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preconception risk

Norita Hussein, Stephen F Weng, Joe Kai, Jos Kleijnen, Nadeem Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting...
March 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska, Anna Rakuś-Kwiatosz, Paulina Krawiec
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis may originate during the fetal period, therefore it is reasonable to identify early risk markers of lifestyle diseases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between fetal and maternal factors, and the neonatal cord blood lipid profile in term newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study group, there were 206 healthy Polish newborns. Newborn characteristics included sex, gestational age at birth, Apgar score, and anthropometric data (weight and length at birth, neonatal ponderal index, head, chest and abdominal circumferences, placenta weight, and placental-fetal weight ratio)...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Yu Li, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Kelly L Strutz, Claudia Holzman
BACKGROUND: Prior studies indicate associations between preconception adversities and risk of miscarriage, but few have considered type (e.g., financial, substance use, abuse) or timing (e.g., childhood, adulthood) of adversities. We examined relationships between life course adversities in multiple domains and probability of miscarriage. METHODS: Data came from women with at least one previous pregnancy in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (1998-2004) study (n = 2,106)...
March 9, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Asanka Jayawardane, Malitha Patabendige, Dulani Samaranayake, Medini Boteju, Shamalka Dahanayake, Ruvini Perera, Sumudu Jayasinghe, Dakshila Galappatti, C N Wijeyaratne
AIM: To study case mix, risk factors, adverse outcomes and associations of hyperglycemia in pregnancy in a cohort of Sri Lankans. METHODS: Prospective observational study, from April 2011-October 2015 at a tertiary care referral center, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Data from first trimester to delivery of HIP was analyzed. Three subgroups were defined: Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), Hyperglycemia in early Pregnancy (HIEP) [<24 weeks] and Gestational diabetes (GDM) [>24 weeks]...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
S A van Nederveen-Bendien, S R J van Oord-Bosselaar, A H Feitsma, J H Kappen
- Asthma during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia.- This condition may be undertreated due to insufficient knowledge and, in particular, concerns about teratogenic effects of asthma medication among treating healthcare professionals and pregnant women.- The risk of teratogenic effects of inhaled medications (ICS, SABA and LABA) is small. These agents have been used by large groups of patients for many years.- Well-controlled asthma with pharmacological therapy during pregnancy is safer and leads to fewer complications then accepting asthma symptoms and exacerbations...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Amy Peacock, Delyse Hutchinson, Judy Wilson, Clare McCormack, Raimondo Bruno, Craig A Olsson, Steve Allsop, Elizabeth Elliott, Lucinda Burns, Richard P Mattick
The aims of this study were to identify: (i) the proportion of women exceeding the caffeine intake guideline (>200 mg/day) during each trimester, accounting for point of pregnancy awareness; (ii) guideline adherence trajectories across pregnancy; (iii) maternal characteristics associated with trajectories; and (iv) association between adherence and growth restriction birth outcomes. Typical and maximal intake per consumption day for the first trimester (T1; pre- and post-pregnancy awareness), second (T2), and third trimester (T3) were recorded for a prospective cohort of pregnant Australian women with singleton births ( n = 1232)...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Austin C Korgan, Elizabeth O'Leary, Jillian L King, Ian C G Weaver, Tara S Perrot
Paternal preconception risk factors (e.g. stress, diet, drug use) correlate with metabolic dysfunction in offspring, which is often comorbid with depressive and anxiety-like phenotypes. Detection of these risk factors or deleterious phenotypes informs a female about prevailing ecological demands, in addition to potential adverse environment-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to her offspring. We examined whether a F0 male rat's prior exposure to an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) influences a female's attraction towards a male, subsequent mother-infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the F1 offspring...
February 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hiroki Shimodaira, Keiji Tensho, Yusuke Akaoka, Suguru Koyama, Masaaki Maruyama, Hiroyuki Kato, Naoto Saito
BACKGROUND: The acetabular fossa is thought to be located in the center of the acetabulum, and acetabular reaming in total hip arthroplasty is conventionally performed in the center of the fossa. However, the actual location of the fossa and the influence that hypoplasia or deformity may have on the position of the fossa are unknown. We hypothesized that the fossa is located in the center of the acetabulum, regardless of hypoplasia or deformity. METHODS: Fifty patients with normal hips (normal hip group), 50 patients with dysplasia who underwent rotational acetabular osteotomy (dysplastic hip group), and 46 patients with osteoarthritis who underwent total hip arthroplasty (osteoarthritic hip group) were evaluated by computed tomography (CT) imaging...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Caroline T Nguyen, Elizabeth B Sasso, Lorayne Barton, Jorge H Mestman
Background: Graves' hyperthyroidism affects 0.2% of pregnant women. Establishing the correct diagnosis and effectively managing Graves' hyperthyroidism in pregnancy remains a challenge for physicians. Main: The goal of this paper is to review the diagnosis and management of Graves' hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The paper will discuss preconception counseling, etiologies of hyperthyroidism, thyroid function testing, pregnancy-related complications, maternal management, including thyroid storm, anti-thyroid drugs and the complications for mother and fetus, fetal and neonatal thyroid function, neonatal management, and maternal post-partum management...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
Qiao-Yu Jiang, Jue Li, Liang Zheng, Guang-Hua Wang, Jing Wang
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. METHODS: This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Brigitte Ramsauer, Sandra Achtergarde
BACKGROUND: Maternal postpartum psychoses pose a serious risk to the mother-infant interaction. It is unclear how different subtypes of postpartum psychosis, including acute and chronic, might differentially affect the mother-infant interaction. METHOD: A systematic search of electronic journal databases was performed. RESULTS: This systematic review yielded 17 studies with adequate overall study quality. They focused on child custody and involvement of social services as indirect indicators of the mother-infant interaction, observed mother-infant interactions as direct indicators, or potential transitional mechanisms, including memory processing, mind-mindedness, and affect recognition, that may partially explain the effects of psychotic disorders...
