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gamma-aminobutyric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915002/label-free-histamine-detection-with-nanofluidic-diodes-through-metal-ion-displacement-mechanism
#1
Mubarak Ali, Patricio Ramirez, Ivana Duznovic, Saima Nasir, Salvador Mafe, Wolfgang Ensinger
We design and characterize a nanofluidic device for the label-free specific detection of histamine neurotransmitter based on a metal ion displacement mechanism. The sensor consists of an asymmetric polymer nanopore fabricated via ion track-etching technique. The nanopore sensor surface having metal-nitrilotriacetic (NTA-Ni(2+)) chelates is obtained by covalent coupling of native carboxylic acid groups with Nα,Nα-bis(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (BCML), followed by exposure to Ni(2+) ion solution. The BCML immobilization and subsequent Ni(2+) ion complexation with NTA moieties change the surface charge concentration, which has a significant impact on the current-voltage (I-V) curve after chemical modification of the nanopore...
November 28, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913432/von-economo-neurons-and-fork-cells-a-neurochemical-signature-linked-to-monoaminergic-function
#2
Anke A Dijkstra, Li-Chun Lin, Alissa L Nana, Stephanie E Gaus, William W Seeley
The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910251/cloaked-caged-compounds-chemical-probes-for-two-photon-optoneurobiology
#3
Matthew T Richers, Joseph M Amatrudo, Jeremy P Olson, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
Caged neurotransmitters, in combination with focused light beams, enable precise interrogation of neuronal function, even at the level of single synapses. However, most caged transmitters are, surprisingly, severe antagonists of ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. By conjugation of a large, neutral dendrimer to a caged GABA probe we introduce a "cloaking" technology that effectively reduces such antagonism to very low levels. Such cloaked caged compounds will enable the study of the signaling of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in its natural state using two-photon uncaging microscopy for the first time...
December 2, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908928/development-and-validation-of-a-normal-phase-chiral-hplc-method-for-analysis-of-afoxolaner-using-a-chiralpak%C3%A2-ad-3-column
#4
Jinyou Zhuang, Satish Kumar, Abu Rustum
Afoxolaner is a new antiparasitic molecule from the isoxazoline family that acts on the insect acarine gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. Isoxazoline family of compounds has been employed as active pharmaceutical ingredient in drug products prescribed for control of fleas and ticks in dogs. Afoxolaner with a chiral center at isoxazoline ring exists as a racemic mixture. A normal phase chiral high performance liquid chromatography analytical method has been developed to verify that afoxolaner is a racemic mixture as demonstrated by specific rotation, as well as to determine enantiomeric purity of single enantiomer samples...
November 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900944/amoxicillin-a-potential-epileptogenic-drug
#5
João Raposo, Rute Teotónio, Conceição Bento, Francisco Sales
Beta-lactams are known to cause a wide spectrum of neurotoxic manifestations including epileptic seizures. The neurotoxicity of penicillin was first reported in 1945 by Johnson and Walker and is believed to exert an inhibitory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid transmission of cortical pyramidal cells, due to its beta-lactam ring structure. Epileptogenicity is also a feature of the semisynthetic beta-lactams including aminopenicillins. In this report, we present a patient with a recurrent history of discrete body twitching/jerks of epileptic nature in the context of amoxicillin exposure...
November 29, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898427/cocaine-withdrawal-reduces-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-ergic-transmission-and-gephyrin-expression-at-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-rats-which-shows-increased-cocaine-seeking
#6
Wenqiong Yang, Hongsheng He, Yan Pan, Falan Duan, Dan Zhao, Bo Hu, Qingzhen Zhou, Wanhong Liu
AIMS: Chronic cocaine abuse decreases the inhibitory synaptic transmission via unknown mechanisms, while pharmacologically augmenting gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission attenuates cocaine craving. Here, we propose that prolonged cocaine withdrawal downregulates GABAergic transmission and its important regulator gephyrin in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in cocaine-conditioned place-preference (CPP) rats. METHODS: CPP test, patch clamp, and Western blot analysis are engaged to test this proposal...
