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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107113/the-relationship-between-pitching-mechanics-and-injury
#1
Peter N Chalmers, Markus A Wimmer, Nikhil N Verma, Brian J Cole, Anthony A Romeo, Gregory L Cvetanovich, Michael L Pearl
CONTEXT: The overhand pitch is one of the fastest known human motions and places enormous forces and torques on the upper extremity. Shoulder and elbow pain and injury are common in high-level pitchers. A large body of research has been conducted to understand the pitching motion. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to gain a full understanding of all currently available biomechanical and clinical evidence surrounding pitching motion analysis...
January 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106763/development-of-a-gnss-buoy-for-monitoring-water-surface-elevations-in-estuaries-and-coastal-areas
#2
Yen-Pin Lin, Ching-Jer Huang, Sheng-Hsueh Chen, Dong-Jiing Doong, Chia Chuen Kao
In this work, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) buoy that utilizes a Virtual Base Station (VBS) combined with the Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning technology was developed to monitor water surface elevations in estuaries and coastal areas. The GNSS buoy includes a buoy hull, a RTK GNSS receiver, data-transmission devices, a data logger, and General Purpose Radio Service (GPRS) modems for transmitting data to the desired land locations. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to test the capability of the buoy and verify the accuracy of the monitored water surface elevations...
January 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105945/assessment-of-transfemoral-amputees-using-a-passive-microprocessor-controlled-knee-versus-an-active-powered-microprocessor-controlled-knee-for-level-walking
#3
Veerle Creylman, Ingrid Knippels, Paul Janssen, Evelyne Biesbrouck, Knut Lechler, Louis Peeraer
BACKGROUND: In transfemoral (TF) amputees, the forward propulsion of the prosthetic leg in swing has to be mainly carried out by hip muscles. With hip strength being the strongest predictor to ambulation ability, an active powered knee joint could have a positive influence, lowering hip loading and contributing to ambulation mobility. To assess this, gait of four TF amputees was measured for level walking, first while using a passive microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee (P-MPK), subsequently while using an active powered microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee (A-MPK)...
December 19, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105865/lower-extremity-variability-changes-with-drop-landing-height-manipulations
#4
Andrew D Nordin, Janet S Dufek
Landing is a common lower extremity injury mechanism in sport, with potential connections to movement control accessed through variability measures. We investigated intra-subject lower extremity variability changes following drop-landing height manipulations using standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) among lower extremity peak sagittal joint angles and moments. Fourteen healthy participants completed five drop-landing trials from five heights 20%, 60%, 100%, 140% and 180% maximum vertical jump height (MVJH)...
January 20, 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104245/assessing-kinematics-and-kinetics-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-rowing
#5
Adina E Draghici, Glen Picard, J Andrew Taylor, Sandra J Shefelbine
Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing has positive effects on cardiovascular fitness, producing significantly greater aerobic power than either upper body or FES exercise alone. However, there is minimal information on the kinematics, kinetics, and mechanical efficiency of FES-rowing in the spinal cord injured (SCI) population. This study examined the biomechanics of FES-rowing to determine how motions, forces, and aerobic demand change with increasing intensity. Six individuals with SCI and six able-bodied subjects performed a progressive aerobic capacity rowing test...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103545/a-multimodal-speech-capture-system-for-speech-rehabilitation-and-learning
#6
Nordine Sebkhi, Dhyey Desai, Mohammad Islam, Jun Lu, Kimberly Wilson, Maysam Ghovanloo
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators' motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the Multimodal Speech Capture System (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice, are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators' motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation...
