Jeyapragasan
Gabapentin (Neurontin) and Pregabalin (Lyrica) are first and second-generation α2δ [1,2] ligands, respectively, and are both approved for use as adjunctive therapy in pain control. Although they do not bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors they have been successfully used to treat neuropathic pain conditions. Their mechanism of action is not yet fully understood, but research has demonstrated promising results. Despite their similarities, they have been used in combination in both clinical and research situations, and have been noted to have a synergistic effect in pain control without concern for clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions...
October 12, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018828/repurposing-lesogaberan-to-promote-human-islet-cell-survival-and-%C3%AE-cell-replication
#4
Jide Tian, Hoa Dang, Angela Hu, Willem Xu, Daniel L Kaufman
The activation of β-cell's A- and B-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA-Rs and GABAB-Rs) can promote their survival and replication, and the activation of α-cell GABAA-Rs promotes their conversion into β-cells. However, GABA and the most clinically applicable GABA-R ligands may be suboptimal for the long-term treatment of diabetes due to their pharmacological properties or potential side-effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Lesogaberan (AZD3355) is a peripherally restricted high-affinity GABAB-R-specific agonist, originally developed for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that appears to be safe for human use...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993191/the-anti-aging-protein-klotho-is-induced-by-gaba-therapy-and-exerts-protective-and-stimulatory-effects-on-pancreatic-beta-cells
#5
Gérald J Prud'homme, Yelena Glinka, Merve Kurt, Wenjuan Liu, Qinghua Wang
Systemic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) therapy prevents or ameliorates type 1 diabetes (T1D), by suppressing autoimmune responses and stimulating pancreatic beta cells. In beta cells, it increases insulin secretion, prevents apoptosis, and induces regeneration. It is unclear how GABA mediates these effects. We hypothesized that Klotho is involved. It is a multi-functional protein expressed in the kidneys, brain, pancreatic beta cells, other tissues, and is cell-bound or soluble. Klotho knockout mice display accelerated aging, and in humans Klotho circulating levels decline with age, renal disease and diabetes...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991279/el-papel-del-%C3%A3-cido-gamma-aminobut%C3%A3-rico-en-la-depresi%C3%A3-n-de-la-mujer
#6
Mónica Flores-Ramos, Margus Salinas, Armando Carvajal-Lohr, Lorena Rodríguez-Bores
other: La depresión es un trastorno psiquiátrico frecuente e incapacitante. Es causada por diferentes factores, entre los que figura el aspecto neurobiológico. En el presente trabajo presentamos evidencias acerca del papel del ácido gamma-aminobutírico (GABA) en la etiopatogenia de la depresión, con énfasis en la mujer. Los estudios en animales fundamentan la implicación del GABA en la depresión, mientras que los estudios clínicos han demostrado que el GABA se encuentra disminuido en líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) y plasma en pacientes con depresión...
2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987406/ametryn-removal-by-metarhizium-brunneum-biodegradation-pathway-proposal-and-metabolic-background-revealed
#7
Rafał Szewczyk, Anna Kuśmierska, Przemysław Bernat
Ametryn is a representative of a class of s-triazine herbicides absorbed by plant roots and leaves and characterized as a photosynthesis inhibitor. It is still in use in some countries in the farming of pineapples, soybean, corn, cotton, sugar cane or bananas; however, due to the adverse effects of s-triazine herbicides on living organisms use of these pesticides in the European Union has been banned. In the current study, we characterized the biodegradation of ametryn (100 mg L(-1)) by entomopathogenic fungal cosmopolite Metarhizium brunneum...
October 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987273/tranexamic-acid-impairs-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-mediated-by-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-type-a
#8
Hedwig Irl, Stephan Kratzer, Stefan Schwerin, Eberhard Kochs, Manfred Blobner, Gerhard Schneider, Gerhard Rammes, Rainer Haseneder
High-dose application of tranexamic acid (TXA), a widely used antifibrinolytic drug, can cause seizures in patients undergoing surgery. Mechanistically, seizures are considered to arise from an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission, whose main transmitters are gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TXA on neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, a structure that plays a pivotal role in human epilepsy...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986640/reduced-gaba-levels-correlate-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Guanmei Cao, Richard A E Edden, Fei Gao, Hao Li, Tao Gong, Weibo Chen, Xiaohui Liu, Guangbin Wang, Bin Zhao
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. METHODS: Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique...
