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gamma-aminobutyric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444767/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-dora-22-lowers-histamine-levels-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-prefrontal-cortex-without-lowering-hippocampal-acetylcholine
#1
Lihang Leon Yao, Andres Ramirez, Anthony J Roecker, Steven Fox, Jason Uslaner, Sean M Smith, Robert Hodgson, Paul J Coleman, John J Renger, Christopher J Winrow, Anthony L Gotter
Chronic insomnia is defined as a persistent difficulty with sleep initiation maintenance or non-restorative sleep. The therapeutic standard of care for this condition is treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor modulators, which promote sleep but are associated with a panoply of side effects, including cognitive and memory impairment. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) have recently emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach that acts via a distinct and more selective wake-attenuating mechanism with the potential to be associated with milder side effects...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443033/high-gama-aminobutyric-acid-contents-involved-in-abamectin-resistance-and-predation-an-interesting-phenomenon-in-spider-mites
#2
Zhifeng Xu, Yanchao Liu, Peng Wei, Kaiyang Feng, Jinzhi Niu, Guangmao Shen, Wencai Lu, Wei Xiao, Jinjun Wang, Guy J Smagghe, Qiang Xu, Lin He
Abamectin has been widely used as an insecticide/acaricide for more than 30 years because of its superior bioactivity. Recently, an interesting phenomenon was identified in the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, an important pest in agriculture. The gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in a laboratory abamectin resistant strain of T. cinnabarinus (AbR) were significantly increased. Decreases in activity and mRNA expression of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) were responsible for GABA accumulation in AbR mites...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442196/mechanism-of-neuronal-activity-and-synaptic-transmission-in-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla
#3
Liangchen Zhao, Tianji Liu, Rutao Xu, Liu He, Man Duan, Dejun Xu
Rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays an essential role in blood pressure homeostasis. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of neuronal activity and synaptic transmission in the RVLM. Medulla oblongata slices were carefully obtained from brainstem of rats. With continues perfusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), the spontaneous firing of slices and amplitudes were assayed by conventional whole cell patch-clamp recording after addition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441273/case-report-of-physiologic-phenibut-dependence-treated-with-a-phenobarbital-taper-in-a-patient-being-treated-with-buprenorphine
#4
Emily Brunner, Robert Levy
: This case report describes the development of dependence to phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist, in a patient concurrently being treated with buprenorphine. The patient experienced withdrawal symptoms which were successfully treated with a phenobarbital taper based on a protocol to treat sedative use disorder. This case report provided an example of the development of a phenibut use disorder and also brought up a public health question of whether phenibut should therefore be officially classified and monitored...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438981/acute-inflammation-reveals-gabaa-receptor-mediated-nociception-in-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-via-pge2-receptor-4-signaling
#5
In Jeong Jang, Alexander J Davies, Nozomi Akimoto, Seung Keun Back, Pa Reum Lee, Heung Sik Na, Hidemasa Furue, Sung Jun Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Seog Bae Oh
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarizes dorsal root ganglia (DRG) primary afferent neurons through activation of Cl(-) permeable GABAA receptors but the physiologic role of GABAA receptors in the peripheral terminals of DRG neurons remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of peripheral GABAA receptors in nociception using a mouse model of acute inflammation. In vivo, peripheral administration of the selective GABAA receptor agonist muscimol evoked spontaneous licking behavior, as well as spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neuron firing, after pre-conditioning with formalin but had no effect in saline-treated mice...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434133/stiripentol-in-the-management-of-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell
Stiripentol is a structurally unique antiepileptic drug that has several possible mechanisms of action, including diverse effects on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and novel inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase. Because of its inhibition of several cytochrome P450 enzymes, it has extensive pharmacokinetic interactions, which often necessitates reduction in doses of certain co-therapies, particularly clobazam. Stiripentol also has a neuroprotective action, by reducing calcium-mediated neurotoxicity...