January 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103299/walking-through-apertures-in-individuals-with-stroke
#7
Daisuke Muroi, Yasuhiro Hiroi, Teruaki Koshiba, Yohei Suzuki, Masahiro Kawaki, Takahiro Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: Walking through a narrow aperture requires unique postural configurations, i.e., body rotation in the yaw dimension. Stroke individuals may have difficulty performing the body rotations due to motor paralysis on one side of their body. The present study was therefore designed to investigate how successfully such individuals walk through apertures and how they perform body rotation behavior. METHOD: Stroke fallers (n = 10), stroke non-fallers (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 23) participated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102701/the-effect-of-pre-crash-velocity-reduction-on-occupant-response-using-a-human-body-finite-element-model
#8
B Guleyupoglu, J Schap, K D Kusano, F S Gayzik
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an ATD to evaluate the effect of simulated pre-crash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads and computed injury criteria in four commonly-injured body regions. METHODS: The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid-III 50(th) percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced three point belt and driver airbag...
January 19, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102309/integration-of-visual-and-joint-information-to-enable-linear-reaching-motions
#9
Henry Eberle, Slawomir J Nasuto, Yoshikatsu Hayashi
A new dynamics-driven control law was developed for a robot arm, based on the feedback control law which uses the linear transformation directly from work space to joint space. This was validated using a simulation of a two-joint planar robot arm and an optimisation algorithm was used to find the optimum matrix to generate straight trajectories of the end-effector in the work space. We found that this linear matrix can be decomposed into the rotation matrix representing the orientation of the goal direction and the joint relation matrix (MJRM) representing the joint response to errors in the Cartesian work space...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100817/mechanical-sensitivity-and-the-dynamics-of-evolutionary-rate-shifts-in-biomechanical-systems
#10
Martha M Muñoz, Philip S L Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biophysical relationships on rates of morphological evolution is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory. Mechanical sensitivity-the correlation strength between mechanical output and the system's underlying morphological components-is thought to impact the evolutionary dynamics of form-function relationships, yet has rarely been examined. Here, we compare the evolutionary rates of the mechanical components of the four-bar linkage system in the raptorial appendage of mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100656/perceptual-attraction-in-tool-use-evidence-for-a-reliability-based-weighting-mechanism
#11
Nienke B Debats, Marc O Ernst, Herbert Heuer
Humans are well able to operate tools whereby their hand movement is linked, via a kinematic transformation, to a spatially distant object moving in a separate plane of motion. An everyday example is controlling a cursor on a computer monitor. Despite these separate reference frames, the perceived positions of the hand and the object were found to be biased towards each other. We propose that this perceptual attraction is based on the principles by which the brain integrates redundant sensory information of single objects or events, known as optimal multisensory integration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100406/modeling-of-path-planning-and-needle-steering-with-path-tracking-in-anatomical-soft-tissues-for-minimally-invasive-surgery
#12
Pan Li, Shan Jiang, Dong Liang, Zhiyong Yang, Yan Yu, Wei Wang
Steerable needles can potentially improve the effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, such as biopsy and cancer treatment, by increasing the targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets. A discrete potential field algorithm based on three dimensional (3D) anatomical structures is proposed in this paper to plan the needle path in minimally invasive surgery. A 3D kinematic model of needle steering is formulated using Lie group theory. Model parameters are fitted using experimental data acquired via a 2-degree of freedom robotic device and an ultrasound imaging device...
January 16, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100095/shoulder-kinetics-during-start-up-and-propulsion-with-a-manual-wheelchair-within-the-initial-phase-of-uninstructed-training
#13
Samuel Hybois, Alice Siegel, Joseph Bascou, Nicolas Eydieux, Philippe Vaslin, Hélène Pillet, Pascale Fodé, Christophe Sauret
PURPOSE: Wheelchair locomotion is constraining for the upper limbs and involves a set of motor tasks that need to be learnt by a novice user. To understand this integration process, we investigated the evolution of shoulder kinetics during start-up and propulsion within the initial phase of low-intensity uninstructed training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen novice able-bodied subjects performed a 120-min uninstructed practice distributed over 4 weeks. During the initial and final sessions, upper limbs kinematics and hand-rim kinetics were continuously collected...
