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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934438/placental-but-not-peripheral-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-malaria-in-infancy
#1
Sarah Boudová, Titus Divala, Randy Mungwira, Patricia Mawindo, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
Pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum infection impacts the health of mothers and newborns, but little is known about the effects of these infections on infant susceptibility to malaria. We followed 473 mother-infant pairs during pregnancy and through 2 years of age. We observed that children born to mothers with placental malaria, but not those born to mothers with peripheral infection without evidence of placental sequestration, had increased risk of malaria during the first year of life compared with children born to mothers with no malaria during pregnancy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933344/first-outbreak-of-zika-virus-in-the-continental-united-states-a-modelling-analysis
#2
Giovanni Marini, Giorgio Guzzetta, Roberto Rosà, Stefano Merler
Since 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread throughout Latin and Central America. This emerging infectious disease has been causing considerable public health concern because of severe neurological complications, especially in newborns after congenital infections. In July 2016, the first outbreak in the continental United States was identified in the Wynwood neighbourhood of Miami-Dade County, Florida. In this work, we investigated transmission dynamics using a mathematical model calibrated to observed data on mosquito abundance and symptomatic human infections...
September 14, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931118/unpacking-the-enabling-factors-for-hand-cord-and-birth-surface-hygiene-in-zanzibar-maternity-units
#3
Giorgia Gon, Said M Ali, Catriona Towriss, Catherine Kahabuka, Ali O Ali, Sue Cavill, Mohammed Dahoma, Sally Faulkner, Haji S Haji, Ibrahim Kabole, Emma Morrison, Rukaiya M Said, Amour Tajo, Yael Velleman, Susannah L Woodd, And Wendy J Graham
Recent national surveys in The United Republic of Tanzania have revealed poor standards of hygiene at birth in facilities. As more women opt for institutional delivery, improving basic hygiene becomes an essential part of preventative strategies for reducing puerperal and newborn sepsis. Our collaborative research in Zanzibar provides an in-depth picture of the state of hygiene on maternity wards to inform action. Hygiene was assessed in 2014 across all 37 facilities with a maternity unit in Zanzibar. We used a mixed methods approach, including structured and semi-structured interviews, and environmental microbiology...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#4
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915997/outbreak-of-anaplasmosis-associated-with-novel-genetic-variants-of-anaplasma-marginale-in-a-dairy-cattle
#5
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Özübek
During early lactation, dairy cows may present a transient immunosuppressive state and develop anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. In this study, clinical anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey was investigated with respect to within-herd prevalence, vertical transmission, and genetic diversity. In March and September 2015, thirty lactating cows showed primary clinical signs of anaplasmosis, including fever, anaemia, decreased milk yield, anorexia, and laboured breathing. Symptoms disappeared in most cows after administration of long-acting oxytetracycline, but nine of them (30%) died...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#6
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915896/placental-malaria-and-its-effect-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-sudanese-women-from-blue-nile-state
#7
Samia A Omer, Hagir E Idress, Ishag Adam, Mutasim Abdelrahim, Ali N Noureldein, Abdelrahim M Abdelrazig, Mohammed O Elhassan, Suad M Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Malaria infection during pregnancy can result in placental malaria and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes particularly among primigravidae. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for placental malaria and its effect on pregnancy outcomes in Blue Nile state, Sudan. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted consecutively during January 2012-December 2015 in three main hospitals in Blue Nile State, Sudan...
September 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913714/high-transient-colonization-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-between-mothers-and-newborn
#8
Cristian Vera, Yudy A Aguilar, Lázaro A Vélez, Zulma Vanessa Rueda
The aim of the study was to explore the frequency and dynamics of acquisition and colonization of Pneumocystis jirovecii among neonates, as well as the epidemiological and genotypic characteristics in mother-child binomial. In a prospective enrolled cohort of women in their third trimester of pregnancy, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and clinical and epidemiological data were collected at four different times: 17 days, 2nd, 4th, and 6th month of life of the newborn. P. jirovecii was detected by nested-PCR for the mtLSU-rRNA gene in each NPS; the genotypes were determined amplifying four genes...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913151/harlequin-ichthyosis-a-rare-case
#9
Belide Shruthi, B R Nilgar, Anita Dalal, Nehaben Limbani
Harlequin ichthyosis is a very rare condition that affects the skin of newborns. It is associated with poor barrier function of the skin leading to dehydration and leaves newborns prone to infections. It is due to mutations in adenosine triphosphate binding cassette A12 gene transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder. The prognosis is very poor in these cases. Here, we report one such rare case.