October 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982596/subsequent-maternal-separation-exacerbates-neurobehavioral-abnormalities-in-rats-neonatally-exposed-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia
#10
Jiaojiao Yang, Lingsha Ju, Min Jia, Hui Zhang, Xiaoru Sun, Muhuo Ji, Jianjun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
Several recent studies suggest that in the human population, a routine, short anesthetic in otherwise healthy infants is void of neurodevelopmental insult. On the other hand, many human retrospective epidemiological studies report evidence of cognitive abnormalities in children after testing those who had different anesthesia-requiring procedures in early childhood. We tested in a rat model whether post-anesthesia stressful environmental factors can contribute to developmental abnormalities that were initiated by a relatively short exposure to sevoflurane, the most widely used anesthetic in pediatric anesthesia, whose polyvalent actions include enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) activity...
October 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974152/encephalitis-with-antibodies-against-the-gabab-receptor-seizures-as-the-most-common-presentation-at-admission
#11
Xueping Chen, Fan Liu, Jin-Mei Li, Xiao-Qi Xie, Qiong Wang, Dong Zhou, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against gamma-aminobutyric-acid B receptor (GABABR) has not been described in detail in Chinese patients. METHODS: Patients with anti-GABABR encephalitis treated between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed in terms of clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, tumor presence, autoantibody patterns, treatment response and outcomes. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified (male, N = 8; female, N = 3), with the median age of 51 years...
November 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971613/arginine-rich-membrane-permeable-peptides-are-seriously-toxic
#12
Qian Li, Mengchuan Xu, Yali Cui, Chunqian Huang, Manji Sun
The membrane-permeable peptides (MPP) such as undecapeptides TAT (YGRKKRRQRRR) and CTP (YGRRARRRRRR) have been receiving much attention for delivering various kinds of low membrane-permeability materials in vitro and in vivo. We have successfully used MPP in carrying various proteins through blood-brain barrier (BBB) in treatment of many kinds of nervous diseases. However, people always concentrate their mind on the efficacy and the mechanism of permeation of the conjugates across BBB, but overlook the toxicity of the membrane-permeable peptide itself...
October 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969521/the-role-of-glutamate-and-its-receptors-in-central-nervous-system-in-stress-induced-hyperalgesia
#13
Yan-Na Lian, Qi Lu, Jin-Long Chang, Ying Zhang
Substantial evidence has shown that stress can induce hyperalgesia (stress-induced hyperalgesia, SIH). SIH is characterized by enhancement and extension response to noxious stimuli. According to previous studies, we have known that the occurrence of SIH involves various neurotransmitters including opioid, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid and so on. Glutamate acts as the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays a key role in the modulation of nociceptive processing. However, the mechanisms of effects of glutamate and its receptors on SIH are still not very clear...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968899/cntnap4-impacts-epilepsy-through-gabaa-receptors-regulation-evidence-from-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-models
#14
Yafei Shangguan, Xin Xu, Baigalimaa Ganbat, Yun Li, Wei Wang, Yong Yang, Xi Lu, Chao Du, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
Epilepsy is a serious neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The exact etiology of epilepsy is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of contactin-associated protein-like 4 (CNTNAP4) was decreased in the temporal neocortex of epileptic patients and in the hippocampus and cortex of epileptic mice. Lentivirus-mediated knock-down of CNTNAP4 in the hippocampus increased mice susceptibility to epilepsy. Conversely, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of CNTNAP4 decreased epileptic behavior in mice...
