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gamma-aminobutyric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471054/developmental-changes-of-gaba-immunoreactivity-in-cortico-thalamic-networks-of-an-absence-seizure-model
#1
REVIEW
Cristiano Bombardi, Marcello Venzi, Vincenzo Crunelli, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Absence seizures (ASs) are associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the thalamus and the cortex. In the present study, we used light microscopy GABA immunocytochemistry to quantify the GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-IR) neurons and neuropil in the thalamic ventral basal (VB) nucleus, the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), the dorsal lateral geniculate (dLGN), the primary motor cortex (M1) and perioral region of the somatosensory cortex (S1po) of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS)...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468732/antidepressant-effects-of-dammarane-sapogenins-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-mice
#2
Ning Jiang, Bei-Yue Zhang, Li-Ming Dong, Jing-Wei Lv, Cong Lu, Qiong Wang, Lin-Xi Fan, Hong-Xia Zhang, Rui-Le Pan, Xin-Min Liu
Depression is a common, dysthymic, and psychiatric disorder, resulting in enormous social and economic burden. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, has shown antidepressant-like effects in chronic restraint rats and sleep interruption-induced mice, and the present study aimed to further confirm the antidepressant effects of DS in a model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and to explore the underlying mechanism. Oral administration of DS (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) markedly improved depressant-like behaviors, increasing the sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test and reducing the latency in the novelty-suppressed feeding test, and decreasing the immobility time in both the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, compared with the CUMS mice...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467616/molecular-characterization-of-gaba-a-receptor-subunit-diversity-within-major-peripheral-organs-and-their-plasticity-in-response-to-early-life-psychosocial-stress
#3
Ethan A Everington, Adina G Gibbard, Jerome D Swinny, Mohsen Seifi
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) subtype A receptors (GABAA Rs) are integral membrane ion channels composed of five individual proteins or subunits. Up to 19 different GABAA R subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π, and ρ1-3) have been identified, resulting in anatomically, physiologically, and pharmacologically distinct multiple receptor subtypes, and therefore GABA-mediated inhibition, across the central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, GABAA R-modulating drugs are important tools in clinical medicine, although their use is limited by adverse effects...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445327/missense-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-reaction-time-motor-time-and-ethanol-effects-in-vivo
#4
Elena García-Martín, María I Ramos, José A Cornejo-García, Segismundo Galván, James R Perkins, Laura Rodríguez-Santos, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Félix J Jiménez-Jiménez, José A G Agúndez
Background: The Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA-A receptor) is affected by ethanol concentrations equivalent to those reached during social drinking. At these concentrations, ethanol usually causes impairment in reaction and motor times in most, but not all, individuals. Objectives: To study the effect of GABA-A receptor variability in motor and reaction times, and the effect of low ethanol doses. Methods: Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects received one single dose of 0.5 g/Kg ethanol per os ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430585/dendritic-cell-factor-1-knockout-results-in-visual-deficit-through-the-gaba-system-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#5
Jieyun Shi, Qian Li, Tieqiao Wen
The visual system plays an important role in our daily life. In this study, we found that loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (DCF1) in the primary visual cortex (V1) caused a sight deficit in mice and induced an abnormal increase in glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma aminobutyric acid and CO2, particularly in layer 5. In vivo electrophysiological recordings confirmed a decrease in delta, theta, and beta oscillation power in DCF1-knockout mice. This study presents a previously unknown function of DCF1 in V1, suggests an unknown contact between DCF1 and GABA systems, and provides insight into the mechanism and treatment of visual deficits...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429499/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-promising-biomarker-for-antipsychotic-treatment
#6
Laura M Rowland, S Andrea Wijtenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421265/the-tail-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-behavioral-processes-and-in-the-effect-of-psychostimulants-and-drugs-of-abuse
#7
