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Caitlin Hitchcock, Martin S Westwell
BACKGROUND: We explored whether school-based Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) may optimise both academic and psychological outcomes at school. Training of executive control skills may form a novel approach to enhancing processes that predict academic achievement, such as task-related attention, and thereby academic performance, but also has the potential to improve the regulation of emotion, social problems and behavioural difficulties. METHODS: Primary school children (Mean age = 12 years, N = 148) were cluster-randomised to complete active CWMT, a nonadaptive/placebo version of CWMT, or no training...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
William P Fisher, A Jackson Stenner
Huge resources are invested in metrology and standards in the natural sciences, engineering, and across a wide range of commercial technologies. Significant positive returns of human, social, environmental, and economic value on these investments have been sustained for decades. Proven methods for calibrating test and survey instruments in linear units are readily available, as are data- and theory-based methods for equating those instruments to a shared unit. Using these methods, metrological traceability is obtained in a variety of commercially available elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education programs in the U...
October 2016: Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
Stefanie Faupel, Kathleen Otto, Henning Krug, Maria U Kottwitz
What do I expect when stating that "I am going to be a teacher"? Social roles, including professional roles, often become part of people's identity and thus, of the self. As people typically strive for maintaining a positive sense of self, threats to one's role identity are likely to induce stress. In line with these considerations, Semmer et al. recently (e.g., Semmer et al., 2007, 2015) introduced "illegitimate tasks" as a new concept of stressors. Illegitimate tasks, which are defined as unnecessary or unreasonable tasks, threaten the self because they signal a lack of appreciation regarding one's professional role...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mary Ruth Coleman
Hands-on science is the ideal platform for observing young children's ability to solve problems, think deeply, and use their creative ingenuity to explore the world around them. Science is naturally interesting and offers authentic reasons to read for information and use math skills to collect, compile, and analyze data. This chapter will share one approach to nurturing and recognizing young children with high-potential: U-STARS∼PLUS (Using Science, Talents, and Abilities to Recognize Students∼Promoting Learning for Underrepresented Students)...
August 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Achilleas Thoma, Manraj Nirmal Kaur, Forough Farrokhyar, Daniel Waltho, Carolyn Levis, Peter Lovrics, Charlie H Goldsmith
You are a new plastic surgeon in the community and you are referred a patient interested in breast reconstruction. The patient is a 35-year-old female school teacher who had a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy 2 years earlier, as she was a BRCA gene carrier. Since she is of a petite build with very little subcutaneous tissue or extra skin in the lower abdomen, you decide that she is not a suitable candidate for an abdomen-based autologous tissue reconstruction. You recommend the technique of tissue expansion and silicone gel implants...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Emily K Penner
This paper examines the effect of Teach For America (TFA) on the distribution of student achievement in elementary school. It extends previous research by estimating quantile treatment effects (QTE) to examine how student achievement in TFA and non-TFA classrooms differs across the broader distribution of student achievement. It also updates prior distributional work on TFA by correcting for previously unidentified missing data and estimating unconditional, rather than conditional QTE. Consistent with previous findings, results reveal a positive impact of TFA teachers across the distribution of math achievement...
2016: Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness
Laurice Bou Nemer, Dawn Kalin, Desiree Fiorentino, Jorge J Garcia, Christopher M Estes
OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a simulation laboratory designed to stimulate learning and increase medical students' preparedness for an obstetrics and gynecology clinical clerkship. METHODS: Ninety-seven medical students participated in the games during their obstetrics and gynecology clerkship in 1 year. Using the resident-as-teacher model, students rotated through seven stations, each with a simulated obstetric task. Points were awarded at each station, and the student with the highest score won...
October 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ammara A Watkins, Stephen P Gondek, Kiran H Lagisetty, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Sidharta P Gangadharan, Michael J Cahalane, Tara S Kent
BACKGROUND: A nonintrusive e-mail reminder incorporating teaching tips and manuscripts was developed to supplement resident-as-teacher curricula. METHODS: Ten high-yield manuscripts and 10 teaching tips exemplifying the themes of mentorship or role modeling, teaching methods, adult learning theory, feedback, and the resident role of teaching were distributed to general surgery house staff through a weekly e-mail series. House staff completed surveys before and after the 20-week e-mail series...
July 9, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Stanislav Južnič
For the first time a complete list of Tesla's High School professors is provided. The excellency of his lecturers of chemistry and related sciences is put into the limelight. The books and articles about chemistry which Tesla read in his High School times are focused together with the related published works of his teachers. The pioneering spectroscopic research of Kirchhoff and Bunsen began in Tesla's early youth and had a considerable impact on Tesla's professors, especially on Martin Sekulić.
