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gamma-aminobutyric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#1
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235903/brain-targeted-intranasal-zaleplon-solid-dispersion-in-hydrophilic-carrier-system-23-full-factorial-design-and-in-vivo-determination-of-gaba-neurotransmitter
#2
Eman Abd-Elrasheed, Sara Nageeb El-Helaly, Manal M El-Ashmoony, Salwa Salah
Intranasal Zaleplon solid dispersion was formulated to enhance the solubility, bioavailability and deliver an effective therapy. Zaleplon belongs to Class II drugs, and undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism after oral absorption exhibiting 30% bioavailability. A 23full factorial design was chosen for the investigation of solid dispersion formulations. The effects of different variables include drug to carrier ratio (1:1 and 1:2), carrier type (polyethylene glycol 4000 and poloxamer 407), and preparation method (solvent evaporation and freeze drying) on different dissolution parameters were studied...
December 13, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222993/supplementation-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-affects-temporal-but-not-spatial-visual-attention
#3
Anna Leonte, Lorenza S Colzato, Laura Steenbergen, Bernhard Hommel, Elkan G Akyürek
In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled experiment, the acute effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation on temporal and spatial attention in young healthy adults were investigated. A hybrid two-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used to measure temporal attention and integration. Additionally, a visual search task was used to measure the speed and accuracy of spatial attention. While temporal attention depends primarily on the distribution of limited attentional resources across time, spatial attention represents the engagement and disengagement by relevant and irrelevant stimuli across the visual field...
December 6, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215197/enrichment-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-bean-sprouts-exploring-biosynthesis-of-plant-metabolite-using-common-household-reagents
#4
Theerasak Rojanarata, Samarwadee Plianwong, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based on the GABA biosynthesis pathways, two key factors, being the availability of l-glutamic acid and the acidification of the germination environment, were chosen for the study of the effects on the enhancement of GABA levels...
December 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204712/presynaptic-ethanol-actions-potential-roles-in-ethanol-seeking
#5
David M Lovinger
Ethanol produces intoxication through actions on numerous molecular and cellular targets. Adaptations involving these and other targets contribute to chronic drug actions that underlie continued and problematic drinking. Among the mechanisms involved in these ethanol actions are alterations in presynaptic mechanisms of synaptic transmission, including presynaptic protein function and excitation-secretion coupling. At synapses in the central nervous system (CNS), excitation-secretion coupling involves ion channel activation followed by vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release...
December 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203179/neurotransmitters-in-the-mediation-of-cerebral-ischemic-injury
#6
REVIEW
Diana Mayor, Michael Tymianski
Under physiological conditions, neurotransmitters shape neuronal networks and control several cellular and synaptic functions. In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission are mediated in large part by Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, respectively. Glutamate and GABA also play crucial roles in neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia. Glutamate in particular causes excitotoxicity, known as one of the hallmark mechanisms in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic injury for more than thirty years...
December 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201327/stiff-person-case-misdiagnosed-as-conversion-disorder-a-case-report
#7
Saeed Razmeh, Amir Hasan Habibi, Farzad Sina, Elham Alizadeh, Monireh Eslami
Background: Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neurological disease resulting in stiffness and spasm of muscles. It initially affects the axial muscles and then spread to limb muscles. Emotional stress exacerbated the symptoms and signs of the disease. The pathophysiology of the disease is caused by the decreased level of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity due to an autoantibody against GAD that decreases the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this paper, we present a case of atypical presentation of SPS with lower limb stiffness misdiagnosed as conversion disorder...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200574/baclofen-overdose-presenting-as-psychosis-with-catatonia
#8
Abhinav Nahar, Mukku Shiva Shanker Reddy, Bhaskaran Andi Subramaniyam, Harish Thippeswamy, Prabha S Chandra, Santosh Kumar Chaturvedi
Baclofen is a centrally acting gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonist with many therapeutic uses in neurology and psychiatry. An overdose of baclofen is known to cause serious side effects such as encephalopathy, seizures, respiratory depression, and delirium. Association of baclofen with psychosis has also been reported. In this case report, we are highlighting the manifestation of catatonic features in addition to psychosis following baclofen overdose.
