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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823105/understanding-peripartum-depression-through-neuroimaging-a-review-of-structural-and-functional-connectivity-and-molecular-imaging-research
#1
REVIEW
Christy Duan, Jessica Cosgrove, Kristina M Deligiannidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imaging research has sought to uncover brain structure, function, and metabolism in women with postpartum depression (PPD) as little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. This review discusses the imaging modalities used to date to evaluate postpartum depression and highlights recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered functional connectivity and activity changes in brain areas implicated in executive functioning and emotion and reward processing have been identified in PPD...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822057/short-term-exposure-to-enriched-environment-in-adult-rats-restores-mk-801-induced-cognitive-deficits-and-gabaergic-interneuron-immunoreactivity-loss
#2
Ane Murueta-Goyena, Naiara Ortuzar, Pascual Gargiulo, José Vicente Lafuente, Harkaitz Bengoetxea
Perinatal injections of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in rodents emulate some cognitive impairments and neurochemical alterations, such as decreased GABAergic (gamma aminobutyric acid) interneuron immunoreactivity, also found in schizophrenia. These features are pervasive, and developing neuroprotective or neurorestorative strategies is of special interest. In this work, we aimed to investigate if a short exposure to enriched environment (EE) in early adulthood (P55-P73) was an effective strategy to improve cognitive dysfunction and to restore interneuron expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus (HPC)...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821653/human-occipital-and-parietal-gaba-selectively-influence-visual-perception-of-orientation-and-size
#3
Chen Song, Kristian Sandberg, Lau Møller Andersen, Jakob Udby Blicher, Geraint Rees
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. GABA level varies substantially across individuals and this variability is associated with inter-individual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition, or whether GABA level of different cortical regions selectively influences perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how GABA level in parietal and occipital cortices related to inter-individual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception, in a group of healthy young male participants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821276/inflammatory-demyelination-alters-subcortical-visual-circuits
#4
Sheila Espírito Santo Araújo, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Natalie A Wheeler, Paula Campello-Costa, Kimberle M Jacobs, Flávia C A Gomes, Michael A Fox, Babette Fuss
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease classically associated with axonal damage and loss; more recently, however, synaptic changes have been recognized as additional contributing factors. An anatomical area commonly affected in MS is the visual pathway; yet, changes other than those associated with inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, i.e., optic neuritis, have not been described in detail. METHODS: Adult mice were subjected to a diet containing cuprizone to mimic certain aspects of inflammatory demyelination as seen in MS...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818367/metabolic-features-involved-in-drought-stress-tolerance-mechanisms-in-peanut-nodules-and-their-contribution-to-biological-nitrogen-fixation
#5
Ana Laura Furlan, Eliana Bianucci, Stella Castro, Karl-Josef Dietz
Legumes belong to the most important crops worldwide. They increase soil fertility due their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil microorganisms, known as rhizobia, capable of fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere. However, they are frequently exposed to abiotic stress conditions in particular drought. Such adverse conditions impair the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and depend largely on the legume. Therefore, two peanut cultivars with contrasting tolerance to drought, namely the more tolerant EC-98 and the sensitive Granoleico, were investigated to elucidate the relative contribution of BNF to the tolerance to drought...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807167/treatment-of-insomnia-with-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine
#6
Amrinder Singh, Kaicun Zhao
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800423/relationship-of-executive-functioning-deficits-to-n-acetyl-aspartate-naa-and-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-in-youth-with-bipolar-disorder
#7
Rebekah S Huber, Douglas G Kondo, Xian-Feng Shi, Andrew P Prescot, Elaine Clark, Perry F Renshaw, Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
BACKGROUND: Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder (BD) have been repeatedly observed, our understanding of these impairments at a mechanistic level remains limited. Few studies that investigated cognitive impairments in bipolar illness have examined the association with brain biochemistry. This pilot study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to evaluate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and brain metabolites in youth with BD. METHODS: Thirty participants, twenty depressed BD participants and ten healthy comparison participants, ages 13-21, completed mood and executive function measures...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796283/flumazenil-versus-placebo-or-no-intervention-for-people-with-cirrhosis-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#8
REVIEW
Ee Teng Goh, Mette L Andersen, Marsha Y Morgan, Lise Lotte Gluud
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis which results in poor brain functioning. The spectrum of changes associated with hepatic encephalopathy ranges from the clinically 'indiscernible' or minimal hepatic encephalopathy to the clinically 'obvious' or overt hepatic encephalopathy. Flumazenil is a synthetic benzodiazepine antagonist with high affinity for the central benzodiazepine recognition site. Flumazenil may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy through an indirect negative allosteric modulatory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function...