February 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Grzegorz Józef Nowicki, Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Barbara Ślusarska, Ewa Rudnicka-Drożak, Magdalena Młynarska, Artur Czekierdowski
Preconception lifestyle modifications and reduction of several known risk factors may have an influence on future pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the study was to analyze health behaviors and personal values as well as to assess the relationship between these factors in women without children, in pregnant women and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), the Personal Value List (PVL) and sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maeve K Hopkins, Sarah A Goldstein, Cary C Ward, Jeffrey A Kuller
Objective: Congenital heart defects represent the most common major congenital anomalies. The objective of this review was to define the most common forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) in pregnancy, outline preconception counseling, discuss the associated morbidity and mortality of each lesion, and review current recommendations for management of CHD in pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search of "congenital heart disease in pregnancy" and specific conditions in pregnancy including "ventricular septal defect," "atrial septal defect," "left outflow obstruction," "right outflow obstruction," "tetralogy of Fallot," and "transposition of the great vessels" was performed...
February 2018: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Gregory R Rompala, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Qishan Lin, Iliya Lefterov, Gregg E Homanics
While the risks of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy are well-established, several preclinical studies suggest that chronic preconception alcohol consumption by either parent may also have significance consequences for offspring health and development. Notably, since isogenic male mice used in these studies are not involved in gestation or rearing of offspring, the cross-generational effects of paternal alcohol exposure suggest a germline-based epigenetic mechanism. Many recent studies have demonstrated that the effects of paternal environmental exposures such as stress or malnutrition can be transmitted to the next generation via alterations to small noncoding RNAs in sperm...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Rebecca Mahn Hawks, Aileen P McGinn, Peter S Bernstein, Jonathan N Tobin
Objective To measure the association of preconception health insurance status with preconception health among women in New York City, and examine whether this association is modified by race/ethnicity. Methods Using data from the New York City Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System 2009-2011 (n = 3929), we created a "Preconception Health Score" (PHS) capturing modifiable behaviors, healthcare services utilization, pregnancy intention, and timely entry into prenatal care. We then built multivariable logistic regression models to measure the association of PHS with health insurance status and race/ethnicity...
February 20, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Heidi M Connolly
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in the United States, and congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of structural heart disease affecting women of childbearing age. Most females born with CHD will reach childbearing age and consider pregnancy. Adult CHD and maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) specialists managing women with CHD should provide preconception counseling, cardiovascular risk assessment prior to pregnancy that estimates maternal and fetal risk, management during pregnancy, and in the peripartum period and also know the potential complications and special circumstances that may occur in the post-partum period...
February 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
N Kotova, V Maichuk, O Fedorenko
Neural tube defects occupy second place in frequency after the defects of the cardiovascular system. The folate metabolism violation and hyperhomocysteinemia in women are proved to be the leading risk factors for the NTD of the fetus. Polymorphism of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) is a genetic determinant of folate metabolism violation. Admission of folic acid in a standard dose of 0.4 mg and / or the use of fortified foods does not allow reaching the protective level of folic acid if there is a mutation of the MTHFR gene or when several risk factors combine, which requires a higher dose of folic acid...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Frances Peterson-Burch, Hiba Abujaradeh, Nicole Charache, Andrea Fischl, Denise Charron-Prochownik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women with diabetes who have unplanned pregnancies and uncontrolled blood sugars are at a higher risk for maternal and fetal morbidities and mortalities. Preconception counseling (PC) has been shown to decrease the risks and improve health outcomes. From 2009 to 2017, the American Diabetes Association has recommended that preconception counseling be given at each clinic visit for all women with diabetes of childbearing age starting at puberty (prior to sexual debut)...
February 15, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Heidi Mertes, Steven R Lindheim, Guido Pennings
Although current screening methods of gamete donors are capable of reducing the incidence of genetic anomalies in donor offspring below general population levels, targeted screening for a large number of conditions (expanded carrier screening or ECS) could be considered as part of the routine selection procedure for gamete donors. There are, however, important drawbacks to its practical implementation. Excluding all carriers of severe recessive monogenic pediatric disorders would disqualify virtually all donors, and other approaches negatively affect cost (and therefore access), present dilemmas in regard to disclosure of genetic findings, and/or overburden the intended parents...
February 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Thu-Ha Dinh, Angela Mushavi, Ray W Shiraishi, Beth Tippett Barr, Shirish Balachandra, Gerald Shambira, Justice Nyakura, Sekesai Zinyowera, Mufuta Tshimanga, Owen Mugurungi, Peter H Kilmarx
Background: Preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus transmission (MTCT) depends on early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We report the 18-month MTCT risk during the transition from Option A to Option B+ in Zimbabwe, and assess whether ART preconception could eliminate MTCT in breastfeeding populations. Methods: In 2013, we consecutively recruited a nationally representative sample of 6051 infants aged 4-12 weeks and their mothers from 151 immunization clinics using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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