January 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099517/walking-on-a-vertically-oscillating-treadmill-phase-synchronization-and-gait-kinematics
#14
Jeff A Nessler, Severne Heredia, Jacques Bélair, John Milton
Sensory motor synchronization can be used to alter gait behavior. This type of therapy may be useful in a rehabilitative setting, though several questions remain regarding the most effective way to promote and sustain synchronization. The purpose of this study was to describe a new technique for using synchronization to influence a person's gait and to compare walking behavior under this paradigm with that of side by side walking. Thirty one subjects walked on a motorized treadmill that was placed on a platform that oscillated vertically at various frequencies and amplitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099505/evaluation-of-6-and-10-year-old-child-human-body-models-in-emergency-events
#15
Laure-Lise Gras, Isabelle Stockman, Karin Brolin
Emergency events can influence a child's kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs-MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models-were evaluated and compared with child volunteers' data during emergency events-braking and steering-with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099504/direction-specific-impairments-in-cervical-range-of-motion-in-women-with-chronic-neck-pain-influence-of-head-posture-and-gravitationally-induced-torque
#16
Thomas Rudolfsson, Martin Björklund, Åsa Svedmark, Divya Srinivasan, Mats Djupsjöbacka
BACKGROUND: Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099494/a-3d-printed-toolbox-for-opto-mechanical-components
#17
Luis José Salazar-Serrano, Juan P Torres, Alejandra Valencia
In this article we present the development of a set of opto-mechanical components (a kinematic mount, a translation stage and an integrating sphere) that can be easily built using a 3D printer based on Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) and parts that can be found in any hardware store. Here we provide a brief description of the 3D models used and some details on the fabrication process. Moreover, with the help of three simple experimental setups, we evaluate the performance of the opto-mechanical components developed by doing a quantitative comparison with its commercial counterparts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099484/increased-anterior-pelvic-angle-characterizes-the-gait-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#18
Hiroaki Naruse, Takashi X Fujisawa, Chiho Yatsuga, Masafumi Kubota, Hideaki Matsuo, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Seiichiro Shimada, Yuto Imai, Michio Hiratani, Hirotaka Kosaka, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have motor problems. Previous studies have reported that the characteristic gait in children with ADHD is immature and that subjects demonstrate higher levels of variability in gait characteristics for the lower extremities than healthy controls. However, little is known about body movement during gait in children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic body movements associated with ADHD symptoms in children with ADHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099291/transcutaneous-carbon-dioxide-measurements-in-women-receiving-intrathecal-morphine-for-cesarean-delivery-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Jeanette R Bauchat, Robert McCarthy, Paul Fitzgerald, Stephen Kolb, Cynthia A Wong
BACKGROUND: Neuraxial morphine is the most commonly used analgesic technique after cesarean delivery. The incidence of respiratory depression is reported to be very low (0%-1.2%) in this patient population as measured by pulse oximetry and respiratory rates. However, hypercapnia may be a more sensitive measure of respiratory depression. In the current study, the incidence of hypercapnia events (transcutaneous CO2 [TcCO2] >50 mm Hg) for ≥2-minute duration was evaluated using the Topological Oscillation Search with Kinematical Analysis monitor in women who received intrathecal morphine for postcesarean delivery analgesia...
January 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099115/examination-of-the-reliability-of-an-inertial-sensor-based-gait-analysis-system
#20
Katja Orlowski, Falko Eckardt, Fabian Herold, Norman Aye, Jürgen Edelmann-Nusser, Kerstin Witte
Gait analysis is an important and useful part of the daily therapeutic routine. InvestiGAIT, an inertial sensor-based system, was developed for using in different research projects with a changing number and position of sensors and because commercial systems do not capture the motion of the upper body. The current study is designed to evaluate the reliability of InvestiGAIT consisting of four off-the-shelf inertial sensors and in-house capturing and analysis software. Besides the determination of standard gait parameters, the motion of the upper body (pelvis and spine) can be investigated...
January 18, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
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