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liver injured

Meysam Nasiri, Mohammad-Hossein Karimi, Negar Azarpira, Iraj Saadat
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptors and downstream signal transduction pathways play pivotal roles in induction of inflammation, which is crucial for liver injury and regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a mouse model of partial hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury followed by a 28-day time course for liver repair and regeneration, we assessed gene expression levels for Toll-like receptors, myeloid differentiation primary response 88, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β, nuclear factor κB, interferon regulatory factors, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukins 1β and 6 at days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 after reperfusion in liver and blood cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Adriana Carino, Michele Biagioli, Silvia Marchianò, Paolo Scarpelli, Angela Zampella, Vittorio Limongelli, Stefano Fiorucci
Liver fibrosis, a major health concern worldwide, results from abnormal collagen deposition by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in a injured liver. The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR) is a bile acid sensor that counteracts HSCs transdifferentiation. While targeting FXR holds promise, 6-ethyl-CDCA known as obeticholic acid, the first in class of FXR ligands, causes side effects, partially because the lack of selectivity toward GPBAR1, a putative itching receptor. Here, we describe the 3-deoxy-6-ethyl derivative of CDCA, BAR704, as a highly selective steroidal FXR agonist...
March 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Susan Yoong, Ravi Kothari, Adam Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Whole body computed tomography has become standard practice in many centres in the management of severely injured trauma patients, however, the evidence for it's diagnostic accuracy is limited. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of whole body CT in major trauma. METHOD: Retrospective review of all patients with injury severity score (ISS) > 15 presenting with blunt trauma to a UK Major Trauma Centre between May 2012 and April 2014...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Haifang Zhang, Hui Li, Ang Ge, Enyu Guo, Shuxia Liu, Lijuan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Myocarditis is an important cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in children and adults. The lncRNA taurine up-regulated gene 1 (TUG1) plays important roles in cell apoptosis and inflammation in tumor and liver injury. The present study aimed to investigate the role of TUG1 in LPS-injured H9c2 cells and explore the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: H9c2 cells were stimulated with LPS to induce inflammatory injury. The expression of TUG1 was altered by transient transfections...
March 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kimihiko Satoh
AIMS: To identify experimental conditions that induce preneoplastic cells positive for glutathione S-transferase P-form (GST-P) in the rat liver by new approaches, and analysis of the mechanism of cancer initiation based on the findings. MAIN METHODS: The experimental protocols employed to induce GST-P+ preneoplastic cells in rat liver were as follows. Protocol 1: adult rats were fed basal diet containing 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF, 0.02% by wt) and high concentrations of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (0...
March 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Hideaki Yokoyama, Akio Kobayashi, Kazuma Kondo, Shin-Ichi Oshida, Tadakazu Takahashi, Taku Masuyama, Toshiyuki Shoda, Shoichiro Sugai
Acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 is an enzyme that catalyzes the re-synthesis of triglycerides (TG) from free fatty acids and diacylglycerol. JTT-553 is a DGAT1 inhibitor and exhibits its pharmacological action (inhibition of re-synthesis of TG) in the enterocytes of the small intestine leading to suppression of a postprandial elevation of plasma lipids. After repeated oral dosing JTT-553 in rats and monkeys, plasma transaminase levels were increased but there were neither changes in other hepatic function parameters nor histopathological findings suggestive of hepatotoxicity...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Yi Zhang, Hui Miao, Hongyu Yan, Yuchen Sheng, Lili Ji
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fruit of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, named Forsythiae Fructus (Lian-Qiao), is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for clearing away heat and toxic material, eliminating the mass and relieving swelling. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to observe the attenuation of the water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (FSE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatic fibrosis in male C57BL/6 mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection with 2ml/kg CCl4 (mixed 1: 3 in olive oil) twice a week for 4 weeks...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tahereh Farkhondeh, Mohammad-Foad Noorbakhsh, Farzad Hayati, Saeed Samarghandian, Hanieh Shaterzadeh-Yazdi
Liver as an essential organ has an important function in metabolism and waste secretion from the body. Disorders of this organ may caused by several reasons such as high alcoholic consumption, various chemical or microbial agents and various hepatic cancers. Reactive and oxidative stress and oxygen species (ROS) are introduced the main mechanisms of these hepatic injuries. The seeds of Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) which is known as black seed, is widely used as a medicinal herb for cure or prevention of many of diseases such as liver problems...
February 20, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Grace Cui, Walter J Akers, Michael J Scott, Michael Nassif, John S Allen, Anne H Schmieder, Krishna S Paranandi, Akinobu Itoh, Dmitry D Beyder, Samuel Achilefu, Gregory A Ewald, Gregory M Lanza
Treatment of advanced heart failure with implantable LVADs is increasing, driven by profound unmet patient need despite potential serious complications: bleeding, infection, and thrombus. The experimental objective was to develop a sensitive imaging approach to assess early thrombus accumulation in LVADs under operational high flow and high shear rates. Methods : A monomeric bifunctional ligand with a fibrin-specific peptide, a short spacer, and99m Tc chelating amino acid sequence (F1A) was developed and compared to its tetrameric PEG analogue (F4A)...
