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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238832/dynamics-simulation-of-human-gait-model-with-predictive-capability
#1
Jinming Sun, Shaoli Wu, Philip A Voglewede
In this article, it is proposed the central nervous system controls human gait using a predictive control approach in conjunction with classical feedback control instead of exclusive classical feedback control theory that controls based on past error. To validate this proposition, a dynamic model of human gait is developed using a novel predictive approach to investigate the principles of the central nervous system (CNS). The model developed includes two parts: a plant model that represents the dynamics of human gait and a controller that represents the CNS...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238821/multibody-kinematic-optimization-for-the-estimation-of-upper-and-lower-limb-human-joint-kinematics-a-systematic-review
#2
Mickael Begon, Michael S Andersen, Raphael Dumas
Multibody kinematic optimization (MKO) aims at reducing soft tissue artefact (STA) and is key in musculoskeletal modeling. The objective was to identify the numerical methods and the level of validation for the estimation of the human joint kinematics using MKO. Seventy-four articles were extracted from a systematic search in five databases and cross-referencing. Model-derived kinematics was obtained using either optimization or Kalman filtering to minimize the difference between measured (by skin markers, electromagnetic or inertial sensors) and model-derived positions and/or orientations...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238817/finite-element-framework-for-computational-fluid-dynamics-in-febio
#3
Dr Gerard A Ateshian, Jay J Shim, Steve A Maas, Jeffrey A Weiss
The mechanics of biological fluids is an important topic in biomechanics, often requiring the use computational tools to analyze problems with realistic geometries and material properties. This study describes the formulation and implementation of a finite element framework for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in FEBio, a free software designed to meet the computational needs of the biomechanics and biophysics communities (febio.org). This formulation models nearly incompressible flow with a compressible isothermal formulation that uses a physically realistic value for the fluid bulk modulus...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238816/design-and-evaluation-of-an-instrumented-wobble-board-for-assessing-and-training-dynamic-seated-balance
#4
Andrew Williams, Quinn Boser, Animesh Singh Kumawat, Kshitij Agarwal, Hossein Rouhani, Albert Vette
Methods that effectively assess and train dynamic seated balance are critical for enhancing functional independence and reducing risk of secondary health complications in the elderly and individuals with neuromuscular impairments. The objective of this research was to devise and validate a portable tool for assessing and training dynamic seated balance. An instrumented wobble board was designed and constructed that: (1) elicits multidirectional perturbations in seated individuals; (2) quantifies seated balance proficiency; and (3) provides real-time, kinematics-based vibrotactile feedback...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238658/non-pharmacological-and-non-surgical-strategies-to-promote-sexual-recovery-for-men-with-erectile-dysfunction
#5
REVIEW
Richard Wassersug, Erik Wibowo
Erectile dysfunction (ED), the most commonly reported sexual problem for men, reduces the quality of life for both patients and their partners. Even when physiologically effective, long-term adherence to ED treatments is poor. We review here the implication of having patients' partners involved in ED treatment, starting with treatment selection. We suggest that having partners engaged from the outset may promote an erotic association of the treatment with the partner, i.e., conceptually linking the aid to the sexual pleasure that the partner provides...
