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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738348/colistin-resistance-in-kpc-2-and-shv-5-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-in-bulgaria
#1
Encho Savov, Iva Todorova, Lida Politi, Angelina Trifonova, Maja Borisova, Elena Kioseva, Athanassios Tsakris
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colistin resistance is increasingly recognized among carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in several European regions. The current study documents the appearance of colistin resistance among KPC-2 and SHV-5-produning K. pneumoniae strains in Bulgaria. METHODS: Four colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from 2 patients hospitalized in the anesthesiology and resuscitation clinic of a tertiary care university hospital in Sofia, Bulgaria...
July 22, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738346/synergistic-activity-of-berberine-with-azithromycin-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-of-lung-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
YongTao Li, JianRong Huang, LanJuan Li, LinSheng Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the major opportunistic pathogens which can cause chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis (CF). The formation of PA biofilm promotes CF development and restricts the antimicrobial efficacies of current antibiotics. METHODS: The antimicrobial effects of azithromycin (AZM) and berberine (BER) alone and in combination were evaluated using microdilution method, checkerboard assay, time-kill test, qRT-PCR analysis and absorption method...
July 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738194/characterization-and-horizontal-transfer-of-qach-associated-class-1-integrons-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-retail-meats
#3
Xiaobing Jiang, Yameng Xu, Yi Li, Kun Zhang, Lei Liu, Hailei Wang, Jinhe Tian, Hao Ying, Lei Shi, Tao Yu
The aim of this study was to examine the presence of genes responsible for resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) and the association of qac genes with class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli isolated from retail meats. Among the 179 E. coli isolates tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of benzalkonium chloride (BC) ranged from 4 to 64μg/mL. PCR assays indicated that QAC-resistance genes sugE(c), ydgE/ydgF, mdfA, emrE and qacEΔ1 were commonly present (40.2%-88.3%) in these isolates, but qacE, qacF, qacH and sugE(p) were less prevalent (2...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737531/potential-causes-of-elevated-ree-following-high-intensity-exercise
#4
Gary R Hunter, Douglas R Moellering, Stephen J Carter, Barbara A Gower, Marcas M Bamman, Lyndsey M Hornbuckle, Eric P Plaisance, Gordon Fisher
INTRODUCTION: Resting energy expenditure (REE) increases following intense exercise; however, little is known concerning mechanisms. PURPOSE: Determine effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous aerobic exercise (MIC), or high intensity interval exercise (HII) on REE under energy balance conditions. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline, after 8-16 weeks of training, 22 hours following either MIC (50% peak VO2) or HII (84% peak VO2)...
July 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737463/prevalence-of-a-new-variant-oxa-204-and-oxa-48-carbapenemases-plasmids-encoded-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clinical-isolates-in-tunisia
#5
Rym Ouertani, Mariem Ben Jomàa-Jemili, Haythem Gharsa, Anne Limelette, Thomas Guillard, Lucien Brasme, Christophe de Champs, Chedly Chouchani
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have emerged as a major problem for healthcare systems. The aim of this study was to determine the role and diversity of plasmids harboring carbapenemases encoding genes from a collection of K. pneumoniae isolates recovered between July 2011 and January 2012, with decreased susceptibility to carbapenems. Imipenem (IPM), ertapenem (ETP), meropenem (MEM), and doripenem (DOR) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test. Carbapenemase production was detected with the modified Hodge test...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737008/design-and-synthesis-of-new-4-alkylidene-beta-lactams-benzyl-and-phenethyl-carbamate-as-key-fragments-to-switch-on-the-antibacterial-activity
#6
Daria Giacomini, Giulia Martelli, Miriam Piccichè, Enrico Calaresu, Clementina Elvezia Anna Cocuzza, Rosario Musumeci
The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains is particularly important in some chronic pathologies such as cystic fibrosis (CF), where persistent colonization and selection of resistant strains being favoured by the frequent and repeated use of antibacterial agents. Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen in CF patients with an associated increased multidrug resistance. In a previous research we demonstrated that the presence of a 4-alkylidene side chain directly linked to a beta-lactam appeared to strengthen the potency against S...
