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Susanne Froehlich, Florian Goebel, Adrian Meder, Janine Wirkner, Udo Obertacke, Richard Kasch
PREFACE: The surgical medical clerkship is of special importance, as the student is given the opportunity to get in touch with medical colleagues and patients for the first time, and the interest in a certain field of specialisation can be consolidated. The present study will clarify how students perceived their medical clerkship in the field of surgery. METHODS: A nationwide online survey carried out in 2012 was able to recruit 9079 participants, and contained questions about the completed curricular internships...
June 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Eric Fombonne
The first autism surveys were simple head counts of children already diagnosed with a severe autism phenotype and residing in small, circumscribed geographical areas. Prevalence was low, ranging from 0.4 to 2/1,000 in the 1960's and 1970's. Today, the methodology of surveys has become more complex; studies include large populations, multiple sites, stratified samples and rely on intricate sets of screening activities followed by some form of diagnostic confirmation procedures. Yet, and as surprising as it may be, there is no standardization of autism survey methodology...
July 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Nadya Gharaei, Jochem Thijs, Maykel Verkuyten
Ethnic identity plays a key role in the normative development of children and adolescents, and efforts to provide a positive and safe environment for ethnic identity benefit from an understanding of its context-dependency. Following the social identity perspective, we add to research on ethnic identity by considering the role of the classroom context and by conceptualizing ethnic identity in terms of two key dimensions. Specifically, the present study aims to investigate the role of the classroom context for ethnic private regard (positive ethnic self-feelings) and for the under-researched construct of ethnic introjection (subjective self-group merging)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Hui-Ning Shih, Wen-Hui Tsai, Shao-Hsia Chang, Chung-Ying Lin, Rong-Bin Hong, Yea-Shwu Hwang
BACKGROUND: First graders born prematurely perform poorly on handwriting speed and legibility. However, whether there are specific legibility factors in which preterm children demonstrate difficulty remains unknown. In addition, handwriting performance beyond the first grade and the influence of sex on handwriting performance in preterm children are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of prematurity and sex on multiple dimensions of handwriting in grade two and to identify the contributors to performance...
2018: PloS One
Leena Rantala, Eeva Sala, Elina Kankare
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between voice and working postures used during teaching. METHODS: A researcher assessed 30 teachers' typical working postures of the torso, head, shoulders, upper back, and arms by observing and/or asking questions about them. Teachers' options to rest and to adjust furniture according to their needs were also elicited. Voice symptoms were evaluated through 2 self-assessment forms. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level (SPL), and alpha ratio were calculated from voice samples recorded before, during, and after teaching...
June 19, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Helen Gordon, Eleanor Stevenson, Ann Brookhart, Marilyn H Oermann
Abstract In most schools of nursing, students rate their satisfaction with courses and teachers at the end of the semester. Low response rates on these evaluations make it difficult to interpret the results. Students were incentivized to complete their course evaluations by adding 1-2 points to one test score in the course in exchange for 85 % or higher participation by the total cohort. Ongoing monitoring and communication to students by faculty during the process was critical to motivating students to complete course evaluations...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Stephen Butler
This article was requested by the Editor, Professor Harald Brevik after listening to a lecture I gave in a similar vein. Harald wanted the information in print and I have done this in a partly autobiographical form to explain how I came to work and learn from both the late John J. Bonica and the late Wilbert Fordyce. Both of these men have been important in different ways to our present pain world. John J. Bonica made many contributions not only in pain but in regional anesthesia and obstetrical anesthesia but not on the same level...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Stephen P Kilgus, Michael P Van Wie, James S Sinclair, T Chris Riley-Tillman, Keith C Herman
Research has supported the applied use of Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scale (DBR-SIS) targets of "academic engagement" and "disruptive behavior" for a range of purposes, including universal screening and progress monitoring. Though useful in evaluating social behavior and externalizing problems, these targets have limited utility in evaluating emotional behavior and internalizing problems. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to support the initial development and validation of a novel DBR-SIS target of "unhappy," which was intended to tap into the specific construct of depression...
June 18, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Francois Maissan, Jan Pool, Eric Stutterheim, Harriet Wittink, Raymond Ostelo
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is the fourth major cause of disability worldwide but sufficient evidence regarding treatment is not available. This study is a first exploratory attempt to gain insight into and consensus on the clinical reasoning of experts in patients with non-specific neck pain. OBJECTIVE: First, we aimed to inventory expert opinions regarding the indication for physiotherapy when, other than neck pain, no positive signs and symptoms and no positive diagnostic tests are present...
