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Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Narges Mazloomi Nobandegani, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Mehri Najafi Sani, Fateme Farahmand, Farzaneh Motamed, Raheleh Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran...
September 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Seyedesomaye Jasemi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Habibeh Adibhesami, Hojjat Zeraati, Mohammad Rahbar, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Amir Aliramezani, Sedighe Ghourchian, Mona Mohammadzadeh
Comprehensive data on drug resistant patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in developing countries is limited. We conducted a multi-hospital study to assess the rate and trend of drug-resistant phenotypes in A. baumannii using standardized definitions and to determine the remaining therapeutic options against resistant phenotypes. The 401 non-duplicate isolates were collected from 6 hospitals which are geographically distributed across Tehran, Iran over a three year period. Following PCR of blaOXA-51-like gene, susceptibility testing was performed against 9 antimicrobial agent categories...
September 14, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Guoqing Wan, Lingao Ruan, Yu Yin, Tian Yang, Mei Ge, Xiaodong Cheng
Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is a serious clinical challenge. As a newly developed technology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show some excellent characteristics compared to older treatments, and are a candidate for combating A. baumannii infection. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we combined AgNPs with antibiotics to treat carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (aba1604). Our results showed that single AgNPs completely inhibited A. baumannii growth at 2...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hossein Maspi, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Mohsen Amin, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method...
September 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Lingyun Hao, Kameka Johnson, Luciana Cursino, Patricia Mowery, Thomas J Burr
Xylella fastidiosa causes Pierce's disease (PD) on grapevines, leading to significant economic loss in grape and wine production. To further our understanding of X. fastidiosa virulence on grapevines we examined the PD1311 gene, which encodes a putative acyl-CoA synthetase, and is highly conserved across Xylella species. It was determined that PD1311 is required for virulence, as the deletion mutant, ΔPD1311, was unable to cause disease on grapevines. The ΔPD1311 strain was impaired in behaviors known to be associated with PD development, including motility, aggregation, and biofilm formation...
July 8, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Joon-Hui Chung, Abhayprasad Bhat, Chang-Jin Kim, Dongeun Yong, Choong-Min Ryu
Polymyxins are last-resort antibiotics for treating infections of Gram-negative bacteria. The recent emergence of polymyxin-resistant bacteria, however, urgently demands clinical optimisation of polymyxin use to minimise further evolution of resistance. In this study we developed a novel combination therapy using minimal concentrations of polymyxin B. After large-scale screening of Streptomyces secondary metabolites, we identified a reliable polymixin synergist and confirmed as netropsin using high-pressure liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry followed by in vitro assays using various Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria...
2016: Scientific Reports
M Iwagami, Doi, H Yasunaga, E Noiri, N Yahagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Carmen R Michaud, Jing Qin, William R Elkins, Alfonso S Gozalo
Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common condition in C57BL/6 mice and strains with this background. The etiology of UD is unclear but appears to have a genetic component associated with the C57BL/6 strain and has been reported as secondary to a variety of conditions. Treatment is unrewarding, resulting in euthanasia in many cases. In the present study we compared 3 topical treatments against spontaneous UD in mice with a C57BL/6 background. In total, 301 mice of both sexes were included in this study, and the tested treatments comprised bacitracin-neomycin sulfate-polymixin B sulfate ointment twice daily, 10% povidone-iodine ointment plus 1% silver sulfadiazine cream once daily, and 0...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
Lavicie R Arais, André V Barbosa, Cristiane A Carvalho, Aloysio M F Cerqueira
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with otitis and pyoderma in dogs and is frequently resistant to several antimicrobial drugs. Resistance genes can be carried by integrons with quinolone resistance mainly due to mutations in DNA topoisomerases II and IV. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, integron carriage, and gyrA and gyrB mutations in P. aeruginosa isolates from canine otitis and pyoderma. ANIMALS: One hundred and four P...
April 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Kiichiro Yamaguchi, Kentaro Ono, Suzuro Hitomi, Misa Ito, Tomotaka Nodai, Tetsuya Goto, Nozomu Harano, Seiji Watanabe, Hiromasa Inoue, Kanako Miyano, Yasuhito Uezono, Motohiro Matoba, Kiyotoshi Inenaga
In many patients with cancer, chemotherapy-induced severe oral ulcerative mucositis causes intractable pain, leading to delays and interruptions in therapy. However, the pain mechanism in oral ulcerative mucositis after chemotherapy has not been extensively studied. In this study, we investigated spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia in a preclinical model of oral ulcerative mucositis after systemic administration of the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil, using our proprietary pain assay system for conscious rats...