August 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795331/cells-expressing-prominin-1-in-neonatal-murine-inferior-colliculus-differentiate-into-neurons-and-glia
#9
Haruka Okazaki, Akira Kanda, Seiji Kanda, Takaki Shimono, Yasutaka Yun, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Zeyun Wang, Hisashi Ooka, Kensuke Suzuki, Dan Bui Van, Koichi Tomoda, Hiroshi Iwai, Toshimasa Nishiyama
Inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for the integration and processing of acoustic information from ascending auditory pathways. Damage to the IC as well as normal aging can impair auditory function. Novel strategies such as stem cell (SC)-based regenerative therapy are required for functional recovery because mature neural cells have a minimal regenerative capacity after an injury. However, it is not known if there are neural stem cells (NSCs) in the IC. Herein, we screened for NSCs by surface marker analysis using flow cytometry...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793908/transcriptomic-analysis-comparing-mouse-strains-with-extreme-total-lung-capacities-identifies-novel-candidate-genes-for-pulmonary-function
#10
Leema George, Ankita Mitra, Tania A Thimraj, Martin Irmler, Sangeetha Vishweswaraiah, Lars Lunding, Dorothea Hühn, Alicia Madurga, Johannes Beckers, Heinz Fehrenbach, Swapna Upadhyay, Holger Schulz, George D Leikauf, Koustav Ganguly
BACKGROUND: Failure to attain peak lung function by early adulthood is a risk factor for chronic lung diseases. Previously, we reported that C3H/HeJ mice have about twice total lung capacity (TLC) compared to JF1/MsJ mice. We identified seven lung function quantitative trait loci (QTL: Lfnq1-Lfnq7) in backcross/intercross mice derived from these inbred strains. We further demonstrated, superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (Sod3), Kit oncogene (Kit) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) located on these Lfnqs as lung function determinants...
August 9, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782830/altered-behavioral-responses-to-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-pharmacological-agents-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#11
Yi-Ting Hsu, Ya-Gin Chang, Ching-Pang Chang, Jian-Jing Siew, Hui-Mei Chen, Chon-Haw Tsai, Yijuang Chern
BACKGROUND: Disruptions in gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) acid signaling are believed to be involved in Huntington's disease pathogenesis, but the regulation of GABAergic signaling remains elusive. Here we evaluated GABAergic signaling by examining the function of GABAergic drugs in Huntington's disease and the expression of GABAergic molecules using mouse models and human brain tissues from Huntington's disease. METHODS: We treated wild-type and R6/2 mice (a transgenic Huntington's disease mouse model) acutely with vehicle, diazepam, or gaboxadol (drugs that selectively target synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptors) and monitored their locomotor activity...
August 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777881/early-stage-attenuation-of-phase-amplitude-coupling-in-the-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-transgenic-rat-model-of-ad
#12
Paolo Bazzigaluppi, Tina L Beckett, Margaret M Koletar, Aaron Y Lai, Illsung L Joo, Mary E Brown, Peter L Carlen, JoAnne McLaurin, Bojana Stefanovic
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neurodegeneration. Preclinical studies on neuronal impairments associated with progressive amyloidosis have demonstrated some Aβ-dependent neuronal dysfunction including modulation of GABAergic signalling. The present work focuses on the early stage of disease progression and uses TgF344-AD rats that recapitulate a broad repertoire of AD-like pathologies to investigate the neuronal network functioning using simultaneous intracranial recordings from the hippocampus (HPC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), followed by pathological analyses of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA ) receptors subunits α1, α5 and δ, and glutamic acid decarboxylases (GAD65 and GAD67)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772144/epileptic-rat-brain-tissue-analyzed-by-2d-correlation-raman-spectroscopy
#13
Julia Sacharz, Aleksandra Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Janina Zięba-Palus, Marian H Lewandowski, Rafał Kowalski, Katarzyna Palus, Łukasz Chrobok, Paulina Moskal, Malwina Birczyńska, Agnieszka Sozańska
Absence epilepsy is the neurological disorder characterized by the pathological spike-and wave discharges present in the electroencephalogram, accompanying a sudden loss of consciousness. Experiments were performed on brain slices obtained from young male WAG/Rij rats (2-3weeks old), so that they were sampled before the appearance of brain-damaging seizures symptoms. Two differing brain areas of the rats' brain tissue were studied: the somatosensory cortex (Sc) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (DLG)...
