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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074588/care-under-the-influence
#1
Joseph J Fins, Samantha F Knowlton
A forty-year-old man is brought to the emergency room by his wife at five in the morning, two hours after he fell down the stairs at home, hitting his head and injuring his arm. He tells the ER physician that he got up to get a drink of water and tripped in the dark. His speech is slurred, and he smells strongly of alcohol. Lab results reveal elevated liver enzymes, and his blood alcohol level is 0.1. His medical history is unremarkable. When asked about his alcohol consumption, he says he usually has one or two drinks a night with dinner but that he drinks more on holidays and special occasions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062179/effects-of-non-focused-microbubble-enhanced-and-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-on-hemostasis-in-a-rabbit-model-of-liver-trauma
#2
Da-Wei Zhao, Meng Tian, Jian-Zhong Zou, Yuan-Yi Zheng, Tao Li
Uncontrolled hemorrhage after trauma to the liver can lead to death. The present study compared the effects of non-focused microbubble-enhanced ultrasound and high-intensity focused ultrasound on hepatic hemostasis in the injured liver. Blood perfusion level, serum liver enzyme levels and the aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio differed between the two types of treatment (all p values < 0.05). Hepatic cells in the microbubble-enhanced ultrasound group exhibited edema and compressed the hepatic sinus and blood vessels in the portal area...
January 3, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059863/spatiotemporal-expression-of-ski-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Kaisheng Zhou, Wei Nan, Dongliang Feng, Zhigang Yi, Yandong Zhu, Zaiyun Long, Sen Li, Haihong Zhang, Yamin Wu
Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats...
January 2, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051157/progressive-induction-of-hepatocyte-progenitor-cells-in-chronically-injured-liver
#4
Naoki Tanimizu, Norihisa Ichinohe, Masahiro Yamamoto, Haruhiko Akiyama, Yuji Nishikawa, Toshihiro Mitaka
Differentiated epithelial cells show substantial lineage plasticity upon severe tissue injuries. In chronically injured mouse livers, part of hepatocytes become Sry-HMG box containing 9 (Sox9) (+) epithelial cell adhesion molecule (-) hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (+) biphenotypic hepatocytes. However, it is not clear whether all Sox9(+) hepatocytes uniformly possess cellular properties as hepatocyte progenitors. Here, we examined the microarray data comparing Sox9(+) hepatocytes with mature hepatocytes and identified CD24 as a novel marker for biphenotypic hepatocytes...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000769/characterization-of-blunt-chest-trauma-in-a-long-term-porcine-model-of-severe-multiple-trauma
#5
K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, M Teuben, K Almahmoud, Q Zhi, S Aguiar Santos, C Castelar Wembers, S Leonhardt, N Heussen, P Störmann, B Auner, B Relja, I Marzi, A T Haug, M van Griensven, M Kalbitz, M Huber-Lang, R Tolba, L K Reiss, S Uhlig, G Marx, H C Pape, F Hildebrand
Chest trauma has a significant relevance on outcome after severe trauma. Clinically, impaired lung function typically occurs within 72 hours after trauma. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to establish an experimental long-term model to investigate physiological, morphologic and inflammatory changes, after severe trauma. Male pigs (sus scrofa) sustained severe trauma (including unilateral chest trauma, femur fracture, liver laceration and hemorrhagic shock)...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991908/early-activated-hepatic-stellate-cell-derived-paracrine-molecules-modulate-acute-liver-injury-and-regeneration
#6
Wenju Chang, Lujun Song, Xiujuan Chang, Meiling Ji, Hongshan Wang, Xinyu Qin, Weixin Niu
The effects of paracrine action from early activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on resident liver epithelium cells are not clear. Here, we investigated whether a systemic infusion of early activated HSC-derived paracrine factors (HSC-CM) would evoke an enhanced liver protective response in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice and explored the possible underlying mechanisms. The survival rate, liver injury, and liver regeneration were analyzed in mice with or without HSC-CM treatment in vivo...
December 19, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990569/icariin-treated-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-decrease-chronic-liver-injury-in-mice
#7
Huantian Cui, Zhen Liu, Li Wang, Yuhong Bian, Wen Li, Huifang Zhou, Xiaoqian Chu, Qingyun Zhao
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUMSCs) have been shown to have multiple differentiation potentials. However, a key problem is that only a small number of hUMSCs can migrate to damaged tissue after transplantation. According to "The Theory of Kidney Essence" in Traditional Chinese Medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines used for tonifying the kidneys can be applied in promoting the differentiation and migration of stem cells in vivo. Our previous study demonstrated that icariin (ICA) could up-regulate the pluripotent genes of hUMSCs in vitro and induce cell migration in mice in an acute kidney injury model in vivo...