November 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238597/effects-of-nine-weeks-isokinetic-training-on-power-golf-kinematics-and-driver-performance-in-pre-elite-golfers
#6
James Parker, Charlie Lagerhem, John Hellström, M Charlotte Olsson
Background: It has previously been shown that isotonic strength training can improve driver performance among golfers, though few studies have investigated effects of strength training on swing kinematics together with driver performance. In this study we investigated whether isokinetic rotational training could improve driver performance and swing kinematic variables amongst elite golfers. Methods: Twenty competitive pre-elite golfers (handicap better than -3.0), 13 men and 7 women, were split into two groups, one group received the isokinetic power training (IK) alongside their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training and the other group continued with their normal isotonic pre-season strength-training regime (IT)...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238596/limb-symmetry-during-double-leg-squats-and-single-leg-squats-on-land-and-in-water-in-adults-with-long-standing-unilateral-anterior-knee-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Anna C Severin, Brendan J Burkett, Mark R McKean, Aaron N Wiegand, Mark G L Sayers
Background: The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238512/an-approach-to-developing-customized-total-knee-replacement-implants
#8
Xinyu Li, Changjiang Wang, Yuan Guo, Weiyi Chen
Total knee replacement (TKR) has been performed for patients with end-stage knee joint arthritis to relieve pain and gain functions. Most knee replacement patients can gain satisfactory knee functions; however, the range of motion of the implanted knee is variable. There are many designs of TKR implants; it has been suggested by some researchers that customized implants could offer a better option for patients. Currently, the 3-dimensional knee model of a patient can be created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) data using image processing techniques...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238255/does-shoe-collar-height-influence-ankle-joint-kinematics-and-kinetics-in-sagittal-plane-maneuvers
#9
Yang Yang, Ying Fang, Xini Zhang, Junliang He, Weijie Fu
The Objective of the study is to investigate the effects of basketball shoes with different collar heights on ankle kinematics and kinetics and athletic performance in different sagittal plane maneuvers. Twelve participants who wore high-top and low-top basketball shoes (hereafter, HS and LS, respectively) performed a weight-bearing dorsiflexion (WB-DF) maneuver, drop jumps (DJs), and lay-up jumps (LJs). Their sagittal plane kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded using the Vicon motion capture system and Kistler force plates simultaneously...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238254/assessment-of-three-dimensional-trunk-kinematics-and-muscle-activation-during-cycling-with-independent-cranks
#10
Eric Bourdon, Matthew Mavor, Dean C Hay
Independent cranks (IC) are recently introduced bicycle cranks that are decoupled; therefore allowing each leg to pedal independent of the other. Despite this introduction, limited research has been conducted assessing biomechanical changes when cycling with IC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare trunk kinematics and surface electromyography (sEMG) during IC and normal crank (NC) cycling during a graded exercise test to volitional fatigue. Ten healthy, physically active men performed two tests (IC and NC) on a cycling ergometer on separate days...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238250/influence-of-tennis-racquet-kinematics-on-ball-topspin-angular-velocity-and-accuracy-during-the-forehand-groundstroke
#11
Sunku Kwon, Robin Pfister, Ronald L Hager, Iain Hunter, Matthew K Seeley
Forehand groundstroke effectiveness is important for tennis success. Ball topspin angular velocity (TAV) and accuracy are important for forehand groundstroke effectiveness, and have been extensively studied, previously; despite previous, quality studies, it was unclear whether certain racquet kinematics relate to ball TAV and shot accuracy during the forehand groundstroke. This study evaluated potential relationships between (1) ball TAV and (2) forehand accuracy, and five measures of racquet kinematics: racquet head impact angle (i...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238181/the-link-between-weight-shift-asymmetry-and-gait-disturbances-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke-patients
#12
Andrzej Szopa, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Amadeusz Żak
Introduction: While the asymmetry of body posture and the asymmetrical nature of hemiparetic gait in poststroke (PS) patients are well documented, the role of weight shift asymmetry in gait disorders after stroke remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) between paretic and nonparetic lower limbs during quiet standing with the degree of deviation of hemiplegic gait from normal gait evaluated by the Gillette Gait Index (GGI) incorporating 16 distinct clinically important kinematic and temporal parameters in chronic PS patients...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238158/full-step-cycle-kinematic-and-kinetic-comparison-of-barefoot-walking-and-a-traditional-shoe-walking-in-healthy-youth-insights-for-barefoot-technology
#13
Yi Xu, Qinghua Hou, Chuhuai Wang, Andrew J Sellers, Travis Simpson, Bradford C Bennett, Shawn D Russell
Objective: Barefoot technology shoes are becoming increasingly popular, yet modifications are still needed. The present study aims to gain valuable insights by comparing barefoot walking to neutral shoe walking in a healthy youth population. Methods: 28 healthy university students (22 females and 6 males) were recruited to walk on a 10-meter walkway both barefoot and in neutral running shoes at their comfortable walking speed. Full step cycle kinematic and kinetic data were collected using an 8-camera motion capture system...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237766/the-opercular-mouth-opening-mechanism-of-largemouth-bass-functions-as-a-3d-four-bar-linkage-with-three-degrees-of-freedom
#14
Aaron M Olsen, Ariel L Camp, Elizabeth L Brainerd
The planar, one degree of freedom (1-DoF) four-bar linkage is an important model for understanding the function, performance and evolution of numerous biomechanical systems. One such system is the opercular mechanism in fishes, which is thought to function like a four-bar linkage to depress the lower jaw. While anatomical and behavioral observations suggest some form of mechanical coupling, previous attempts to model the opercular mechanism as a planar four-bar have consistently produced poor model fits relative to observed kinematics...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237578/the-effectiveness-of-exercise-therapy-on-scapular-position-and-motion-in-individuals-with-scapular-dyskinesis-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Afsun Nodehi Moghadam, Kianoush Abdi, Mohsen Shati, Shohreh Noorizadeh Dehkordi, Abbas Ali Keshtkar, Zahra Mosallanezhad
BACKGROUND: Scapular dyskinesis is an alteration in normal scapular position and motion. Some researchers believe that altered kinematics of the scapula subsequent to dysfunction or weakness of scapular stabilizing muscles contributes to impingement syndrome. Scapular muscle exercises are included in the rehabilitation of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome and scapular dyskinesis because the muscular system is one of the major contributors of scapular positioning both at rest and during shoulder movement, but there is considerable uncertainty relating to the relative effectiveness of such approaches on changing scapular position and motion...