July 25, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771182/new-targets-for-schizophrenia-treatment-beyond-the-dopamine-hypothesis
#14
REVIEW
Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai
Schizophrenia has been primarily associated with dopamine dysfunction, and treatments have been developed that target the dopamine pathway in the central nervous system. However, accumulating evidence has shown that the core pathophysiology of schizophrenia might involve dysfunction in dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling, which may lead to aberrant functioning of interneurons that manifest as cognitive, behavioral, and social dysfunction through altered functioning of a broad range of macro- and microcircuits...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767521/disabling-central-paroxysmal-positioning-upbeat-nystagmus-and-vertigo-associated-with-the-presence-of-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies
#15
Ana I Martins, João N Carvalho, Ana M Amorim, Argemiro Geraldo, Eric Eggenberger, João Lemos
An immune attack by anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies is believed to cause a deficiency in gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated neurotransmission in the cerebellum. This, in turn, leads to several eye movement disorders, including spontaneous downbeat (DBN) and periodic alternating nystagmus. We describe a 68-year-old diabetic woman with disabling paroxysmal positioning upbeat nystagmus (UBN) exclusively in the supine position, associated with asymptomatic spontaneous DBN, alternating skew deviation and hyperactive vestibulo-ocular reflex responses on head impulse testing, in whom high titers of anti-GAD antibodies were detected...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764646/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-ganaxolone-in-children-and-adolescents-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#16
Andrew Ligsay, Anke Van Dijck, Danh V Nguyen, Reymundo Lozano, Yanjun Chen, Erika S Bickel, David Hessl, Andrea Schneider, Kathleen Angkustsiri, Flora Tassone, Berten Ceulemans, R Frank Kooy, Randi J Hagerman
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system deficits are integral to the pathophysiologic development of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Ganaxolone, a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, is hypothesized to improve symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and attention deficits in children with FXS. METHODS: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of ganaxolone in children with FXS, aged 6-17 years. RESULTS: Sixty-one participants were assessed for eligibility, and 59 were randomized to the study...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762469/impairment-of-gabaergic-system-contributes-to-epileptogenesis-in-glutaric-acidemia-type-i
#17
Mayara Vendramin Pasquetti, Letícia Meier, Samanta Loureiro, Marcelo Ganzella, Bernardo Junges, Letícia Barbieri Caus, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, David M Koeller, Stephen Goodman, Michael Woontner, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner, Maria Elisa Calcagnotto
OBJECTIVES: Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) and characterized by increased levels of glutaric, 3-OH-glutaric, and glutaconic acids in the brain parenchyma. The increment of these organic acids inhibits glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and consequently lowers the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis. Untreated patients exhibit severe neurologic deficits during development, including epilepsy, especially following an acute encephalopathy outbreak...
August 1, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751130/in-vivo-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-and-glutamate-levels-in-people-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#18
P W Chiu, Simon S Y Lui, Karen S Y Hung, Raymond C K Chan, Queenie Chan, P C Sham, Eric F C Cheung, Henry K F Mak
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) dysfunction and its consequent imbalance are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Reduced GABA production would lead to a disinhibition of glutamatergic neurons and subsequently cause a disruption of the modulation between GABAergic interneurons and glutamatergic neurons. In this study, levels of GABA, Glx (summation of glutamate and glutamine), and other metabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex were measured and compared between first-episode schizophrenia subjects and healthy controls (HC)...
July 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745845/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment-digest
#19
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo, Jeremy Kim
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745801/flumazenil-versus-placebo-or-no-intervention-for-people-with-cirrhosis-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#20
REVIEW
Ee Teng Goh, Mette L Andersen, Marsha Y Morgan, Lise Lotte Gluud
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis which results in poor brain functioning. The spectrum of changes associated with hepatic encephalopathy ranges from the clinically 'indiscernible' or minimal hepatic encephalopathy to the clinically 'obvious' or overt hepatic encephalopathy. Flumazenil is a synthetic benzodiazepine antagonist with high affinity for the central benzodiazepine recognition site. Flumazenil may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy through an indirect negative allosteric modulatory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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