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA) is a recently identified structure that exerts a major inhibitory drive onto midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. Also referred to as the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), the tVTA is a cluster of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons that starts within the posterior end of the VTA, where it is restricted dorsolateral to the caudal part of the interpeduncular nucleus, and extends into the pons. First identified in the rat, the tVTA has been described in many species, including mice and monkeys, as a region exhibiting similar anatomical and behavioral properties; it receives strong excitatory inputs from the lateral habenula (LHb), conveys negative reward-related information, and inhibits midbrain DA neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417580/in-vivo-characterization-of-brain-metabolism-by-1-h-mrs-13-c-mrs-and-18-fdg-pet-reveals-significant-glucose-oxidation-of-invasively-growing-glioma-cells
#8
Marta Lai, Irene Vassallo, Bernard Lanz, Carole Poitry-Yamate, Marie-France Hamou, Cristina Cudalbu, Rolf Gruetter, Monika E Hegi
Glioblastoma are notorious for their highly invasive growth, diffusely infiltrating adjacent brain structures that precludes complete resection, and is a major obstacle for cure. To characterize this "invisible" tumor part, we designed a high resolution multimodal imaging approach assessing in vivo the metabolism of invasively growing glioma xenografts in the mouse brain. Animals were subjected longitudinally to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 1 H spectroscopy (MRS) at ultra high field (14.1 Tesla) that allowed the measurement of 16 metabolic biomarkers to characterize the metabolic profiles...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409499/mechanisms-of-multiple-neurotransmitters-in-the-effects-of-lycopene-on-brain-injury-induced-by-hyperlipidemia
#9
Weichun Yang, Ziyi Shen, Sixian Wen, Wei Wang, Minyu Hu
BACKGROUND: Lycopene is a kind of carotenoid, with a strong capacity of antioxidation and regulating the bloodlipid. There has been some evidence that lycopene has protective effects on the central nervous system, but few studies have rigorously explored the role of neurotransmitters in it. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of several neurotransmitters as lycopene exerts anti-injury effects induced by hyperlipidemia. METHODS: Eighty adult SD rats, half male and half female, were randomly divided into eight groups on the basis of serum total cholesterol (TC) levels and body weight...
February 7, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407219/gabaa-receptor-positive-and-negative-allosteric-modulators
#10
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABAAR) and Type B (GABABR) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs...
January 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405939/neuromuscular-features-of-hypophosphatasia
#11
C Fonta, J-P Salles
The pathophysiology of the neuromuscular manifestations of hypophosphatasia (HPP) remains unknown. Pyridoxine-sensitive seizures characterize severe forms of infantile HPP. Young children and infants affected with severe forms of HPP, but also adults often present with myopathy characterized by hypotonia or muscle weakness. Chronic pain, of unclear mechanism is also often present. Tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (Alkaline Phosphatase-Liver/Bone/Kidney [ALPL]) is expressed in brain neuronal cell and in muscle cells during development and adulthood...
May 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396367/rp-hplc-method-for-simultaneous-estimation-of-vigabatrin-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-and-taurine-in-biological-samples
#12
Anitha Police, Vijay Kumar Shankar, S Narasimha Murthy
Vigabatrin is used as first line drug in treatment of infantile spasms for its potential benefit overweighing risk of causing permanent peripheral visual field defects and retinal damage. Chronic administration of vigabatrin in rats has demonstrated these ocular events are result of GABA accumulation and depletion of taurine levels in retinal tissues. In vigabatrin clinical studies taurine plasma level is considered as biomarker for studying structure and function of retina. The analytical method is essential to monitor taurine levels along with vigabatrin and GABA...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390378/early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-a-novel-gabrb3-mutation-treated-effectively-with-clonazepam-a-case-report
#13
Yi Zhang, Yajun Lian, Nanchang Xie
RATIONALE: Early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE) is one of the most serious early onset epilepsies. The etiopathology of this condition remains unclear, and recent evidence indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, subunit beta 3 (GABRB3) gene mutations might be associated with EOEE. Furthermore, the therapeutic regimen for EOEE has yet to be well elucidated. Herein, we reported the clinical and genetic features of a case with GABRB3-related EOEE. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 6-year-old girl developed epileptic seizures 3 days after birth...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389591/optimization-of-culture-conditions-for-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-production-in-fermented-adzuki-bean-milk
#14
Hung Yi Song, Roch Chui Yu