December 18, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981544/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-experimental-cirrhosis-through-activation-of-keratinocyte-growth-factor-by-suppressing-microrna-199
#8
Z-M Bi, Q-F Zhou, Y Geng, H-M Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has a demonstrated role in the prevention of cirrhosis during liver regeneration. Previous studies have shown that transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) reduces the development of cirrhosis after liver injury. However, whether KGF may be involved in the underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. Here we addressed this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did HUCMSC transplantation in mice that had developed cirrhosis by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979827/protective-roles-of-hepatic-gaba-signaling-in-acute-liver-injury-of-rats
#9
Shuanglian Wang, Yun-Yan Xiang, Jianchun Zhu, Fan Yi, Jingxin Li, Chuanyong Liu, Wei-Yang Lu
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by various cells through the catalytic activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Activation of type-A GABA receptor (GABAAR) inhibits stem cell proliferation but protects differentiated cells from injures. The present study investigated hepatic GABA signaling system and the role of this system in liver physiology and pathophysiology. RT-PCR and immunoblot assays identified GAD and GABAAR subunits in rat livers and in HepG2 and Clone 9 hepatocytes. Patch-clamp recording detected GABA-induced currents in Clone 9 hepatocytes and depolarization in WITT cholangiocytes...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965156/fibri-nogen-drives-repair-after-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-via-leukocyte-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-integrin-dependent-upregulation-of-mmp12
#10
Anna K Kopec, Nikita Joshi, Holly Cline-Fedewa, Anna V Wojcicki, Jessica L Ray, Bradley P Sullivan, John E Froehlich, Brendan F Johnson, Matthew J Flick, James P Luyendyk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury is coupled to activation of the blood coagulation cascade and fibrin(ogen) accumulation within APAP-injured livers of experimental mice. We sought to define the precise role of fibrin(ogen) deposition in APAP-induced liver injury and repair METHODS: Fasted mice were injected with 300 mg/kg APAP i.p. and evaluated various times later RESULTS: In wild-type mice APAP overdose increased intrahepatic levels of high molecular weight cross-linked fibrin(ogen)...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956903/comprehensive-screening-of-cell-surface-markers-expressed-by-adult-derived-human-liver-stem-progenitor-cells-harvested-at-passage-5-potential-implications-for-engraftment
#11
Pierre-Edouard Dollet, Joachim Ravau, Floriane André, Mustapha Najimi, Etienne Sokal, Catherine Lombard
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to have potential therapeutic benefits for a number of diseases. However, many studies report low engraftment levels, regardless of the target organ. One possible explanation could be that MSCs do not express the necessary receptors for engraftment. Indeed, MSCs appear to use a similar mechanism to leukocytes to engraft into injured organs, relying on various receptors for rolling, firm adhesion, and transmigration. In this study, we conducted an extensive surface molecule screening of adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSC) in an attempt to shed some light on this subject...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942784/-introduction-of-prehospital-emergency-ultrasound-into-an-emergency-medical-service-area
#12
C Weilbach, A Kobiella, N Rahe-Meyer, K Johanning
BACKGROUND: Emergency ultrasound as part of the provision of emergency medical services using mobile devices offers great benefits regarding to some important questions related to the management of critically ill and injured patients in the prehospital situation where diagnostic resources are limited. The aim of this study is to determine whether the comprehensive introduction of prehospital emergency ultrasound examinations into a German Emergency Medical Services ("rescue services") area is both feasible and beneficial for patients...
December 9, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933593/inflammation-induced-cd69-kupffer-cell-feedback-inhibits-t-cell-proliferation-via-membrane-bound-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#13
Xiang Zhang, Zhengping Jiang, Yan Gu, Yanfang Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yanmei Han
Kupffer cells, tissue-resident macrophage lineage cell, are enriched in vertebrate liver. The mouse F4/80(+) Kupffer cells have been subclassified into two subpopulations according to their phenotype and function: CD68(+) subpopulation with potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and phagocytic capacities, and CD11b(+) subpopulation with a potent capacity to produce T helper 1 cytokines. In addition, CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages may be migrated from the bone marrow or spleen, especially in inflammatory conditions of the liver...
