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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441434/testing-survey-based-methods-for-rapid-monitoring-of-child-mortality-with-implications-for-summary-birth-history-data
#1
Eoghan Brady, Kenneth Hill
INTRODUCTION: Under-five mortality estimates are increasingly used in low and middle income countries to target interventions and measure performance against global development goals. Two new methods to rapidly estimate under-5 mortality based on Summary Birth Histories (SBH) were described in a previous paper and tested with data available. This analysis tests the methods using data appropriate to each method from 5 countries that lack vital registration systems. SBH data are collected across many countries through censuses and surveys, and indirect methods often rely upon their quality to estimate mortality rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441350/synthesis-and-bioactivity-evaluation-of-novel-2-salicyloylbenzofurans-as-antibacterial-agents
#2
Phuong-Thuy T Phan, Thu-Trang T Nguyen, Hong-Nhung T Nguyen, Bao-Khanh N Le, Thao T Vu, Dong C Tran, Tuan-Anh N Pham
In order to discover new antibacterial agents, series of 2-salicyloylbenzofuran derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-(+) strains (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300, and Streptococcus faecalis (S. faecalis) ATCC 29212) and one Gram-(-) strain (Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922). The 2-salicyloylbenzofuran heterocycles were generated by Rap-Stoermer condensation of salicylaldehydes with phenacyl bromides and then converted to diverse O-ether derivatives by Williamson synthesis...
April 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440203/antimicrobial-biofilm-inhibitory-and-anti-infective-activity-of-metallic-nanoparticles-against-multi-drug-resistant-mrsa-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa01
#3
Jamuna Bai Ashwathanarayan, Ravishankar Rai Vittal
BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a major concern to the scientific community. Novel approaches such as the use of functionalized nanomaterials with antimicrobial activity is required to treat infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the metallic nanoparticles (iron, gold, zinc oxide and copper oxide) were evaluated for the antimicrobial, biofilm inhibitory and anti-infective activity against human pathogens methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01...
April 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439299/substance-p-enhances-lactic-acid-and-tyramine-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-and-promotes-its-cytotoxic-effect-on-intestinal-caco-2-tc7-cells
#4
Kelly Biaggini, Valérie Borrel, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Awa N'Diaye, Arthur Zébré, Maryse Bonnin-Jusserand, Guillaume Duflos, Marc Feuilloley, Djamel Drider, Pierre Déchelotte, Nathalie Connil
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. This bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on E. faecalis, of Substance P (SP), an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in the gut and skin...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438936/demonstrating-the-protective-efficacy-of-the-novel-fluoroquinolone-finafloxacin-against-an-inhalational-exposure-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#5
Kay B Barnes, Karleigh A Hamblin, Mark I Richards, Thomas R Laws, Andreas Vente, Helen S Atkins, Sarah V Harding
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious disease endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Antibiotic treatment is lengthy and relapse often occurs. Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity in acidic conditions in contrast to other fluoroquinolones which demonstrate reduced activity at lower pH. Therefore finafloxacin may have improved efficacy against B. pseudomallei, which can survive within host cells where the local pH is acidic...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438930/in-vitro-assessment-of-combined-polymyxin-b-and-minocycline-therapy-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-k-pneumoniae
#6
Dennis Huang, Brenda Yu, John K Diep, Rajnikant Sharma, Michael Dudley, Keith S Kaye, Jason M Pogue, Cely Abboud Saad, Gauri Rao
The multi-drug resistance profiles of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers have increased clinical polymyxin use. Combination therapy with polymyxins may improve treatment outcomes, but it is uncertain which combinations are most effective. Clinical successes have been reported with intravenous minocycline-based combination treatments for infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of polymyxin B and minocycline combination therapy against six KPC-2-producing K...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438925/identification-of-mycobacterial-genes-involved-in-antibiotic-sensitivity-implications-in-the-treatment-of-tuberculosis-with-%C3%AE-lactam-containing-regimens
#7
Gopinath Viswanathan, Sangya Yadav, Tirumalai R Raghunand
In a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant library screen, transposon mutants with insertions in fhaA, dprE2, rpsT and parA, displayed hypersusceptibility to antibiotics including the β-lactams meropenem, ampicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime. Sub MIC levels of octoclothepin, a psychotic drug inhibiting ParA, phenocopied the parA insertion and enhanced the bactericidal activity of meropenem against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis in combination with clavulanate. Our study identifies novel factors associated with antibiotic resistance, with implications in repurposing β-lactams for tuberculosis treatment...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438821/effects-of-i-v-push-administration-on-%C3%AE-lactam-pharmacodynamics
