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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923102/pain-treatment-continues-to-be-inaccessible-for-many-patients-around-the-globe-second-phase-of-opioid-price-watch-a-cross-sectional-study-to-monitor-the-prices-of-opioids
#1
Tania Pastrana, Roberto Wenk, Lukas Radbruch, Ebtesam Ahmed, Liliana De Lima
BACKGROUND: Strong opioids are a cornerstone of pain treatment, of which morphine is considered an essential analgesic by the World Health Organization. Access to opioids is limited, due to restrictive laws, limited education, and high prices. This is the second phase of a global project to monitor and report the dispensing price of opioids with the specific aim to expand and increase the information and allow further analysis of the challenges in their availability and affordability...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922745/optimization-of-linezolid-treatment-regimens-for-gram-positive-bacterial-infections-based-on-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis
#2
Minjie Yang, Jing Zhang, Yuancheng Chen, Xiaoyu Liang, Yan Guo, Jicheng Yu, Demei Zhu, Yingyuan Zhang
AIM: To optimize linezolid treatment regimens for Gram-positive bacterial infections based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of 572 Gram-positive strains from patients with clinically confirmed infections was analyzed. Using the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cumulative fraction of response and probability of target attainment were determined for linezolid regimens of 600 mg q...
December 6, 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920385/sublethal-streptomycin-concentrations-and-lytic-bacteriophage-together-promote-resistance-evolution
#3
Johannes Cairns, Lutz Becks, Matti Jalasvuori, Teppo Hiltunen
Sub-minimum inhibiting concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics frequently occur in natural environments owing to wide-spread antibiotic leakage by human action. Even though the concentrations are very low, these sub-MICs have recently been shown to alter bacterial populations by selecting for antibiotic resistance and increasing the rate of adaptive evolution. However, studies are lacking on how these effects reverberate into key ecological interactions, such as bacteria-phage interactions. Previously, co-selection of bacteria by phages and antibiotic concentrations exceeding MICs has been hypothesized to decrease the rate of resistance evolution because of fitness costs associated with resistance mutations...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919287/chemical-profiling-antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-evaluations-of-polygonum-hydropiper-l
#4
Muhammad Ayaz, Muhammad Junaid, Farhat Ullah, Abdul Sadiq, Muhammad Ovais, Waqar Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad, Anwar Zeb
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat diseases is based on the discovery of potent drugs for the treatment of these challenging diseases. Traditional medicines are one of the major sources for the discovery of safe, effective and economical drug candidates. In order to validate its antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal potentials with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time Polygonum hydropiper against pathogenic bacterial, fungal strains and a variety of insects...
December 5, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919228/antimicrobial-activity-and-safety-evaluation-of-peptides-isolated-from-the-hemoglobin-of-chickens
#5
Fengjiao Hu, Qiaoxing Wu, Shuang Song, Ruiping She, Yue Zhao, Yifei Yang, Meikun Zhang, Fang Du, Majid Hussain Soomro, Ruihan Shi
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin is a rich source of biological peptides. As a byproduct and even wastewater of poultry-slaughtering facilities, chicken blood is one of the most abundant source of hemoglobin. RESULTS: In this study, the chicken hemoglobin antimicrobial peptides (CHAP) were isolated and the antimicrobial and bactericidal activities were tested by the agarose diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) analysis, and time-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal assays...
December 5, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918694/ceftaroline-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-u-s-medical-centers-2014-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-single-ceftaroline-nonsusceptible-isolate
#6
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (2,614) were collected from patients at 135 U.S. Medical Centers during 2014. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. A single isolate (853008) demonstrated a ceftaroline nonsusceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value, and it was subjected to molecular characterization. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, ≤0.015/0.12 μg/ml) was eightfold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, ≤0...