2018: Theranostics
Ko-Chao Lee, Chih-Chuan Teng, Chien-Heng Shen, Wen-Shih Huang, Chien-Chang Lu, Hsing-Chun Kuo, Shui-Yi Tung
Black garlic has been reported to show multiple bioactivities against the development of different diseases. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of black garlic on injured liver cells was investigated. Rat clone-9 hepatocytes were used for all experiments; tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used to induce injury of rat clone-9 hepatocytes. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); anti-oxidative enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx); and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in rat clone-9 hepatocytes were determined to evaluate the level of cell damage...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yongtao Xiao, Ying Zhou, Ying Lu, Kejun Zhou, Wei Cai
Mitophagy is a major pathway for clearance of injured mitochondria. However, whether mitophagy is involved in the cholestasis-induced damages of hepatic mitochondria remains unknown. We here aimed to investigate the molecular links between cholestasis and hepatic mitophagy. We show that mitophagy is increased significantly in livers of biliary atresia (BA) that is cholestatic disease in infants. The mitochondrial-toxicity bile acids treatment increases the activities of mitophagy in hepatocytes. Mechanistically, we find that the prohibitin 2 (PHB2) is crucial for cholestasis-mediated mitophagy in vitro...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Apeksha Damania, Deepika Jaiman, Arun Kumar Teotia, Ashok Kumar
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are an attractive therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine. Recently, there has been a paradigm shift from differentiation of MSCs to their paracrine effects at the injury site. Several reports elucidate the role of trophic factors secreted by MSCs toward the repair of injured tissues. We hypothesize that fractionating the MSC secretome will enrich exosomes containing soluble bioactive molecules, improving its therapeutic potential for liver failure...
February 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yasuhiro Nakano, Sachie Nakao, Hideaki Sumiyoshi, Kenichiro Mikami, Yuri Tanno, Minako Sueoka, Daigo Kasahara, Hiroshi Kimura, Tadashi Moro, Akihide Kamiya, Katsuto Hozumi, Yutaka Inagaki
The liver is well known to possess high regenerative capacity in response to partial resection or tissue injury. However, liver regeneration is often impaired in the case of advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis when mature hepatocytes can hardly self-proliferate. Hepatic progenitor cells have been implicated as a source of hepatocytes in regeneration of the fibrotic liver. Although alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is known as a clinical marker of progenitor cell induction in injured/fibrotic adult liver, the origin and features of such AFP-producing cells are not fully understood...
May 2017: Hepatology Communications
Ila Shukla, Lubna Azmi, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Dalip Kumar Upreti, Chandana Venkateswara Rao
BACKGROUND: Reindeer lichen, Lichen rangiferinus syn. or Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. (Cladoniaceae) has been traditionally reported as a remedy to treat fever, colds, arthritis as well as convulsions, liver infections, coughs, constipation, and tuberculosis. The current study is aimed at rectification of alcohol induced liver damage by the use of L. rangiferinus extract. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare some biochemical markers for liver injury and hematological indices in normal untreated rats and treated rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Fuhao Chu, Wenxi Zhang, Wenbo Guo, Zhaoyi Wang, Yuqin Yang, Xinyu Zhang, Kang Fang, Mengmeng Yan, Penglong Wang, Haimin Lei
Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main extracellular matrix (ECM)-producing cells in the injured liver and the key mediators of liver fibrosis; they also promote the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the acidic extracellular microenvironment of HCC, HSCs are activated to promote the migration of HCC cells. It is worth attempting to alter the weak acidic microenvironment to promote activated HSC apoptosis to treat liver fibrosis and liver cancer. In the present study, a series of novel OA-amino acids analogues were designed and synthesized to introduce different amino acids in the 3-hydroxyl of OA using the ester condensation reaction to enhance hydrophilicity, alkalinity, and biological activity...
February 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
V R Ravikumar, G Rajamani, Vijayakumar Raju, Rajani Sundar, Sowmya Ravikumar, Raghul Maniam
A 7-day-old neonate presented with a large intra-abdominal mass adherent to the hilum of the liver encasing the portal triad. During excision, the portal vein, hepatic artery, and common bile duct were injured. The repair was done promptly and needed massive blood transfusion. Histopathology revealed immature teratoma Grade III. Survival in neonate following total transection of portal triad is rare and has not been reported.
January 2018: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
Yen-Cheng Lin, Feng-Sheng Wang, Ya-Ling Yang, Yuan-Ting Chuang, Ying-Hsien Huang
Cholestasis and hepatitis can cause continuous liver damage that may ultimately result in liver fibrosis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that microRNA-29a (miR-29a) protects against liver fibrosis. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are pattern recognition receptors of bacterial lipoprotein and lipopolysaccharide, both of which participate in activating hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis. The purpose of this study is to characterize the biological influence of miR-29a on TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in livers injured with bile duct ligation (BDL)...
January 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ting Duan, Chenchen Shi, Jing Zhou, Xiao Lv, Yongli Li, Yiping Luo
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the aerial survival of the northern snakehead is involved not only with suprabranchial chamber respiration but also with physiological regulations. The aerial survival time and oxygen consumption rate (VO2) were determined in snakeheads with either normal or injured suprabranchial organs. Some hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed during aerial exposure. The results showed that resting VO2 decreased when switching from water to air in both the control and the suprabranchial organ-injured fish, with decreases of 22...
January 22, 2018: Biology Open
Yuri L Boteon, Richard Laing, Hynek Mergental, Gary M Reynolds, Darius F Mirza, Simon C Afford, Ricky H Bhogal
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the leading cause of injury seen in the liver following transplantation. IRI also causes injury following liver surgery and haemodynamic shock. The first cells within the liver to be injured by IRI are the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). Recent evidence suggests that LSEC co-ordinate and regulates the livers response to a variety of injuries. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the cyto-protective cellular process of autophagy is a key regulator of IRI...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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