May 2016: Pain
Fatemeh Jalali, Mohammadreza Sharifi, Rasoul Salehi
Acute erythroleukemia is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia which has been considered to be a subtype of AML with a worse prognosis. Intensive chemotherapy is the first line of treatment. In recent years, the effect of kefir on some malignancies has been experimented. Kefir is a kind of beverage, which obtained by incubation of kefir grains with raw milk. Kefir grains are a symbiotic complex of different kinds of yeasts and bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria which gather in a mostly carbohydrate matrix, named kefiran...
January 2016: Medical Oncology
Laura Fuchs Bahlis, Luciano Passamani Diogo, Daniel Lemons, Denise Klaus
INTRODUCTION: Polimyxins were originally abandoned due to high rates of nephrotoxicity. However they have been recently reintroduced due to activity against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Recent literature suggests a lower rate of nephrotoxicity than historically reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of polymixins-associated nephrotoxicity as defined by the RIFLE criteria. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of all adult patients who received polymixin B at a terciary hospital from December 2010 to March 2011was performed...
October 2015: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
A S Bischofberger, A S Tsang, N Horadagoda, C M Dart, N R Perkins, L B Jeffcott, C J Jackson, A J Dart
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of activated protein C (APC) on second intention healing of distal limb wounds in horses. METHODS: In this experimental study of eight Standardbred geldings, six full-thickness skin wounds (2 × 1.5 cm) were created on one metacarpus (biopsy limb) and five similar wounds were created on the contralateral metacarpus (photographed limb). Three wounds on the biopsy limb were treated topically with 190 µg APC on days 1, 3, 6 and 9, while the remaining three wounds were untreated (control)...
October 2015: Australian Veterinary Journal
Silvina Ruvinsky, Graciela Fiorilli, M Guadalupe Pérez, Eduardo Motto, Carlos Cambaceres, Leonardo Mannino, Horacio Lopardo, Rosa Bologna
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MAB) is an important nosocomial pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the risk factors for acquiring MAB, and the clinical and microbiological characteristics of MAB bacteremia (MABB) in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control-case study 2005-2008. Demographic and clinical data from all MABB and from non-multiresistant gram-negative bacteremias were recorded. Identification at species level, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, time-kill studies and clonally relationships were performed...
February 2015: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Joe O Boison, Stephen Lee, Johanna Matus
A new multi-residue method for the determination of seven polypeptides, namely, polymixin B1, polymixin B2, polymixin E1 (colistin A), polymixin E2 (colistin B), enduracidin A (enramycin A), enduracidin B (enramycin B), and bacitracin A, in food of animal origin was developed and validated for chicken muscle tissue. Chicken muscle tissue was extracted with acidified methanol (1 % TFA). After homogenization, shaking, and centrifugation, the acidified methanol extract was decanted. A second extraction was performed with methanol (1 % TFA) and formic acid (1 %) 25:75, v/v...
May 2015: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Asfia Sultan, Meher Rizvi, Fatima Khan, Hiba Sami, Indu Shukla, Haris M Khan
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases in clinical practice. The choice of antibiotics for the treatment of UTI is limited by the rising rates of antibiotic resistance. There is an urgent need to discover new effective treatment solutions. Fosfomycin may be an interesting alternative to the currently used treatments of UTIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted over 6 months period (January to June 2013) in Department of Microbiology, JNMCH, AMU, Aligarh...
January 2015: Urology Annals
Gislei Frota Aragão, Lyvia Maria Vasconcelos Carneiro, Antônio Paulino Rota-Junior, Paulo Nogueira Bandeira, Telma Leda Gomes de Lemos, Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana
CONTEXT: α- and β-Amyrin (AMY) from Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl) March (Burseraceae) is found in Brazil and used in diverse inflammation-related diseases. This species presents a central action, as previously described. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of AMY in mice and to verify the mechanism of action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seizures were induced by pentylenetetrazole followed by acute or subchronic treatments (5-25 mg/kg, p...
March 2015: Pharmaceutical Biology
Verica Aleksic, Neda Mimica-Dukic, Natasa Simin, Natasa Stankovic Nedeljkovic, Petar Knezevic
Acinetobacter baumannii is a rapidly emerging, highly resistant clinical pathogen with increasing prevalence. In recent years, the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for treatment of infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains reinforced tendency for discovery of novel antimicrobial agents or treatment strategies. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial effectiveness of three Myrtus communis L. essential oils, both alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics, against MDR A...
October 15, 2014: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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