December 5, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918024/uniform-and-perfectly-linear-current-voltage-characteristics-of-nitrogen-doped-armchair-graphene-nanoribbons-for-nanowires
#7
Lingling Liu, Xiao-Fei Li, Qing Yan, Qin-Kun Li, Xiang-Hua Zhang, Mingsen Deng, Qi Qiu, Yi Luo
Metallic nanowires with desired properties for molecular integrated circuits (MICs) are especially significant in molectronics, but preparing such wires at a molecular level still remains challenging. Here, we propose, from first principles calculations, experimentally realizable edge-nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) as promising candidates for nanowires. Our results show that edge N-doping has distinct effects on the electronic structures and transport properties of the armchair GNRs and zigzag GNRs (AGNRs, ZGNRs), due to the formation of pyridazine and pyrazole rings at the edges...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917701/design-synthesis-mtt-assay-dna-interaction-studies-of-platinum-ii-complexes
#8
Miral V Lunagariya, Khyati P Thakor, Bhargav N Waghela, Foram U Vaidya, Chadramani Pathak, Mohan N Patel
The square planar Pt(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L(n))(Cl2)] (where L(n) = L(1-3) = thiophene-2-carboxamide derivatives and L(4-6) = thiophene-2-carbothioamide derivatives) have been synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and various spectroscopic studies. MIC method was employed to inference the antibacterial potency of complexes in reference to free ligands and metal salt. Characteristic binding constant (Kb) and binding mode of complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were determined using absorption titration (0...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917454/comparative-study-of-betacyanin-profile-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-red-pitahaya-hylocereus-polyrhizus-and-red-spinach-amaranthus-dubius
#9
Yi Yi Yong, Gary Dykes, Sui Mae Lee, Wee Sim Choo
Betacyanins are reddish to violet pigments that can be found in red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). This study investigated the impact of sub-fractionation (solvent partitioning) on betacyanin content in both plants. Characterization of betacyanins and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities were also carried out. Betanin was found in both plants. In addition, isobetanin, phyllocactin and hylocerenin were found in red pitahaya whereas amaranthine and decarboxy-amaranthine were found in red spinach...
December 5, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917280/antifungal-activity-of-zataria-multiflora-essential-oil-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-in-vitro-condition
#10
Mahboobeh Nasseri, Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Hossein Arouiee, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Hossein Neamati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs) were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917206/anticancer-and-antibacterial-secondary-metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-sp-cam64-against-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#11
Jean-Bosco Jouda, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Prodipta Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Bag, Jean Wandji
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus associated with leaves of Garcinia nobilis. METHODS: The culture filtrate from the fermentation of Penicillium sp...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917156/inhibitory-effects-of-macrotetrolides-from-streptomyces-spp-on-zoosporogenesis-and-motility-of-peronosporomycete-zoospores-are-likely-linked-with-enhanced-atpase-activity-in-mitochondria
#12
Md Tofazzal Islam, Hartmut Laatsch, Andreas von Tiedemann
The release of zoospores from sporangia and motility of the released zoospores are critical in the disease cycle of the Peronosporomycetes that cause devastating diseases in plants, fishes, animals and humans. Disruption of any of these asexual life stages eliminates the possibility of pathogenesis. In the course of screening novel bioactive secondary metabolites, we found that extracts of some strains of marine Streptomyces spp. rapidly impaired motility and caused subsequent lysis of zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10 μg/ml...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916875/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-is-a-novel-regulator-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-pancreatic-cancer
#13
REVIEW
David Witte, Franziska Zeeh, Thomas Gädeken, Frank Gieseler, Bernhard H Rauch, Utz Settmacher, Roland Kaufmann, Hendrik Lehnert, Hendrik Ungefroren
TGF-β has a dual role in tumorigenesis, acting as a tumor suppressor in normal cells and in the early stages of tumor development while promoting carcinogenesis and metastasis in advanced tumor stages. The final outcome of the TGF-β response is determined by cell-autonomous mechanisms and genetic alterations such as genomic instability and somatic mutations, but also by a plethora of external signals derived from the tumor microenvironment, such as cell-to-cell interactions, growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins and proteolytic enzymes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916806/antifungal-activity-of-oleuropein-against-candida-albicans-the-in-vitro-study
#14
Nataša Zorić, Nevenka Kopjar, Ivan Bobnjarić, Igor Horvat, Siniša Tomić, Ivan Kosalec
In the present study we investigated activity of oleuropein, a complex phenol present in large quantities in olive tree products, against opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Oleuropein was found to have in vitro antifungal activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 mg·mL(-1). Morphological changes in the nuclei after staining with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes revealed that apoptosis was a primary mode of cell death in the analyzed samples treated with subinhibitory concentrations of oleuropein...