July 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736817/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-integration-and-modelling-of-oxytetracycline-for-the-calf-pathogens-mannheimia-haemolytica-and-pasteurella-multocida
#7
P Lees, T Potter, L Pelligand, P-L Toutain
A calf tissue cage model was used to study the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline in serum, inflamed (exudate) and noninflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids. After intramuscular administration, the PK was characterized by a long mean residence time of 28.3 hr. Based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for six isolates each of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, measured in serum, integration of in vivo PK and in vitro PD data established area under serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ )/MIC ratios of 30...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736816/antinociceptive-activity-of-ent-dihydrotucumanoic-acid-isolated-from-gymnosperma-glutinosum-spreng-less
#8
Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Marco Martin González-Chávez, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Alexia Karina Verdinez-Portales, Amanda Sánchez-Recillas, Rolffy Ortiz-Andrade, Mario Isiordia-Espinoza, Fidel Martínez-Gutiérrez, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Fabiola Domínguez, María Elizabeth Juache-Flores, Roberto Martínez
Preclinical Research The diterpene ent-dihydrotumanoic acid (DTA) was among the compounds isolated from Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng) Less (Asteraceae). There are no reports regarding the pharmacological effects of DTA. Cytotoxicity against cancer cells (1-250 µM), and the antibacterial (50-1400 µM) activity of DTA were evaluated using the MTT assay, and the minimum inhibitory concentration test, respectively. The antidiarrheal (1-100 mg/kg p.o.) and anti-inflammatory (2 mg/ear) effects of DTA were evaluated using castor oil and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, respectively...
July 24, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736523/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rhubarb-water-extracts-inhibit-streptococcus-suis-biofilm-formation
#9
Wen-Ya Ding, Yan-Hua Li, He Lian, Xiao-Yu Ai, Yu-Lin Zhao, Yan-Bei Yang, Qiang Han, Xin Liu, Xue-Ying Chen, Zhonggui He
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important swine pathogens, which can cause persistent infection by forming biofilms. In this study, sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of rhubarb water extracts were found to inhibit biofilm formation. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), transcriptional regulators, and DNA binding proteins were compared under two conditions: (1) cells treated with sub-MIC rhubarb water extracts and (2) untreated cells. Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) strategy, we found that TCSs constituent proteins of histidine kinase and response regulator were significantly down-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736269/iodine-lithium-alpha-dextrin-il%C3%AE-d-against-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-infections-a-comparative-study-of-in-vitro-bactericidal-activity-and-cytotoxicity-between-il%C3%AE-d-and-povidone-iodine
#10
A P Zisi, M K Exindari, E K Siska, G G Koliakos
BACKGROUND: As antimicrobial resistance continuously increases, revisiting old antimicrobial agents, modified to enhance efficacy and safety, becomes important. Iodine has been widely used for more than 150 years as a wound and skin disinfectant; it is an effective broad range bactericide, and to date, it lacks reports of resistance development. The most important iodine-based agent is Povidone-Iodine (PVP-I) which provides excellent antibacterial activity. However, its safety profile has been questioned...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736259/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army-general-hospital-in-china
#11
Rui Wang, Hui Xia Chen, Lin Jian Song, Yue Yun Shen, Yan Ping Luo
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhea, toxic megacolon and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to understand molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736072/antibacterial-activities-of-natural-lichen-compounds-against-streptococcus-gordonii-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#12
Alaa Sweidan, Marylene Chollet-Krugler, Aurelie Sauvager, Pierre van de Weghe, Ali Chokr, Martine Bonnaure-Mallet, Sophie Tomasi, Latifa Bousarghin
The oral bacteria not only infect the mouth and reside there, but also travel through the blood and reach distant body organs. If left untreated, the dental biofilm that can cause destructive inflammation in the oral cavity may result in serious medical complications. In dental biofilm, Streptococcus gordonii, a primary oral colonizer, constitutes the platform on which late pathogenic colonizers like Porphyromonas gingivalis, the causative agent of periodontal diseases, will bind. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of eleven natural lichen compounds belonging to different chemical families and spanning from linear into cyclic and aromatic structures to uncover new antibiotics which can fight against the oral bacteria...