November 30, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897671/high-intensity-interval-exercise-promotes-motor-cortex-disinhibition-and-early-motor-skill-consolidation
#7
Ellen L Stavrinos, James P Coxon
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891231/a-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-and-metabolite-identification-of-the-ghb-receptor-antagonist-ncs-382-in-mouse-informs-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-ghb-intoxication
#8
Garrett R Ainslie, K Michael Gibson, Kara R Vogel
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid), a known GHB receptor antagonist, has shown significant efficacy in a murine model of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), a heritable neurological disorder featuring chronic elevation of GHB that blocks the final step of GABA degradation. NCS-382 exposures and elimination pathways remain unknown; therefore, the goal of the present work was to obtain in vivo pharmacokinetic data in a murine model and to identify the NCS-382 metabolites formed by mouse and human...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884425/the-eating-disorder-associated-hdac4-a778t-mutation-alters-feeding-behaviors-in-female-mice
#9
Michael Lutter, Michael Z Khan, Kenji Satio, Kevin C Davis, Ian J Kidder, Latisha McDaniel, Benjamin W Darbro, Andrew A Pieper, Huxing Cui
BACKGROUND: While eating disorders (EDs) are thought to result from a combination of environmental and psychological stressors superimposed on genetic vulnerability, the neurobiological basis of EDs remains incompletely understood. We recently reported that a rare missense mutation in the gene for the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is associated with the risk of developing an ED in humans. METHODS: To understand the biological consequences of this missense mutation, we created transgenic mice carrying this mutation by introducing the alanine to threonine mutation at position 778 of mouse Hdac4 (corresponding to position 786 of the human protein)...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884423/alterations-in-a-unique-class-of-cortical-chandelier-cell-axon-cartridges-in-schizophrenia
#10
Brad R Rocco, Adam M DeDionisio, David A Lewis, Kenneth N Fish
BACKGROUND: The axons of chandelier cells (ChCs) target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons, forming an array of boutons termed a cartridge. In schizophrenia, the density of cartridges detectable by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) membrane transporter 1 immunoreactivity is lower, whereas the density of axon initial segments detectable by immunoreactivity for the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor is higher in layers 2/superficial 3 of the prefrontal cortex. These findings were interpreted as compensatory responses to lower GABA levels in ChCs...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884341/propofol-inhibits-t-helper-cell-type-2-differentiation-by-inducing-apoptosis-via-activating-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-receptor
#11
Jingxia Meng, Xin Xin, Zhen Liu, Hao Li, Bo Huang, Yuguang Huang, Jing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Propofol has been shown to attenuate airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma patients. Our previous study showed that it may alleviate lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Given the critical role of T-helper cell type-2 (Th2) differentiation in asthma pathology and the immunomodulatory role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor, we hypothesized that propofol could alleviate asthma inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cell differentiation via the GABA receptor...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880963/enhanced-production-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-by-optimizing-culture-conditions-of-lactobacillus-brevis-hye1-isolated-from-kimchi-a-korean-fermented-food
#12
Hee Seon Lim, In-Tae Cha, Seong Woon Roh, Hae-Hun Shin, Myung-Ji Seo
This study evaluated the effects of culture conditions, including carbon and nitrogen sources, L-monosodium glutamate (MSG), and initial pH, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 isolated from kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food. L. brevis HYE1 was screened by the production analysis of GABA and genetic analysis of glutamate decarboxylase gene, resulting in 14.64 mM GABA after 48 h of cultivation in MRS media containing 1% (w/v) MSG. In order to increase GABA production by L...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879195/the-pharmacokinetic-comparison-and-bioequivalence-evaluation-of-two-10-mg-baclofen-formulations-in-healthy-male-subjects%C3%A2
#13
Sumin Yoon, SeungHwan Lee, Kyung-Sang Yu, Sung-Vin Yim, Bo-Hyung Kim
BACKGROUNDS: Baclofen is used as a skeletal muscle relaxant for multiple sclerosis patients. It depresses the transmission of monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflex by stimulating GABAβ (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of two 10-mg baclofen formulations and to assess bioequivalence. METHODS: A randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was conducted in healthy male subjects...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870937/spinosad-induces-programmed-cell-death-involves-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cytochrome-c-release-in-spodoptera-frugiperda-sf9-cells
#14
Mingjun Yang, Bo Wang, Jufang Gao, Yang Zhang, Wenping Xu, Liming Tao
Spinosad, a reduced-risk insecticide, acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in the nervous system of target insects. However, its mechanism of action in non-neural insect cells is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate mitochondrial functional changes associated with spinosad in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Our results indicate that in Sf9 cells, spinosad induces programmed cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction through enhanced reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, eventually leading to cytochrome C release and apoptosis...