August 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966645/relationship-of-nocturnal-concentrations-of-melatonin-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-and-total-antioxidants-in-peripheral-blood-with-insomnia-after-stroke-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Wei Zhang, Fang Li, Tong Zhang
Melatonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been shown to regulate sleep. The nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants may relate to insomnia in stroke patients. In this prospective single-center non-randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the China Rehabilitation Research Center, we analyzed the relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke. Patients during rehabilitation of stroke were recruited and assigned to the insomnia group or non-insomnia group...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966597/intelligence-and-brain-efficiency-investigating-the-association-between-working-memory-performance-glutamate-and-gaba
#16
Anouk Marsman, René C W Mandl, Dennis W J Klomp, Wiepke Cahn, René S Kahn, Peter R Luijten, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol
Intelligence is a measure of general cognitive functioning capturing a wide variety of different cognitive functions. It has been hypothesized that the brain works to minimize the resources allocated toward higher cognitive functioning. Thus, for the intelligent brain, it may be that not simply more is better, but rather, more efficient is better. Energy metabolism supports both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission processes. Indeed, in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, the primary energetic costs are associated with neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964773/effects-of-gut-microbiota-disturbance-induced-in-early-life-on-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-gaba-a-receptor-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-subunits-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-rats
#17
Liang Liang, Heng Zhou, Shiying Zhang, Jingping Yuan, Hao Wu
Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota disturbance significantly increases the risk of emotional disorders via the gut-brain axis, but the mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits were reported to be implicated in the development of depression and amnesia, but the alterations in the GABA-A receptor subunits that are involved in the pathogenetic process have not been fully elucidated. This study used juvenile rats that were fed ampicillin-Na to establish degree III dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and examined emotional change via the tail suspension test, forced swim test and Morris water maze...
September 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959846/-analgesic-effect-and-central-mechanisms-of-cq-prescription-on-cancer-invasion-induced-mirror-image-pain-in-model-mice
#18
Yu-Mao Jiang, Dan-Dan Sun, Zhi-Guo Wang, Tao Li, Xiao-Liang Zhao, Yue Jiao, Yang Liu, Yu-Juan Li, Jing-Feng Ouyang, Dan-Qiao Wang
This study aimed to analyze the analgesic effect and related central mechanisms of CQ prescription on cancer invasion induced mirror image pain (CIIMIP)in model mice.In the study, male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal group, operation control group (injected with 0.2 mL inactivated S180 sarcoma cell sap), model group (injected with 0.2 mL S180 sarcoma cell sap on the right leg near the greater trochanter of femur) and CQ prescription low dose group (intraperitoneally injected with CQ prescription 100 mg•kg⁻¹ on the basis of model mice), CQ prescription middle dose group (intraperitoneally injected with CQ prescription 150 mg•kg⁻¹ on the basis of model mice), and CQ prescription high dose group (intraperitoneally injected with CQ prescription 200 mg•kg⁻¹ on the basis of model mice)...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955770/pentylenetetrazol-modulates-redox-system-by-inducing-addicsin-translocation-from-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-plasma-membrane-in-ng108-15-cells
#19
Mitsushi J Ikemoto, Yusuke Murasawa, Pi-Chao Wang
Addicsin (Arl6ip5) is a multifunctional physiological and pathophysiological regulator that exerts its effects by readily forming homo- and hetero-complexes with various functional factors. In particular, addicsin acts as a negative modulator of neural glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) and participates in the regulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH) content by negatively modulating EAAC1-mediated cysteine and glutamate uptake. Addicsin is considered to play a crucial role in the onset of neurodegenerative diseases including epilepsy...
September 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949993/developmental-and-adult-characterization-of-secretagogin-expressing-amacrine-cells-in-zebrafish-retina
#20
Stefanie Dudczig, Peter David Currie, Patricia Regina Jusuf
Calcium binding proteins show stereotypical expression patterns within diverse neuron types across the central nervous system. Here, we provide a characterization of developmental and adult secretagogin-immunolabelled neurons in the zebrafish retina with an emphasis on co-expression of multiple calcium binding proteins. Secretagogin is a recently identified and cloned member of the F-hand family of calcium binding proteins, which labels distinct neuron populations in the retinas of mammalian vertebrates. Both the adult distribution of secretagogin labeled retinal neurons as well as the developmental expression indicative of the stage of neurogenesis during which this calcium binding protein is expressed was quantified...
2017: PloS One
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