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198469/novel-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-protein-kinase%C3%A2-c-epsilon-reduce-ethanol-consumption-in%C3%A2-mice
#9
Angelo Blasio, Jingyi Wang, Dan Wang, Florence P Varodayan, Matthew B Pomrenze, Jacklyn Miller, Anna M Lee, Thomas McMahon, Sandeep Gyawali, Hua-Yu Wang, Marisa Roberto, Stanton McHardy, Michael A Pleiss, Robert O Messing
BACKGROUND: Despite the high cost and widespread prevalence of alcohol use disorders, treatment options are limited, underscoring the need for new, effective medications. Previous results using protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) knockout mice, RNA interference against PKCε, and peptide inhibitors of PKCε predict that small-molecule inhibitors of PKCε should reduce alcohol consumption in humans. METHODS: We designed a new class of PKCε inhibitors based on the Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632...
December 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196882/the-gabrb3-polymorphism-and-its-association-with-schizophrenia
#10
Yi Liu, Xue-Fei Sun, Mei Ding, Yong-Ping Liu, Xi-Cen Zhang, Hao Pang, Jia-Xin Xing, Jin-Feng Xuan, Xi Xia, Bao-Jie Wang, Jun Yao
The aim of this study was to explore whether schizophrenia occurrence is associated with polymorphisms in the 5' regulatory region of GABRB3 (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta 3, subunit gene). The study included 324 patients with schizophrenia and 327 unaffected participants; all individuals were northern Han Chinese. Genotype and haplotype frequency distributions were compared for the 2 groups by means of PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the promoter region of GABRB3. The genotype distribution among control participants was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191066/intervention-effect-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-on-anxiety-behavior-induced-by-phthalate-2-ethylhexyl-ester-in-rats
#11
Huan Liu, Youting Guo, Tongwang Yang, Zhicheng Fan, Minhao Huang, Shuqin Liang, Chunhong Liu
BACKGROUND: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most widely used phthalate esters (PAEs). The application of DEPH has caused serious environmental pollution and posed a threat to human health. METHODS: A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, DEHP group (500 mg/kg DEHP), low GABA group (500 mg/kg DEHP and 1 mg/kg GABA), medium GABA group (500 mg/kg DEHP and 2 mg/kg GABA), and high GABA group (500 mg/kg DEHP and 4 mg/kg GABA)...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189154/brain-targeted-intranasal-zaleplon-nano-emulsion-in-vitro-characterization-and-assessment-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-levels-in-rabbits-brain-and-plasma-at-low-and-high-doses
#12
Eman Abd-Elrasheed, Sara Nageeb El-Helaly, Manal M El-Ashmoony, Salwa Salah
BACKGROUND: Zaleplon is a pyrazolopyrimidin derivative hypnotic drug indicated for the short-term management of insomnia. Zaleplon belongs to Class II drugs, according to the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS), showing poor solubility and high permeability. It undergoes extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism after oral absorption, with only 30% of Zaleplon being systemically available. It is available in tablet form which is unable to overcome the previous problems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to enhance solubility and bioavailability via utilizing nanotechnology in the formulation of intranasal Zaleplon nano-emulsion (ZP-NE) to bypass the barriers and deliver an effective therapy to the brain...
November 30, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183829/the-rodent-versus-wild-snake-paradigm-as-a-model-for-studying-anxiety-and-panic-like-behaviors-face-construct-and-predictive-validities
#13
Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Jade Pissamiglio Cysne Coimbra, Carlos Júlio Laure, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Using an innovative approach to study the neural bases of psychiatric disorders, this study investigated the behavioral, morphological and pharmacological bases of panic attack-induced responses in a prey-versus-coral snake paradigm. Mesocricetus auratus was chronically treated with intraperitoneal administration of the selective serotonin uptake inhibitor paroxetine or the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)/benzodiazepine receptor agonist alprazolam at three different doses and were then confronted with a venomous coral snake (Micrurus frontalis, Reptilia, Colubridae)...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183375/rdl-mutations-predict-multiple-insecticide-resistance-in-anopheles-sinensis-in-guangxi-china
#14
Chan Yang, Zushi Huang, Mei Li, Xiangyang Feng, Xinghui Qiu
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, encoded by the RDL (Resistant to dieldrin) gene, is the important target for insecticides of widely varied structures. The use of various insecticides in agriculture and vector control has inevitably led to the development of insecticide resistance, which may reduce the control effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence and distribution frequency of the resistance related mutation(s) in An...