April 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433802/role-of-environmental-stressors-in-determining-the-developmental-outcome-of-neonatal-anesthesia
#7
Ling-Sha Ju, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Christoph N Seubert, Timothy E Morey, Colin Sumners, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Jian-Jun Yang, Anatoly E Martynyuk
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies evaluating neurocognition in humans who had procedures under anesthesia early in life found long-term deficits even though the typical anesthesia duration normalized to the human life span is much shorter than that shown to induce developmental abnormalities in rodents. Therefore, we studied whether subsequent environmental stressors contribute to deficiencies programmed by a brief neonatal etomidate exposure. METHODS: Postnatal days (P) 4, 5, or 6, Sprague-Dawley rats, pretreated with vehicle or the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) inhibitor, bumetanide, received two injections of etomidate resulting in anesthesia for 2h...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425937/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-increases-the-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-decreases-ph-values-in-mouse-colon
#8
Min Xie, Hai-Hong Chen, Shao-Ping Nie, Jun-Yi Yin, Ming-Yong Xie
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) could regulate physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of GABA on colon health in mice. The female Kunming mice were given GABA at doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/d for 14 days. Afterwards, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentrations, pH values, colon index, colon length and weight of colonic and cecal contents were determined to evaluate the effects of GABA on colon health. The results showed that intake of GABA could increase the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate and total SCFAs in colonic and cecal contents, as well as the weight of colonic and cecal contents...
April 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424294/gaba-and-primary-motor-cortex-inhibition-in-young-and-older-adults-a-multimodal-reliability-study
#9
Ronan A Mooney, John Cirillo, Winston D Byblow
The effects of healthy ageing on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within primary motor cortex (M1) remain poorly understood. Studies have reported contrasting results, potentially due to limitations with the common assessment technique. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of healthy ageing on M1 GABA concentration and neurotransmission using a multimodal approach. Fifteen young and 16 older adults participated in this study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to measure M1 GABA concentration...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401026/high-dose-gamma-radiation-selectively-reduces-gabaa-slow-inhibition
#10
Beza A Dagne, Melis K Sunay, Noëlie S Cayla, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Susan J Knox, Rona G Giffard, John R Adler, Bruce Maciver
Studies on the effects of gamma radiation on brain tissue have produced markedly differing results, ranging from little effect to major pathology, following irradiation. The present study used control-matched animals to compare effects on a well characterized brain region following gamma irradiation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 60 Gy of whole brain gamma radiation and, after 24-hours, 48-hours, and one-week periods, hippocampal brain slices were isolated and measured for anatomical and physiological differences...
March 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396815/catatonia-secondary-to-sudden-clozapine-withdrawal-a-case-with-three-repeated-episodes-and-a-literature-review
#11
John Bilbily, Betsy McCollum, Jose de Leon
A literature search identified 9 previously published cases that were considered as possible cases of catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal. Two of these 9 cases did not provide enough information to make a diagnosis of catatonia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). The Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Causality Scale was modified to assess ADRs secondary to drug withdrawal. From the 7 published cases which met DSM-5 catatonia criteria, using the modified scale, we established that 3 were definitive and 4 were probable cases of catatonia secondary to clozapine withdrawal...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396568/tollip-deficiency-alters-atherosclerosis-and-steatosis-by-disrupting-lipophagy
#12
Keqiang Chen, Ruoxi Yuan, Yao Zhang, Shuo Geng, Liwu Li
BACKGROUND: Compromised lipophagy with unknown mechanisms may be critically involved in the intracellular accumulation of lipids, contributing to elevated atherosclerosis and liver steatosis. We hypothesize that toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a key innate immune molecule involved in the fusion of autolysosome, may play a significant role in lipophagy and modulate lipid accumulation during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and liver steatosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: By comparing mice fed with either a Western high-fat diet or a regular chow diet, we observed that both atherosclerosis and liver steatosis were aggravated in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-))/Tollip(-/-) mice as compared with ApoE(-/-) mice...