2016: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Annalisa Valle, Davide Massaro, Ilaria Castelli, Francesca Sangiuliano Intra, Elisabetta Lombardi, Edoardo Bracaglia, Antonella Marchetti
Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The "Thought in Mind Project" (TiM Project) provides training targeted to adults-teachers or parents-to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jan-Henning Ehm, Julia Kerner Auch Koerner, Caterina Gawrilow, Marcus Hasselhorn, Florian Schmiedek
The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the influence of ADHD symptoms on reading development in elementary schoolchildren. To this end, repeated assessments of ADHD symptoms (teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) and reading achievement (standardized tests of decoding speed and text comprehension) were examined in a sample comprising 2,014 elementary schoolchildren at the end of Grades 1, 2, 3, respectively, and in the middle of Grade 4. Latent change score models revealed that the level of ADHD symptoms was associated with lower levels and less growth in decoding speed and text comprehension...
September 2016: Developmental Psychology
Paragkumar Chavda, Chandresh Pandya, Dipak Solanki, Sonal Dindod
CONTEXT: There is a need to shift from the didactic lecture-based instruction to more student-centered active learning methods for undergraduate teaching in community medicine. AIMS: To compare didactic and modular method of learning on Level 1 and 2 on Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a two-arm educational intervention study for a small group of the 2(nd) year MBBS students in their 4(th) semester during clinical posting in the subject of community medicine...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Karen L Bierman, Brenda S Heinrichs, Janet A Welsh, Robert L Nix, Scott D Gest
BACKGROUND: Growing up in poverty undermines healthy development, producing disparities in the cognitive and social-emotional skills that support early learning and mental health. Preschool and home-visiting interventions for low-income children have the potential to build early cognitive and social-emotional skills, reducing the disparities in school readiness that perpetuate the cycle of poverty. However, longitudinal research suggests that the gains low-income children make during preschool interventions often fade at school entry and disappear by early elementary school...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Hilde Hofslundsengen, Bente Eriksen Hagtvet, Jan-Eric Gustafsson
This study examined the effects of a 10 week invented writing program with five-year-old preschoolers (mean age 5.7 years) on their immediate post intervention literacy skills and also the facilitative effects of the intervention on the subsequent learning to read during the first 6 months of schooling. The study included 105 children (54 girls) from 12 preschools in Norway. The preschools were randomly assigned to the experimental group with the invented writing program, or the control group with the ordinary program offered to preschoolers...
2016: Reading and Writing
Andrew Lilley, Leanne Turner
INTRODUCTION: The local Clinical Commissioning Group has funded an innovative one-year pilot project to assess the value of providing specialist paediatric pharmacist and physiotherapist support direct to families and health care professionals (GP's, community pharmacists, practice nurses etc.) regarding asthma in the primary care setting. Currently no such support is provided within community setting by physiotherapy or pharmacy. METHODS: Joint holistic reviews by the clinical specialist physiotherapist and specialist paediatric pharmacist were performed in the patient's home environment or school...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
(no author information available yet)
1 A video showing nurse teacher Ross Mawhinney demonstrating a seven-step handwashing technique to the hit song Shake it Off by pop singer Taylor Swift has been viewed more than 1.6 million times. Read more
August 17, 2016: Nursing Standard
Judy Diamond, Julia McQuillan, Amy N Spiegel, Patricia Wonch Hill, Rebecca Smith, John West, Charles Wood
Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information...
2016: Mus Soc Issues
Samantha Johnson, Victoria Strauss, Camilla Gilmore, Julia Jaekel, Neil Marlow, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND: Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. AIMS: This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; <26(+0)weeks' gestation). SUBJECTS AND STUDY DESIGN: A UK national cohort of 161 EP children and 153 term-born controls without neurosensory impairments was assessed at 11years of age (the EPICure Study)...
August 9, 2016: Early Human Development
Katie Eklund, Stephen Kilgus, Nathaniel von der Embse, Megan Beardmore, Nick Tanner
Initial research suggests screening for behavioral and emotional risk has been found to predict important behavioral and academic outcomes. The current study seeks to investigate the predictive validity of a novel screening measure, the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener-Teacher Rating Scale (SAEBRS-TRS). Although the SAEBRS-TRS has demonstrated initial evidence of strong psychometric properties (including reliability and validity), less is known about the SAEBRS-TRS's prediction of important student academic and behavioral outcomes...
August 8, 2016: Psychological Assessment
(no author information available yet)
1 The first-ever publication of statistics on female genital mutilation (FGM) has revealed 5,700 new cases in England over the past year. Nurses, midwives, doctors and teachers are legally required to report cases of FGM involving girls aged under 18 to the police. Read more
August 3, 2016: Nursing Standard
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