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Lin Xiao, Hai-Fei Jia, In-Hong Jeong, Young-Joon Ahn, Yong-Zhe Zhu
Strain ZX02 was isolated from Chinese ginger cultivated soil contaminated with various pesticides, which could utilize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D butyl ester) as the sole carbon source. On the basis of the sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as well as the morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics of strain ZX02, the organism belonged to Gram-negative bacterium and was identified as Acinetobacter sp. ZX02. The strain ZX02 showed a remarkable performance in 2,4-D butyl ester degradation (100% removal in <96 h) in pure culture...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michael T Eadon, Ronald J Hause, Amy L Stark, Ying-Hua Cheng, Heather E Wheeler, Kimberly S Burgess, Eric A Benson, Patrick N Cunningham, Robert L Bacallao, Pierre C Dagher, Todd C Skaar, M Eileen Dolan
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ajay Kumar, Ritu Singh, Akhilesh Yadav, D D Giri, P K Singh, Kapil D Pandey
Fourteen endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. were characterized on the basis of morphology, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates were identified to six strains namely Bacillus cereus (ECL1), Bacillus thuringiensis (ECL2), Bacillus sp. (ECL3), Bacillus pumilis (ECL4), Pseudomonas putida (ECL5), and Clavibacter michiganensis (ECL6). All the strains produced IAA and solubilized phosphate and only two strains produced siderophore (ECL3 and ECL5) during plant growth promoting trait analysis...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
Md Fakruddin, Md Nur Hossain, Monzur Morshed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Probiotic yeast has become a field of interest to scientists in recent years. METHODS: Conventional cultural method was employed to isolate and identify yeast and standard methods were used to determine different probiotic attributes, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. RESULTS: This study reports potential probiotic properties of a strain of S. cerevisiae IFST 062013 isolated from fruit. The isolate is tolerant to a wide range of temperature and pH, high concentration of bile salt and NaCl, gastric juice, intestinal environment, α-amylase, trypsin and lysozyme...
January 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Philip Hinchliffe, Qiu E Yang, Edward Portal, Tom Young, Hui Li, Catherine L Tooke, Maria J Carvalho, Neil G Paterson, Jürgen Brem, Pannika R Niumsup, Uttapoln Tansawai, Lei Lei, Mei Li, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Christopher J Schofield, Adrian J Mulholland, Jianzhong Shen, Natalie Fey, Timothy R Walsh, James Spencer
The polymixin colistin is a "last line" antibiotic against extensively-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, the mcr-1 gene was identified as a plasmid-mediated resistance mechanism in human and animal Enterobacteriaceae, with a wide geographical distribution and many producer strains resistant to multiple other antibiotics. mcr-1 encodes a membrane-bound enzyme catalysing phosphoethanolamine transfer onto bacterial lipid A. Here we present crystal structures revealing the MCR-1 periplasmic, catalytic domain to be a zinc metalloprotein with an alkaline phosphatase/sulphatase fold containing three disulphide bonds...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Patricia Cristina Saldanha Ribeiro, Andrea Souza Monteiro, Sirlei Garcia Marques, Sílvio Gomes Monteiro, Valério Monteiro-Neto, Martina Márcia Melo Coqueiro, Ana Cláudia Garcia Marques, Rosimary de Jesus Gomes Turri, Simone Gonçalves Santos, Maria Rosa Quaresma Bomfim
BACKGROUND: Bacteria that produce Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are resistant to broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotics. The objective of this study was to phenotypically and genotypically characterize the antibiotic susceptibility to carbapenems of 297 isolates recovered from clinical samples obtained from inpatients at 16 hospitals in São Luis (Maranhão, Brazil). METHODS: The study was conducted using phenotypic tests and molecular methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
C H Swathi, Rosy Chikala, K S Ratnakar, V Sritharan
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are plasmid encoded carbapenem hydrolyzing enzymes which have the potential to spread widely through gene transfer. The instability of upstream region of blaKPC accelerates emergence of different isoforms. Routine antibiotic susceptibility testing failed to detect KPC producers and some commercial kits have been launched for early identification of KPC producers. Notable among the drugs under development against KPC are mostly derivatives of polymixin; ß-lactamase inhibitor NXL104 with combination of oxyimino cephalosporin as well as with ceftazidime; a novel tricyclic carbapenem, LK-157, potentially useful against class A and class C enzymes; BLI-489-a bicyclic penem derivative; PTK-0796, a tetracycline derivative and ACHN-490...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
March 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
Narges Mazloomi Nobandegani, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Mehri Najafi Sani, Fateme Farahmand, Farzaneh Motamed, Raheleh Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran...