April 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386570/pathogenic-roles-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-65-autoantibodies-in-cerebellar-ataxias
#13
REVIEW
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
Reports suggesting a pathogenic role of autoantibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65Abs) in cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are reviewed, and debatable issues such as internalization of antibodies by neurons and roles of epitopes are discussed. GAD65 is one of two enzymes that catalyze the conversion of glutamate to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). A pathogenic role of GAD65Ab in CAs is suggested by in vivo and in vitro studies. (1) Intracerebellar administration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulins (IgGs) obtained from GAD65Ab-positive CA patients impairs cerebellar modulation of motor control in rats...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385633/impaired-expression-of-gaba-transporters-in-the-human-alzheimer-s-disease-hippocampus-subiculum-entorhinal-cortex-and-superior-temporal-gyrus
#14
Tessa E Fuhrer, Thulani H Palpagama, Henry J Waldvogel, Beth J L Synek, Clinton Turner, Richard L Faull, Andrea Kwakowsky
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus...
April 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385472/gaba-spectra-and-remote-distractor-effect-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-a-pilot-study
#15
C Bonnet, J Rusz, J Hanuška, M Dezortová, F Jírů, T Sieger, R Jech, J Klempíř, J Roth, O Bezdíček, T Serranová, P Dušek, T Uher, C Flammand-Roze, M Hájek, E Růžička
Disturbances of the gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) system have been suspected of contributing to the pathophysiology of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The ability to rapidly resolve competitive action decisions, such as shifting the gaze to one particular stimulus rather than another, can be predicted by the concentration of GABA in the region of the frontal cortex relevant to eye movements. For this reason, our study measured GABA levels in seven PSP patients and eight healthy controls, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and assessed the relationship of these measurements to the remote distractor effect (RDE), an eye-movement paradigm investigating competitive action decisions...
April 3, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378986/neurophysiological-maturation-in-adolescence-vulnerability-and-counteracting-addiction-to-alcohol
#16
Roman Chwedorowicz, Henryk Skarżyński, Weronika Pucek, Tadeusz Studziński
The results of contemporary studies confirm the formation of two neural networks in the brain during the period of adolescence. The first is defined as emotional, located in the limbic system, develops earlier, quicker, and more intensively than the second one in the prefrontal cortex, called the judgement network, which fulfils the role of control and inhibition of emotional reactions. The domination of the emotional network in adolescence is manifested by hyperactivity of the limbic system, accompanied by intensified undertaking of courageous, reckless, risky, or even sometimes dangerous actions, so very characteristic in the maturation...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376309/dietary-modulation-of-cortical-excitation-and-inhibition
#17
Anika K Smith, Alex R Wade, Kirsty Eh Penkman, Daniel H Baker
The balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain affects both neural responses and behaviour in humans and animals. Here we investigated whether dietary intervention aimed at increasing levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) can influence neural responses to basic sensory stimuli. Using a steady-state electroencephalography (EEG) paradigm, we found that the neural response to visual patterns was reduced in individuals who consumed a yeast extract product rich in substances associated with the production of GABA (glutamate and B vitamins), but not in a control group who consumed a placebo substance ( n = 14 per group)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369516/comprehensive-chromosome-screening-and-gene-expression-analysis-from-the-same-biopsy-in-human-preimplantation-embryos
#18
Diego Marin, Yujue Wang, Xin Tao, Richard T Scott, Nathan R Treff
STUDY QUESTION: Can simultaneous comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) and gene expression analysis be performed on the same biopsy of preimplantation human embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: For the first time, CCS and reliable gene expression analysis have been performed on the same human preimplantation embryo biopsy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A single trophectoderm (TE) biopsy is routinely used for many IVF programs offering CCS for selection of only chromosomally normal embryos for transfer...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363449/medication-induced-sleepwalking-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Helen M Stallman, Mark Kohler, Jason White
Medications that trigger sleepwalking may inadvertently put the patient at risk of injury to themselves and/or others, and contribute to poor treatment adherence. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify drugs that may increase the risk of sleepwalking. A search of CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted with the keywords 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism'. Of the original 83 sourced papers, 62 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review...
January 29, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361821/candidate-genes-for-alcohol-dependence-a-genetic-association-study-from-india
#20
Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu, Madhu Khullar, Abhishek Ghosh, Neera Chugh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Search for candidate genes for alcohol dependence (AD) has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Moreover, most of the research has been confined to a few specific ethnic groups. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore specific candidate genes for AD in north Indian male population. METHODS: In this clinic-based genetic association study, 210 males with AD and 200 controls matched for age, gender and ethnicity were recruited from the clinic and the general population, respectively...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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