December 13, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235939/are-shoulder-counter-rotation-and-hip-shoulder-separation-angle-representative-metrics-of-three-dimensional-spinal-kinematics-in-cricket-fast-bowling
#16
Billy Senington, Raymond Y Lee, Jonathan Mark Williams
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between shoulder counter-rotation (SCR), hip shoulder separation (HSS) and three-dimensional spinal kinematics during fast bowling in cricket. Thirty five elite male fast bowlers were analysed using three-dimensional inertial sensors on the spine. Lumbar, thoracic and thoracolumbar kinematics were determined during the delivery stride. Spearman's pairwise correlations displayed significant associations between SCR, thoracic and thoracolumbar lateral flexion between the back foot impact and max contralateral rotation phase of the delivery stride (rs = -...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234411/kinematics-analysis-of-cervical-rotation-traction-manipulation-measured-by-a-motion-capture-system
#17
Zhu Liguo, Feng Minshan, Yin Xunlu, Wang Shangquan, Yu Jie
Objectives: To analyze the kinematics of cervical rotation-traction manipulation (CRTM). Methods: An experimental study measuring the kinematics of CRTM was conducted. A total of 18 healthy volunteers participated in the study. A single manipulator operated the CRTM for all subjects. Motion capture technology was adopted to track the trajectory during the CRTM operation. Results: The manipulated side did not influence the cervical spine motion...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234150/the-shallow-structure-of-solfatara-volcano-italy-revealed-by-dense-wide-aperture-seismic-profiling
#18
Pier Paolo G Bruno, Stefano Maraio, Gaetano Festa
Two active-source, high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired in the Solfatara tuff cone in May and November 2014, with dense, wide-aperture arrays. Common Receiver Surface processing was crucial in improving signal-to-noise ratio and reflector continuity. These surveys provide, for the first time, high-resolution seismic images of the Solfatara crater, depicting a ~400 m deep asymmetrical crater filled by volcanoclastic sediments and rocks and carved within an overall non-reflective pre-eruptive basement showing features consistent with the emplacement of shallow intrusive bodies...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233238/neck-kinematics-and-electromyography-while-wearing-head-supported-mass-during-running
#19
Matthew M Hanks, JoEllen M Sefton, Gretchen D Oliver
BACKGROUND: Advanced combat helmets (ACH) coupled with night-vision goggles (NVG) are required for tactical athletes during training and service. Head and neck injuries due to head supported mass (HSM) are a common occurrence in military personnel. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of HSM on neck muscle fatigue that may lead to chronic stress and injury of the head and neck. METHODS: Subjects wore an ACH and were affixed with electromagnetic sensors to obtain kinematic data, as well as EMG electrodes to obtain muscle activations of bilateral sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and paraspinal muscles while running on a treadmill...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231784/feet-kinematics-upon-slipping-discriminate-between-recoveries-and-three-types-of-slip-induced-falls
#20
Leigh J Allin, Maury A Nussbaum, Michael L Madigan
This study investigated the relationship between feet kinematics upon slipping while walking and the outcome of the slip. Seventy-one slips (induced by walking over an unexpectedly slippery surface) were analysed, which included 37 recoveries, 16 feet-split falls, 11 feet-forward falls, and seven lateral falls. Feet kinematics differed between these four slip outcomes, and a discriminant model including six measures of feet kinematics correctly predicted 87% of slip outcomes. Two potentially modifiable characteristics of the feet kinematics upon slipping that can improve the likelihood of successfully averting a fall were identified: (1) quickly arresting the motion of the slipping foot; and (2) a recovery step that places the trailing toe approximately 0-10% body height anterior to the sacrum...
December 12, 2017: Ergonomics
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