December 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928814/the-adrenal-gland-an-organ-neglected-in-pediatric-trauma-cases
#14
Bahattin Aydogdu, Mehmet Hanifi Okur, Serkan Arslan, Mehmet Serif Arslan, Hikmet Zeytun, Erol Basuguy, Mustafa Icer, Cemil Goya, Ibrahim Uygun, Murat Kemal Cigdem, Abdurrahman Onen, Selcuk Otcu
PURPOSE: Adrenal gland injury (AGI) caused by trauma may cause bleeding and life-threatening problems in children.The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of AGI in final diagnoses of trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 458 patients with abdominal trauma (out of a total 8,200 pediatric patientswith trauma of any sort), who were referred to our clinic between January 2009 and July 2014, were reviewed retrospectively.The numbers of patients with AGI and their ages, gender, trauma patterns, affected organs, pediatrictrauma scores (PTSs), and injury severity scores (ISSs) were recorded, as well as the associated ultrasound (US)and tomographic scan data, treatments, and complications...
8, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916538/myofibroblasts-derived-from-hepatic-progenitor-cells-create-the-tumor-microenvironment
#15
Sayaka Sekiya, Shizuka Miura, Kanae Matsuda-Ito, Atsushi Suzuki
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) appear in response to several types of chronic injury in the human and rodent liver that often develop into liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and primary liver cancers. However, the contribution of HPCs to the pathogenesis and progression of such liver diseases remains controversial. HPCs are generally defined as cells that can differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In this study, however, we found that HPCs isolated from the chronically injured liver can also give rise to myofibroblasts as a third type of descendant...
December 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904037/analysis-of-cyp2r1-and-cyp26a1-expression-patterns-in-regeneration-in-mice-with-liver-injury
#16
Akiyo Hirose, Wataru Ochiai, Yuka Yamamoto, Masashi Fukaya, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Nozomi Wakui, Ayumi Takahashi, Yusuke Takahashi, Satoshi Kitaoka, Jo Hatogai, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are involved in the metabolism of various substances in the liver and small intestine and show markedly higher expression levels in the liver compared to other organs. The liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate. After excision of 70% of the liver, the organ can regenerate to its original size in approximately 1 week. Unlike the normal liver, in the injured liver, hepatic stem cells known as oval cells are considered to play an important role in regeneration. However, the role of CYPs in liver regeneration remains unclear...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899118/surgical-intervention-for-paediatric-liver-injuries-is-almost-history-a-12-year-cohort-from-a-major-scandinavian-trauma-centre
#17
Tomohide Koyama, Jorunn Skattum, Peder Engelsen, Torsten Eken, Christine Gaarder, Pål Aksel Naess
BACKGROUND: Although nonoperative management (NOM) has become standard care, optimal treatment of liver injuries in children is still challenging since many of these patients have multiple injuries. Moreover, the role of angiography remains poorly defined, and a high index of suspicion of complications is warranted. This study reviews treatment and outcomes in children with liver injuries at a major Scandinavian trauma centre over a 12-year period. METHODS: Patients <17 years old with liver injury admitted to Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal during the period 2002-2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 29, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895397/th17-involvement-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-to-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
REVIEW
Carla Melisa Chackelevicius, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, Claudio Tiribelli, Natalia Rosso
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830548/fetal-liver-stem-progenitor-cell-transplantation-a-model-to-study-tissue-mass-replacement-and-cell-based-therapies
#19
Mladen I Yovchev, Michael Oertel
Liver transplantation is the only therapeutic treatment for patients with end-stage liver diseases. However, donor organ scarcity is the major limitation, and therefore, alternative strategies are urgently needed. The ultimate goal for successful cell-based therapies is the ability of transplanted cells to efficiently engraft and reconstitute injured liver mass. To evaluate the repopulation capacity of transplanted cells, it is essential to identify their specific characteristics, as well as to study the mechanism(s) Through which transplanted donor cells replace tissue mass in hepatic microenvironments, using well-established cell transplantation models...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830544/late-gestation-fetal-hepatocytes-for-liver-repopulation-in-the-rat
#20
Jennifer A Sanders
Cellular transplantation represents an alternative to liver transplantation for the treatment of end-stage liver disease and liver-based inborn errors of metabolism. In order for cellular transplantation to be successful, an optimal source of cells for transplantation needs to be identified and the molecular mechanisms regulating their engraftment, proliferation, and functional differentiation elucidated. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the isolation, selection, and transplantation into an injured adult rat liver of a defined population of late gestation fetal rat hepatocytes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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