November 18, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865151/effects-of-the-benzodiazepine-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-preferring-antagonist-3-isopropoxy-%C3%AE-carboline-hydrochloride-3-isopbc-on-alcohol-seeking-and-self-administration-in-baboons
#15
August F Holtyn, V V N Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Michael Rajesh Stephen, James M Cook, Elise M Weerts
BACKGROUND: The major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), modulates many of the behavioral effects of alcohol, including sedation, tolerance, and withdrawal. The α1 subunit of the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor is the most widely expressed alpha subunit in the brain, and has been implicated in the reinforcing- and abuse-related effects of alcohol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether treatment with a benzodiazepine GABAA α1-preferring ligand, 3-isopropoxy-β-carboline hydrochloride (3-ISOPBC), selectively decreases alcohol seeking and consumption...
November 4, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864939/gabaergic-innervation-of-the-ciliary-ganglion-in-macaque-monkeys-a-light-and-electron-microscopic-study
#16
Miriam Barnerssoi, Paul J May, Anja K E Horn
The vertebrate ciliary ganglion (CG) is a relay station in the parasympathetic pathway activating the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle to mediate pupillary constriction and lens accommodation, respectively. While the postganglionic motoneurons in the CG are cholinergic, as are their inputs, there is evidence from avian studies that GABA may also be involved. Here, we used light and electron microscopic methods to examine the GABAergic innervation of the CG in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Immunohistochemistry for the gamma aminobutyric acid synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) revealed that all CG neurons are contacted by ChAT-positive terminals...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864926/synaptic-distribution-of-individually-labeled-mitral-cells-in-the-external-plexiform-layer-of-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#17
Takeshi Matsuno, Emi Kiyokage, Kazunori Toida
Mitral cells are the major projection neurons of the olfactory bulb. They receive olfactory inputs, regulate information, and project their axons to the olfactory cortex. To better understand output regulation of mitral cells, we established a method to visualize individual projection neurons and quantitatively examined their synaptic distribution. Individual mitral cells were labeled by viral injection, 3D-reconstructed with light microscopy, and serial-sectioned for electron microscopy. Synaptic distributions were analyzed in electron microscopically reconstructed cell bodies, two regions of secondary dendrites (near the somata and ≈ 200 µm from the somata), and primary dendrites...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859844/in-vivo-estimation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-levels-in-the-neonatal-brain
#18
Moyoko Tomiyasu, Noriko Aida, Jun Shibasaki, Masahiro Umeda, Katsutoshi Murata, Keith Heberlein, Mark A Brown, Eiji Shimizu, Hiroshi Tsuji, Takayuki Obata
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, and plays a key role in brain development. However, the in vivo levels of brain GABA in early life are unknown. Using edited MRS, in vivo GABA can be detected as GABA+ signal with contamination of macromolecule signals. GABA+ is evaluated as the peak ratio of GABA+/reference compound, for which creatine (Cr) or water is typically used. However, the concentrations and T1 and T2 relaxation times of these references change during development...
November 11, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849392/effects-of-nigella-sativa-on-apoptosis-and-gabaa-receptor-density-in-cerebral-cortical-and-hippocampal-neurons-in-pentylenetetrazol-induced-kindling-in-rats
#19
I Meral, M Esrefoglu, K A Dar, S Ustunova, M S Aydin, M Demirtas, Y Arifoglu
We investigated the effects of Nigella sativa on apoptosis and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor density in cerebral cortical and hippocampal neurons in a pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling model in rats. The PTZ kindling model was produced by injecting PTZ in subconvulsive doses to rats on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22 and 24 of the study into animals of PTZ treated (PTZ) and PTZ + N. sativa treated (PTZ + NS) groups. Clonic and tonic seizures were induced by injecting a convulsive dose of PTZ on day 26 of the study...
November 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845243/in-vitro-detection-of-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced-neurodegeneration-and-pharmacological-neuroprotection-based-on-hippocampal-stratum-pyramidale-width
#20
Pınar Öz, Hale Saybaşılı
Ischemia is one of the most prominent risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The effects of oxygen and glucose depletion in hippocampal tissue due to ischemia can be mimicked in vitro using the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In this study, we applied OGD on acute rat hippocampal slices in order to design an elementary yet quantitative histological technique that compares the neuroprotective effects of (l)-carnitine to known neuroprotectors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
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