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388507/long-range-gamma-phase-synchronization-as-a-compensatory-strategy-during-working-memory-in-high-performing-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Rachel P So, Lawrence S Kegeles, Xiangling Mao, Dikoma C Shungu, Arielle D Stanford, Chi-Ming A Chen
Working memory deficits in schizophrenia may be associated with impairments in the integration of neural activity across a distributed network of cortical areas. However, evaluation of the contribution of this integration to working memory impairments in patients is severely confounded by behavioral performance. In the present multidimensional-neuroimaging study, measures of neural oscillations at baseline and during a working memory task, baseline gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and behavioral performance were obtained...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388419/gaba-detection-with-nano-ities-pipet-electrode-a-new-mechanism-water-dce-octanoic-acid-interface
#16
Nicholas Toshio Iwai, Michelle Kramaric, Daniel Crabbe, Yuanyuan Wei, Ran Chen, Mei Shen
Interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) supported on the orifice of a pipet have become a powerful platform to detect a broad range of analytes. We present here the detection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the nanoITIES pipet electrodes for the first time. GABA has a net charge of zero in an aqueous solution at pH ≈ 7, and it has not previously been detected at ITIES. In this work, we demonstrated GABA detection at ITIES in an aqueous solution at pH ≈ 7, where we introduced a novel detection strategy based on "pH modulation from the oil phase"...
February 1, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377906/enhanced-susceptibility-to-stress-and-seizures-in-gad65-deficient-mice
#17
Jin Qi, Minjung Kim, Russell Sanchez, Saba M Ziaee, Jhumku D Kohtz, Sookyong Koh
Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition has been implicated in both anxiety and epilepsy. GAD65-/- (NOD/LtJ) mice have significantly decreased basal GABA levels in the brain and a lowered threshold for seizure generation. One fifth of GAD65 -/- mice experienced stress-induced seizures upon exposure to an open field at 4 weeks of age. In each successive week until 8 weeks of age, the latency to seizures decreased with prior seizure experience. 100% of GAD65-/- mice exhibited stress-induced seizures by the end of 8 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374574/gabapentin-reduces-haloperidol-induced-vacuous-chewing-movements-in-mice
#18
Ana Paula Chiapinotto Ceretta, Catiuscia Molz de Freitas, Larissa Finger Schaffer, Jeane Binotto Reinheimer, Mariana Maikéli Dotto, Elizete de Moraes Reis, Rahisa Scussel, Ricardo Andrez Machado-de-Ávila, Roselei Fachinetto
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a common adverse effect observed in patients with long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications. A vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model induced by haloperidol has been used to study these abnormalities in experimental animals. The cause of TD and its treatment remain unknown, but several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine receptor supersensitivity and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) insufficiency play important roles in the development of TD. This study investigated the effects of treatment with the GABA-mimetic drug gabapentin on the development of haloperidol-induced VCMs...
January 25, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373632/neurotransmitter-deficits-from-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#19
Alexander G Murley, James B Rowe
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration causes a spectrum of complex degenerative disorders including frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal syndrome, each of which is associated with changes in the principal neurotransmitter systems. We review the evidence for these neurochemical changes and propose that they contribute to symptomatology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, over and above neuronal loss and atrophy. Despite the development of disease-modifying therapies, aiming to slow neuropathological progression, it remains important to advance symptomatic treatments to reduce the disease burden and improve patients' and carers' quality of life...
January 24, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368307/hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-presenting-as-pseudobulbar-palsy
#20
Gokcen Oz Tuncer, Serap Teber, Muhammed Gültekin Kutluk, Pelin Albayrak, Gülhis Deda
INTRODUCTION: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune condition with varied neurological and psychiatric features. HE is very unusual as a cause of pseudobulbar palsy (PSP). CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old male was admitted with right-sided weakness, dysphagia, speech disorder, and aggressiveness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed increased intensity in bilateral temporal, insular cortex, amygdala, and parahippocampal area on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images...
January 24, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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