November 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177616/medial-frontal-lobe-neurochemistry-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-marked-by-reduced-n-acetylaspartate-and-unchanged-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-and-glutamate%C3%A2-%C3%A2-glutamine-levels
#15
Andreia Carvalho Pereira, Inês R Violante, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The nature of neurochemical changes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains controversial. We compared medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurochemistry of twenty high-functioning children and adolescents with ASD without associated comorbidities and fourteen controls. We observed reduced total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA) and total creatine, increased Glx/tNAA but unchanged glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and unchanged absolute or relative gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA+) in the ASD group. Importantly, both smaller absolute and relative GABA+ levels were associated with worse communication skills and developmental delay scores assessed by the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R)...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175628/neuronal-death-apoptosis-induced-by-intracellular-zinc-deficiency-associated-with-changes-in-amino-acid-neurotransmitters-and-glutamate-receptor-subtypes
#16
Kun Tian, Yu-Xiang Wang, Li-Xia Li, Yan-Qiang Liu
In the present study, a model of zinc deficiency was developed by exposing primary neurons to an N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN)-containing medium. The cell survival rate, apoptosis rate, intracellular and extracellular concentrations of 4 amino acids, and the expression of 2 glutamate receptor subtypes α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (GluR2)and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) were evaluated in zinc-deficient cells. The results revealed that zinc deficiency led to a decrease in cell viability and an increase in the apoptosis rate...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171440/brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-and-gabaergic-transmission-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroregeneration
#17
REVIEW
Jinwook Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Sung-Ho Kim, Jong-Choon Kim, Miyoung Yang, Changjong Moon
Neurotoxicity induced by stress, radiation, chemicals, or metabolic diseases, is commonly associated with excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. The pathological process of neurotoxicity induces neuronal death, interrupts synaptic plasticity in the brain, and is similar to that of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models of neurotoxicity have revealed that clinical symptoms and brain lesions can recover over time via neuroregenerative processes. Specifically, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission are related to both neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169849/disconnection-of-basolateral-amygdala-and-insular-cortex-disrupts-conditioned-approach-in-pavlovian-lever-autoshaping
#18
Helen M Nasser, Danielle S Lafferty, Ellen N Lesser, Sam Z Bacharach, Donna J Calu
Previously established individual differences in appetitive approach and devaluation sensitivity observed in goal- and sign-trackers may be attributed to differences in the acquisition, modification, or use of associative information in BLA pathways. Here, we sought to determine the extent to which communication of associative information between BLA and anterior portions of insular cortex (IC) supports ongoing Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors in sign- and goal-tracking rats, in the absence of manipulations to outcome value...
November 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168225/gaba-modulating-phytomedicines-for-anxiety-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Karen Savage, Joseph Firth, Con Stough, Jerome Sarris
Anxiety disorders are chronic and functionally disabling conditions with high psychological stress, characterised by cognitive symptoms of excessive worry and focus difficulties and physiological symptoms such as muscle tension and insomnia. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter within the central nervous system and is a key target of pharmacotherapies in the treatment of anxiety. Although current pharmaceutical treatments are often efficacious, they may cause undesirable side effects including cognitive decrements and withdrawal symptoms...
November 23, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166136/the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-b-receptor-gabab-encephalitis-clinical-manifestations-and-response-to-immunotherapy
#20
Junzhao Cui, Hui Bu, Junying He, Zeyan Zhao, Weixin Han, Ruiping Gao, Xiaoqing Li, Qing Li, Xiaosu Guo, Yueli Zou
PURPOSE: We report 11 patients diagnosed with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies encephalitis in China and aim to analyse the clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic modalities and outcomes. METHODS: Clinical data from patients diagnosed with anti-GABAB receptor encephalitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from February 2016 to October 2016 January were retrospectively collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Seven of the eleven patients were males, and a mean age at presentation of 63 years (range: 47-79 years)...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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