#8
Jill M Butterfield-Cowper, Kimberli Burgner
PURPOSE: The effects of i.v. push administration on the pharmacodynamic exposures of meropenem, cefepime, and aztreonam were evaluated. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses were conducted using previously published pharmacokinetic data for meropenem, cefepime, and aztreonam. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was assessed using Monte Carlo simulations for 30-minute and 5-minute infusions of approved dosing regimens and alternative dosing schemes often used in clinical practice, including 500 mg every 6 hours and 1 g every 8 hours for meropenem, 1 g every 6 hours and 2 g every 8 hours for cefepime, and 2 g every 8 hours for aztreonam...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438282/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-stayphylococcus-aureus-to-honey
#9
Muhammad Barkaat Hussain, Abdul Hannan, Muhammad Absar, NadeemShafique Butt
Wound infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is becoming much complicated and costly to treat as antimicrobial resistance is quite common. Twenty five MRSA strains isolated from infected wounds and three ATCC reference strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to locally produced black seed (Nigella sativa), beri (ZiziphusJujuba) and shain honey (Plectranthus rugosus wall) by agar incorporation assay. Medically graded manuka honey (UMF 21(+)) was included as control. Locally produced black seed honey inhibited all clinical isolates at mean MIC of 5...
May 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438179/genome-adaptive-evolution-of-lactobacillus-casei-under-long-term-antibiotic-selection-pressures
#10
Jicheng Wang, Xiao Dong, Yuyu Shao, Huiling Guo, Lin Pan, Wenyan Hui, Lai-Yu Kwok, Heping Zhang, Wenyi Zhang
BACKGROUND: The extensive use of antibiotics in medicine has raised serious concerns about biosafety. However, the effect of antibiotic application on the adaptive evolution of microorganisms, especially to probiotic bacteria, has not been well characterized. Thus, the objective of the current work was to investigate how antibiotic selection forces might drive genome adaptation using Lactobacillus (L.) casei Zhang as a model. METHODS: Two antibiotics, amoxicillin and gentamicin, were consistently applied to the laboratory culture of L...
April 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436830/antimicrobial-activity-of-free-and-liposome-encapsulated-thymol-and-carvacrol-against-salmonella-and-staphylococcus-aureus-adhered-to-stainless-steel
#11
Juliana Both Engel, Caroline Heckler, Eduardo Cesar Tondo, Daniel Joner Daroit, Patrícia da Silva Malheiros
Antimicrobial activity of thymol, carvacrol and thymol/carvacrol liposomes (TCL) was evaluated against two bacterial pools, each one consisting of four strains of Staphylococcus aureus or Salmonella enterica. TCL were prepared using thin-film hydration, showing 270.20nm average diameter (polydispersity index of 0.33) and zeta potential of +39.99mV. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of thymol, carvacrol and TCL against S. aureus pool was 0.662mg/ml, while MIC for Salmonella pool was 0.331mg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, and for TCL was 0...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436655/investigating-the-antibacterial-activity-of-biphenylthiazoles-against-methicillin-and-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-and-vrsa
#12
Mohamed Hagras, Haroon Mohammad, Mohamed S Mandour, Youssef A Hegazy, Adel Ghiaty, Mohamed N Seleem, Abdelrahman S Mayhoub
Phenylthiazoles were reported previously as a new scaffold with antibacterial activity against an array of multidrug-resistant staphylococci. However, their promising antibacterial activity was hampered in large part by their short half-life due to excessive hepatic clearance. Close inspection of the structure-activity-relationships (SAR) of the phenylthiazoles revealed two important structural features necessary for antibacterial activity (a nitrogenous and a lipophilic component). Incorporating the nitrogenous part within a pyrimidine ring resulted in analogues with a prolonged half-life, while the biphenyl moiety revealed the most potent analogue 1b...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435351/in-vitro-antifungal-activity-of-1-n-2-methoxybenzyl-1-10-phenanthrolinium-bromide-against-candida-albicans-and-its-effects-on-membrane-integrity
#13
Setiawati Setiawati, Titik Nuryastuti, Ngatidjan Ngatidjan, Mustofa Mustofa, Jumina Jumina, Dhina Fitriastuti
Metal-based drugs, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, have demonstrated anticancer, antifungal and antiplasmodium activities. One of the 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives compounds (1)-N-2-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (FEN), which has been demonstrated an inhibitory effect on the growth of Candida spp. This study aimed to explore the in vitro antifungal activity of FEN and its effect on the membrane integrity of Candida albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of FEN against planktonic C...