November 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
S Jasemi, M Douraghi, H Adibhesami, H Zeraati, M Rahbar, M A Boroumand, A Aliramezani, S Ghourchian, M Mohammadzadeh
Comprehensive data on drug-resistant patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in developing countries is limited. We conducted a multihospital study to assess the rate and trend of drug-resistant phenotypes in Ac. baumannii using standardized definitions and to determine the remaining therapeutic options against resistant phenotypes. The 401 nonduplicate isolates were collected from six hospitals which are geographically distributed across Tehran, Iran over a 3-year period. Following PCR of blaOXA-51-like gene, susceptibility testing was performed against nine antimicrobial agent categories...
December 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Guoqing Wan, Lingao Ruan, Yu Yin, Tian Yang, Mei Ge, Xiaodong Cheng
Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is a serious clinical challenge. As a newly developed technology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show some excellent characteristics compared to older treatments, and are a candidate for combating A. baumannii infection. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we combined AgNPs with antibiotics to treat carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (aba1604). Our results showed that single AgNPs completely inhibited A. baumannii growth at 2...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hossein Maspi, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Mohsen Amin, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method...
September 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lingyun Hao, Kameka Johnson, Luciana Cursino, Patricia Mowery, Thomas J Burr
Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease (PD) on grapevines, leading to significant economic losses in grape and wine production. To further our understanding of X. fastidiosa virulence on grapevines, we examined the PD1311 gene, which encodes a putative acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) synthetase, and is highly conserved across Xylella species. It was determined that PD1311 is required for virulence, as the deletion mutant, ΔPD1311, was unable to cause disease on grapevines. The ΔPD1311 strain was impaired in behaviours known to be associated with PD development, including motility, aggregation and biofilm formation...
June 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Joon-Hui Chung, Abhayprasad Bhat, Chang-Jin Kim, Dongeun Yong, Choong-Min Ryu
Polymyxins are last-resort antibiotics for treating infections of Gram-negative bacteria. The recent emergence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria, however, urgently demands clinical optimisation of polymyxin use to minimise further evolution of resistance. In this study we developed a novel combination therapy using minimal concentrations of polymyxin B. After large-scale screening of Streptomyces secondary metabolites, we identified a reliable polymixin synergist and confirmed as netropsin using high-pressure liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry followed by in vitro assays using various Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria...
June 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Iwagami, Doi, H Yasunaga, E Noiri, N Yahagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Carmen R Michaud, Jing Qin, William R Elkins, Alfonso S Gozalo
Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common condition in C57BL/6 mice and strains with this background. The etiology of UD is unclear but appears to have a genetic component associated with the C57BL/6 strain and has been reported as secondary to a variety of conditions. Treatment is unrewarding, resulting in euthanasia in many cases. In the present study we compared 3 topical treatments against spontaneous UD in mice with a C57BL/6 background. In total, 301 mice of both sexes were included in this study, and the tested treatments comprised bacitracin-neomycin sulfate-polymixin B sulfate ointment twice daily, 10% povidone-iodine ointment plus 1% silver sulfadiazine cream once daily, and 0...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
Lavicie R Arais, André V Barbosa, Cristiane A Carvalho, Aloysio M F Cerqueira
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with otitis and pyoderma in dogs and is frequently resistant to several antimicrobial drugs. Resistance genes can be carried by integrons with quinolone resistance mainly due to mutations in DNA topoisomerases II and IV. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, integron carriage, and gyrA and gyrB mutations in P. aeruginosa isolates from canine otitis and pyoderma. ANIMALS: One hundred and four P...
April 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Kiichiro Yamaguchi, Kentaro Ono, Suzuro Hitomi, Misa Ito, Tomotaka Nodai, Tetsuya Goto, Nozomu Harano, Seiji Watanabe, Hiromasa Inoue, Kanako Miyano, Yasuhito Uezono, Motohiro Matoba, Kiyotoshi Inenaga
In many patients with cancer, chemotherapy-induced severe oral ulcerative mucositis causes intractable pain, leading to delays and interruptions in therapy. However, the pain mechanism in oral ulcerative mucositis after chemotherapy has not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in a preclinical model of oral ulcerative mucositis after systemic administration of the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil, using our proprietary pain assay system for conscious rats...
May 2016: Pain
Fatemeh Jalali, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Rasoul Salehi
Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran...
January 2016: Medical Oncology
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