July 20, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735329/antistaphylococcal-activity-of-selected-thiourea-derivatives
#13
Joanna Stefańska, Karolina Stępień, Anna Bielenica, Małgorzata Wrzosek, Marta Struga
Five of thiourea derivatives were prepared using as a starting compound 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, 4-chloro-3-nitroaniline, 1,3-thiazol-2-amine, 2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-amine and commercial isothiocyanates. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity. Derivatives 2 and 3 showed the highest inhibition against Gram-positive cocci (standard and hospital strains). The observed MIC values were in the range of 0.5-8 μg/ml. The products effectively inhibited the formation of biofilms of methicillin-resistant and standard strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735083/incidence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-in-microbial-community-of-cancer-patients-and-evaluation-of-their-resistant-pattern
#14
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly, Abeer Ali Keera, Amal Mohamed Ali
Cancer patients are prone to MRSA infection due to a number of factors include prolongedhospitalization, intravascular catheterization, compromised host immunity, malignancy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy surgery, prior antibiotic therapy and prolonged operative time. Among 468 Staphylococcus isolates, 283 were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (MRSA), which indicated the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA isolates among cancer patients. The highest number of MRSA strains were isolated from male (124 isolates), female (90 isolates) followed by children (69 isolates) which represent 43...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735058/prevalence-of-pmqr-genes-in-e-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-isolated-from-north-west-of-morocco
#15
Houda Benaicha, Said Barrijal, Fatima Ezzakkioui, Fatima Elmalki
OBJECTIVES: Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes are increasingly detected worldwide. However, in Morocco a few studies have been carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of these determinants among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp isolated from North-West of Morocco. METHODS: The prevalence of PMQR genes was investigated among 398 E. coli and 118 Klebsiella spp clinical isolates collected between 2012 and 2015 from North-West of Morocco...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735056/distribution-of-macrolide-resistance-mechanisms-in-bulgarian-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-during-the-years-of-2013-2016
#16
Adile A Muhtarova, Raina T Gergova, Ivan G Mitov
Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A streptococcus (GAS), is the main etiological agent of bacterial tonsillopharyngitis and a common cause of a wide variety of other mild to severe infections. OBJECTIVES: of the present study was to determine and evaluate the distribution of genetic mechanisms associated with certain phenotypes of macrolide resistance in Bulgarian GAS isolated during the years of 2013-2016. METHODS: All GAS strains were screened for the macrolide resistance genes erm(A), erm(B) and mef(A), using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735054/linezolid-activity-against-clinical-gram-positive-cocci-with-advanced-antimicrobial-drug-resistance-in-iran
#17
Hamidreza Houri, Hossein Kazemian, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Asieh Taji, Zahra Tayebi, Hamid Heidari
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the linezolid activity against clinical Gram-positive cocci with advanced antimicrobial drug resistance. METHODS: A collection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP), and group B streptococci (GBS) were isolated from various clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using standard methods Subsequently, we investigated linezolid antibacterial activities, the first approved oxazolidinone against isolates by the standard broth microdilution method...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735053/activity-of-dalbavancin-tested-against-gram-positive-clinical-isolates-causing-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-in-paediatric-patients-from-us-hospitals-2014-2015
#18
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
OBJECTIVES: This study provides an in vitro analysis of dalbavancin activity against isolates causing skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) in children. METHODS: 770 Staphylococcus aureus, 167 β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS), 42 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 25 Enterococcus faecalis and 13 viridans group streptococci (VGS) were collected from children (<18 y/o) in the United States (2014-2015). RESULTS: Dalbavancin had MIC50/90 values of 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735051/telavancin-activity-in-vitro-tested-against-a-worldwide-collection-of-gram-positive-clinical-isolates-2014
#19
Leonard R Duncan, Helio S Sader, Jennifer I Smart, Robert K Flamm, Rodrigo E Mendes
OBJECTIVES: Telavancin activity was measured against Gram-positive pathogens collected worldwide during 2014 using the revised broth microdilution testing method. The results were compared with previous reports. METHODS: A total of 10 552 isolates from 86 sites located in 32 countries were included as part of the Telavancin International Surveillance Program for the Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific. RESULTS: Telavancin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735049/in-vitro-activity-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-rifampicin-gentamicin-fosfomycin-and-fusidic-acid-against-mrsa-strains
#20
Gulseren Aktas, Sengul Derbentli
OBJECTIVES: Although new antimicrobial agents designed to treat infections with limited therapeutic options have been introduced in the past few years, resistant Gram positive cocci have continued to emerge and spread. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that has rapid bactericidal activity against broad spectrum of Gram positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Antibiotics are sometimes used in combination in an attempt to prevent or delay the in vivo emergence of drug-resistant subpopulations of pathogenic organisms...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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