March 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435070/siderophores-in-clinical-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-promote-ciprofloxacin-resistance-by-inhibiting-the-oxidative-stress
#14
Wenli Zhang, Ying Zhang, Xinxin Wang, Fengshu Ding, Yingmei Fu, Jizi Zhao, Wuqi Song, Ogutu James Opiyo, Fengmin Zhang, Xiaobei Chen
To explore the relevance of and understand the potential mechanisms behind the production of siderophores by clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance, we divided the K. pneumoniae isolates into two groups based on bacterial siderophores productin: high siderophore-yielding group (39 strains) and low siderophore-yielding group (38 strains). The rate of CIP resistance in K. pneumoniae (27/39 = 69.23%) from the high siderophore-yielding group was significantly higher than that (16/38 = 42...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434899/mechanisms-responsible-for-imipenem-resistance-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-isolates-exposed-to-imipenem-concentrations-within-the-mutant-selection-window
#15
Foula Vassilara, Irene Galani, Maria Souli, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Helen Giamarellou, Antonios Papadopoulos
The aim of this study was to determine the propensities of imipenem to select for resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 9 unrelated clinical isolates and the accession of any relationship with mechanisms of resistance development. The MPC/MIC ratios ranged from 4 to 16. Detection of resistance mechanisms in the mutant derivatives of the nine isolates mainly revealed inactivating mutations in the gene coding for outer membrane protein OprD. Point mutations leading to premature stop codons or amino acid substitution S278P, ≥1bp deletion leading to frameshift mutations and interruption of the oprD by an insertion sequence, were observed...
April 12, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433928/child-disability-and-siblings-healthcare-expenditures-in-a-context-of-child-fostering
#16
REVIEW
Arlette Simo Fotso
Many studies have assessed the impact of disability on healthcare expenditures for the disabled child, but practically none has considered the externalities of a child's disability in terms of healthcare expenditures for his/her siblings. This study therefore seeks to measure the impact of a child's disability on the allocation of healthcare expenditures among children of a household. It uses data from the 2011 Demographic Health and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (DHS-MICS) conducted in Cameroon by the National Statistics Institute (INS), with support from UNFPA, UNICEF, the World Bank and USAID...
April 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#17
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432381/modulation-of-the-multidrug-efflux-pump-emrd-3-from-vibrio-cholerae-by-allium-sativum-extract-and-the-bioactive-agent-allyl-sulfide-plus-synergistic-enhancement-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-by-a-sativum-extract
#18
Merissa M Bruns, Prathusha Kakarla, Jared T Floyd, Mun Mun Mukherjee, Robert C Ponce, John A Garcia, Indrika Ranaweera, Leslie M Sanford, Alberto J Hernandez, T Mark Willmon, Grace L Tolson, Manuel F Varela
The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431915/synergistic-anticandidal-activity-of-menthol-in-combination-with-itraconazole-and-nystatin-against-clinical-candida-glabrata-and-candida-krusei-isolates
#19
Aghil Sharifzadeh, Ali Reza Khosravi, Hojjatollah Shokri, Paria Samadi Tari
BACKGROUND: Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. METHODS: The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#20
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
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