June 2, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
M G Botelho
INTRODUCTION: This study presents a novel, student-centred, on-demand video learning modality that supports students as they transition from theory to clinical practice. Authentic, one-to-one teacher and student consultations have been video recorded and uploaded online for the peers and subsequent years of students to consume and learn from. This study describes the development and use of these communal consultation videos (CCVs), examines how students perceive this novel intervention and proposes supporting educational theory...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Leanne Tamm, James Peugh
The most common method used to evaluate child behavior and functioning is rating scales completed by parents and/or teachers. Given that executive functioning (EF) plays a fundamental role in the developing child's cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional development, it would be ideal if ratings of EF and performance-based EF measures assess the same construct. However, most studies report a small to negligible association between performance-based measures and ratings of EF. There are few studies investigating this association for preschoolers, and most only include parent ratings...
June 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Aileen W K Chan, Fiona W K Tang, Kai Chow Choi, Ting Liu, Ruth E Taylor-Piliae
BACKGROUND: Clinical practicum is a major learning component for pre-registration nursing students. Various clinical practicum models have been used to facilitate students' clinical learning experiences, employing both university-based and hospital-based clinical teachers. Considering the strengths and limitations of these clinical practicum models, along with nursing workforce shortages, we developed and tested an innovative clinical partnership model (CPM) in Hong Kong. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an innovative CPM among nursing students actual and preferred clinical learning environment, compared with a conventional facilitation model (CFM)...
June 5, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Codi White, Dianne C Shanley, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines, Haley Webb
Promoting young children's interpersonal safety knowledge, intentions confidence and skills is the goal of many child maltreatment prevention programs; however, evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted examining the effectiveness of the Australian protective behaviors program, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ compared to a waitlist condition. In total, 611 Australian children in Grade 1 (5-7 years; 50% male) participated, with assessments at Pre-intervention, Post-intervention and a 6-month follow-up...
June 11, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tessa Reardon, Susan H Spence, Jordan Hesse, Alia Shakir, Cathy Creswell
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders experienced by children and are associated with significant negative outcomes. Only a minority of affected children, however, access professional help, and a failure to identify children with anxiety disorders presents a key barrier to treatment access. Existing child anxiety questionnaire measures are long and time consuming to complete, limiting their potential for widespread use as identification tools in community settings. We developed a brief questionnaire for parents, children, and teachers using items from the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and evaluated the new measure's psychometric properties, capacity to discriminate between a community (n = 361) and clinic-referred sample (n = 338) of children aged 7-11, and identified optimal cut-off scores for accurate identification of preadolescent children experiencing clinically significant levels of anxiety...
June 14, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Sayabek Ziyadin, Natalya Shash, Dina Kenzhebekova, Gulmira Yessenova, Ulan Tlemissov
This article has researched role of leaders in developing expertise in teaching and their influence on teachers in secondary school in Kazakhstan. Also, how principles can affect to educators developing to meet needs and challenges of today's trends of teaching and learning. The following research report has been precisely written to evaluate the exact role of leadership practices in the development of expertise in teaching and in what manner the expert teachers or the principals help to develop expertise across various departments of the schools...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Isabella Mota-Veloso, Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge, Marcio Alexandre Homem, Isabela Almeida Pordeus, Saul Martins Paiva, Fernanda Oliveira-Ferreira
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Individuals with ADHD may present limitations with regard to executive functions and performing activities that involve planning and/or attention/concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental caries and signs of ADHD in a representative sample of schoolchildren. A representative sample of 851 schoolchildren aged seven to 12 years was randomly selected from public and private schools...
June 7, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Gabriela Salim Xavier Moreira, Luciana Lorenzato, Carmem Beatriz Neufeld, Sebastião Sousa Almeida
The present study developed a Brazilian adaptation of the BAS for young adolescents, testing its factor structure by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), concurrent and criterion validity, and its internal consistency. Participants were 347 adolescents (171 male and 176 female, aged between 10 and 13 years old). Three psychologists experts in psychological evaluation and three teachers of Portuguese of elementary school also participated for the adaptation stage of the items in order to be properly understood by the sample age group...
June 13, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Edgar Galindo, Adelinda A Candeias, Heldemerina S Pires, Luísa Grácio, Marcus Stück
This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST) was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jamileh Farokhzadian, Amirreza Sabzi, Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki
Background In order to effectively facilitate behavior change, it is essential to conduct health promotion programs on self-efficacy. Given the importance of the role of teachers in fostering the next generation, it appears that the promotion of self-efficacy in them can greatly contribute to the health of the community. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a health promotion training workshop on self-efficacy for health practices and also, on general self-efficacy of teachers in schools. Methods This study was a quasi-experimental study, in which 120 teachers were selected by random sampling and randomly divided into two equal intervention and control groups (60 in each group)...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Anne-Maree Parrish, Stewart G Trost, Steven J Howard, Marijka Batterham, Dylan Cliff, Jo Salmon, Anthony D Okely
OBJECTIVES: Adolescents spend large proportions of the school day sitting; potentially increasing their health risks. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a school-based intervention to reduce adolescent sitting time during the school day. DESIGN: Two-arm parallel-group randomised controlled trial. METHODS: Adolescents (13-16 years) were recruited from four private high schools in New South Wales, Australia...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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