November 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916692/the-effects-of-bacteria-nanoparticles-interface-on-the-antibacterial-activity-of-green-synthesized-silver-nanoparticles
#15
Aftab Ahmad, Yun Wei, Fatima Syed, Kamran Tahir, Aziz Ur Rehman, Arifullah Khan, Sadeeq Ullah, Qipeng Yuan
Neutralization of bacterial cell surface potential using nanoscale materials is an effective strategy to alter membrane permeability, cytoplasmic leakage, and ultimate cell death. In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare biogenic silver nanoparticles using biomolecules from the aqueous rhizome extract of Coptis Chinensis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were surface modified with chitosan biopolymer. The prepared silver nanoparticles and chitosan modified silver nanoparticles were cubic crystalline structures (XRD) with an average particle size of 15 and 20 nm respectively (TEM, DLS)...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916605/modulation-of-drug-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-of-tunisian-children
#16
Tarek Zmantar, Rihab Ben Slama, Kais Fdhila, Bochra Kouidhi, Amina Bakhrouf, Kamel Chaieb
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and the anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus plantarum extract (LPE) against a panel of oral Staphylococcus aureus (n=9) and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The in vitro ability of LPE to modulate bacterial resistance to tetracycline, benzalchonium chloride (BC), and chlorhexidine (CHX) were tested also. METHODS: The MICs and MBCs of LPE, tetracycline (TET), CHX and BC were determined in absence and in presence of a sub-MIC doses of LPE (1/2 MIC)...
December 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916545/chromagar-msupercarba-performance-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-characterized-at-molecular-level-and-routine-surveillance-rectal-swab-specimens
#17
Sergio García-Fernández, Marta Hernández-García, Aránzazu Valverde, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, María Isabel Morosini, Rafael Cantón
Performance of the CHROMagar mSuperCARBA media was assessed in both well-characterized carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (n=52) and routine surveillance rectal swab specimens (n=211). Limit of detection ranged between 10(1) and 10(2)CFU/mL except for OXA-48 producers with low-carbapenem MICs (10(6)CFU/mL). High sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) were obtained with rectal swabs.
November 25, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916384/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-subtypes-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates-from-kolkata-india-over-a-15-years-period-1998-2012
#18
Surojit Das, Sriparna Samajpati, Ujjwayini Ray, Indranil Roy, Shanta Dutta
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Typhi population. We included representative S. Typhi strains (n=164) from retrospective studies, both community and hospital based, conducted at National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata during 15 years period (1998-2012) to analyze their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, mechanism of AMR and molecular subtypes of the strains...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914798/antimycobacterial-activity-of-novel-hydrazide-hydrazone-derivatives-with-2h-chromene-and-coumarin-scaffold
#19
Violina T Angelova, Violeta Valcheva, Nikolay G Vassilev, Rosen Buyukliev, Georgi Momekov, Ivan Dimitrov, Luciano Saso, Mirjana Djukic, Boris Shivachev
This study reports the synthesis of new 2H-chromene or coumarin based acylhydrazones, which were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against reference strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and compared to the first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol (EMB). The most active compounds 7m (MIC 0.13μM), 7o (MIC 0.15μM) and 7k (MIC 0.17μM) demonstrated antimycobacterial activity at submicromolar concentration level and remarkably minimal associated cytotoxicity in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293T...
November 25, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914363/new-insights-into-the-sar-and-drug-combination-synergy-of-2-quinolin-4-yloxy-acetamides-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Bruno Couto Giacobbo, Kenia Pissinate, Valnês Rodrigues-Junior, Anne Drumond Villela, Estêvão Silveira Grams, Bruno Lopes Abbadi, Fernanda Teixeira Subtil, Nathalia Sperotto, Rogério Valim Trindade, Davi Fernando Back, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Pablo Machado, Diógenes Santiago Santos
2-(Quinolin-4-yloxy)acetamides have been described as potent and selective in vitro inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth. Herein, a new series of optimized compounds were found to demonstrate highly potent antitubercular activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the submicromolar range. Furthermore, the most active compounds had no apparent toxicity to mammalian cells, and they showed intracellular activities similar to those of isoniazid and rifampin in a macrophage model of Mtb infection...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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