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910260/shining-new-light-on-newborn-screening-of-cystic-fibrosis-in-the-province-of-quebec
#10
Léticia Khendek
Newborn screening of cystic fibrosis, a severe genetic disease with high treatment burden, is offered in all of North America with the exception of the province of Quebec. This condition, when diagnosed on symptomatic presentation, is marked by chronic infections and progressive lung function decline leading to eventual respiratory failure. Patients continue to have a median age of survival notably below the Canadian average. Despite prevalence rates of cystic fibrosis almost three times the national average in certain regions of Quebec, the province still does not offer screening to its newborns...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905447/assessment-of-the-quality-of-neonatal-care-in-the-solomon-islands
#11
Shidan Tosif, Titus Nasi, Amy Gray, Nahad Sadr-Azodi, Divi Ogaoga, Trevor Duke
AIM: To identify strengths and obstacles for improving the quality of newborn care in the Solomon Islands. Improving the quality of newborn care is a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals and the Action Plan for Healthy Newborns in the Western Pacific. The neonatal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands, a lower-middle-income country, has improved slower than overall child mortality. In 2013, neonatal mortality (13.2/1000) constituted 44% of under-5 deaths (30.1/1000). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of newborn care in five provincial hospitals using a World Health Organization assessment tool for hospital quality of care...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904998/parallel-evolution-of-group-b-streptococcus-hypervirulent-clonal-complex-17-unveils-new-pathoadaptive-mutations
#12
Alexandre Almeida, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Céline Plainvert, Pierre-Emmanuel Douarre, Maria J Borrego, Claire Poyart, Philippe Glaser
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, while a prevailing cause of neonatal disease worldwide. Of the various clonal complexes (CCs), CC17 is overrepresented in GBS-infected newborns for reasons that are still largely unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic analysis of 626 CC17 isolates collected worldwide, identifying the genetic traits behind their successful adaptation to humans and the underlying differences between carriage and clinical strains...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904689/severe-neonatal-cytomegalovirus-infection-about-a-case
#13
Brahim El Hasbaoui, Amal Bousselamti, Mohammed Amine Redouani, Amina Barkat
Maternofoetal infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital infection and a leading cause of mental retardation and sensori-neural hearing loss. Population-based studies indicate that at least 0.5% of all infants born alive have CMV of whom approximately 10% have clinically evident symptomsat birth. The Justification of systematic screening for foetal CMV infection is still controversial and is not recommended in most developed countries. This is mainly justified by the paucity of antenatal prognostic factors and the lack of established intrauterine treatment when foetal infection has been diagnosed...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903865/economic-evaluation-of-the-eradication-program-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-in-the-swiss-dairy-sector
#14
B Thomann, A Tschopp, I Magouras, M Meylan, G Schüpbach-Regula, B Häsler
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895709/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-intracardiac-vegetation-in-a-very-low-birth-weight-infant
#15
Abdurrahman A Ozdemir
Developing treatment options have resulted in prolonged admission and increased bacterial and fungal nosocomial infections as well as improved survival in neonatal intensive care unit. Invasive fungal infections in newborns are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can cause endorgan dissemination such as endocarditis, endophthalmitis, septic arthritis, obstructive nephropathy and meningitis. Endocarditis requires aggressive systemic antifungal therapy and sometimes surgical intervention in neonates...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895096/palivizumab-prophylaxis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-children-with-immunocompromised-conditions-or-down-syndrome-a-multicenter-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japan
#16
Tomoko Kashiwagi, Yukiko Okada, Ken Nomoto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of palivizumab for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome. METHODS: In this multicenter, post-marketing surveillance study (December 2013 to December 2015), children aged ≤24 months with immunocompromised conditions or Down syndrome (without hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease) receiving palivizumab immunoprophylaxis during two RSV seasons were observed until 30 days after the final palivizumab injection...
September 11, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893488/-clinical-criteria-for-pathogen-bacteria-in-term-newborn-suspected-of-neonatal-sepsis
#17
A Glusko-Charlet, C Fontaine, M Raucy, L Barcat, A Lahana, R Erbani, G Poirie, G Kongolo, M Diouf, A Leke, J Gondry, P Tourneux
BACKGROUND: Neonatal early onset sepsis (EOS) remains an important etiology of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is difficult due to a lack of sensitivity and specificity markers. In France, the management of newborn infants suspected of infection includes the analysis of gastric suction. The objective of the study was to identify early clinical signs in newborn infants with suspected neonatal sepsis to differentiate a likely infection with pathogen bacteria in the gastric suction culture (Streptococcus agalactiae or Escherichia coli) from a possible infection without such pathogen bacteria...
September 8, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889064/spiroplasma-eriocheiris-induces-mouse-3t6-swiss-albino-cell-apoptosis-that-associated-with-the-infection-mechanism
#18
Libo Hou, Wei Gu, Huanxi Zhu, Wei Yao, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen similar to the Spiroplasma mirum and also had an ability to infect the newborn mice and caused cataract. Our study was designed to study how S. eriocheiris infects mouse 3T6-Swiss albino cells and to elucidate the cellular molecular pathogenesis of Spiroplasma. FCM analysis and MTT analysis clearly shown that S. eriocheiris could induce 3T6 cell apoptosis and cause cell viability decreased seriously. Immunofluorescence experiments and TEM analysis shown that S. eriocheiris can invade 3T6 cells and form typical inclusion bodies and exhibit vacuolization in vitro...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888645/eradication-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-in-germany-diversity-of-subtypes-and-detection-of-live-vaccine-viruses
#19
Kerstin Wernike, Horst Schirrmeier, Heinz-Günter Strebelow, Martin Beer
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) causes high economic losses in the cattle population worldwide. In Germany, an obligatory control program with detection and removal of persistently infected animals is in force since 2011. For molecular tracing of virus transmission, a comprehensive sequence data base of the currently circulating BVD viruses was established. Partial sequences of 1007 samples collected between 2008 and 2016 were generated. As dominant viruses, subtypes 1b (47.0%) and 1d (26.5%) could be identified with no marked geographic or sampling year effect, a much higher amount of BVDV-2c was detected in 2013 compared to other years, predominantly in Western Germany...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888133/rhesus-monkeys-for-a-nonhuman-primate-model-of-cytomegalovirus-infections
#20
REVIEW
Hannah L Itell, Amitinder Kaur, Jesse D Deere, Peter A Barry, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading opportunistic viral infection in solid organ transplant patients and is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide. Despite the significant burden of disease HCMV causes in immunosuppressed patients and infected newborns, there are no licensed preventative vaccines or effective immunotherapeutic treatments for HCMV, largely due to our incomplete understanding of the immune correlates of protection against HCMV infection and disease. Though CMV species-specificity imposes an additional challenge in defining a suitable animal model for HCMV, nonhuman primate (NHP) CMVs are the most genetically related to HCMV...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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