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Fulminant hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091407/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-drug-induced-liver-injury
#1
Li-Xia Yang, Cheng-Yuan Liu, Lun-Li Zhang, Ling-Ling Lai, Ming Fang, Chong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Drug is an important cause of liver injury and accounts for up to 40% of instances of fulminant hepatic failure. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is increasing while the diagnosis becomes more difficult. Though many drugs may cause DILI, Chinese herbal medicines have recently emerged as a major cause due to their extensive use in China. We aimed to provide drug safety information to patients and health carers by analyzing the clinical and pathological characteristics of the DILI and the associated drug types...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090562/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-monocyte-differentiation-into-polarized-m2-macrophages-promotes-stellate-cell-activation-via%C3%A2-tgf-%C3%AE
#2
Banishree Saha, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Monocyte and macrophage (MΦ) activation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Disease pathogenesis is regulated by both liver-resident MΦs and monocytes recruited as precursors of MΦs into the damaged liver. Monocytes differentiate into M1 (classic/proinflammatory) or M2 (alternative/anti-inflammatory) polarized MΦs in response to tissue microenvironment. We hypothesized that HCV-infected hepatoma cells (infected with Japanese fulminant hepatitis-1 [Huh7...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067868/fatal-autochthonous-fulminant-hepatitis-e-early-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
M Carré, A Thiebaut-Bertrand, S Larrat, V Leroy, P Pouzol, N Sturm, S Lhomme, J-Y Cahn, F Garban, P Morand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065940/cd24-aggravates-acute-liver-injury-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-by-promoting-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-cd4-t-cells
#4
Chenhong Zheng, Shulei Yin, Yang Yang, Yizhi Yu, Xiaohua Xie
The T-cell-mediated immune response is implicated in many clinical hepatic injuries, such as autoimmune hepatitis and acute virus hepatitis. CD24 is widely expressed by different immune cells and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. However, the role of CD24 in T-cell-mediated liver injury has not been elucidated until now. Here we showed that CD24 deficiency protects mice from concanavalin A (ConA)-induced fulminant liver injury by reducing serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels...
January 9, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060213/ursodeoxycholyl-lysophosphatidylethanolamide-protects-against-cd95-fas-induced-fulminant-hepatitis
#5
Tanyarath Utaipan, Ann-Christin Otto, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Warangkana Chunglok, Anita Pathil, Wolfgang Stremmel, Walee Chamulitrat
Increased activation of CD95/Fas by Fas ligand in viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is involved in pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis and liver failure. We designed a bile-acid phospholipid conjugate ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE with LPE containing oleate at the sn-1) as a hepatoprotectant that was shown to protect against fulminant hepatitis induced by endotoxin. We herein further assessed the ability of UDCA-LPE to prevent death receptor CD95/Fas-induced fulminant hepatitis. C57BL/6 mice were intravenously administered with CD95/Fas agonistic monoclonal antibody (Jo-2) with or without 1 h pretreatment with 50 mg/kg UDCA-LPE...
January 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024286/taurine-treatment-preserves-brain-and-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-fulminant-hepatic-failure-and-hyperammonemia
#6
Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mozhgan Abasvali, Mehdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Narges Abdoli, Forouzan Khodaei, Yasaman Yeganeh, Faezeh Jafari, Azita Zarei, Zahra Latifpour, Elnaz Mardani, Negar Azarpira, Behnam Asadi, Asma Najibi
Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia...
December 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018115/dangerous-dietary-supplements-garcinia-cambogia-associated-hepatic-failure-requiring-transplantation
#7
Keri E Lunsford, Adam S Bodzin, Diego C Reino, Hanlin L Wang, Ronald W Busuttil
Commercial dietary supplements are marketed as a panacea for the morbidly obese seeking sustainable weight-loss. Unfortunately, many claims cited by supplements are unsupported and inadequately regulated. Most concerning, however, are the associated harmful side effects, often unrecognized by consumers. Garcinia cambogia extract and Garcinia cambogia containing products are some of the most popular dietary supplements currently marketed for weight loss. Here, we report the first known case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with this dietary supplement...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012245/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-patients-with-down-syndrome-with-a-previous-history-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#8
Daisuke Tomizawa, Akifumi Endo, Michiko Kajiwara, Hirotoshi Sakaguchi, Kimikazu Matsumoto, Makoto Kaneda, Takashi Taga
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in early and later childhood, respectively, but rarely experience both. We herein discuss four patients with DS with ALL and a history of AML who were treated with various chemotherapies, one of whom later received a bone marrow transplantation. Three patients survived and remain in remission. One patient died of fulminant hepatitis during therapy. No common cytogenetic abnormalities in AML and ALL besides constitutional +21 were identified, indicating that the two leukemia types were independent events...
December 24, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999888/imaging-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-overlap-syndromes
#9
Neera Malik, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory, and relapsing liver disease of unknown origin that may lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or death. AIH occurs in all age groups and races but can frequently manifest as acute fulminant hepatitis. Clinical presentation of AIH can have features similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and these diseases may coexist leading to overlap syndromes. Although histological diagnosis is necessary, imaging features often can demonstrate characteristics that may be helpful to distinguish these diseases...
December 20, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977895/a-soluble-form-of-psgl-1-requires-nrf2-signaling-to-protect-liver-transplant-endothelial-cells-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Cheng Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yuanxing Liu, Yuan Liu, Shoichi Kageyama, Xiu-da Shen, Feng Gao, Shusen Zheng, Ronald W Busuttil, Gray D Shaw, Haofeng Ji, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski
Liver endothelial cell (LEC) damage is essential in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in transplant recipients. We analyzed the mechanism of LEC resistance against IRI by using a novel recombinant soluble form of PSGL-1 (Tandem P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-Immunoglobulin; TSGL-Ig) in a mouse model of hepatic cold preservation (4°C in UW for 20h) and syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Unlike in controls, TSGL-Ig protected OLT against IR-stress, evidenced by depressed sALT levels, well-preserved hepatic architecture, and improved survival (42% vs...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975110/viral-hepatitis-in-children-a-through-e
#11
Ankur Chugh, Maryann Maximos, Meryl Perlman, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta
Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver. This inflammation can be acute and self-limited, chronic (leading to cirrhosis and an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma), or fulminant (requiring lifesaving liver transplantation). Although there are many causes of hepatitis, this article focuses on the main childhood viral hepatidities: types A, B, C, D, and E. This review discusses the main characteristics of each virus, including salient epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959298/acute-liver-failure
#12
Ami Grek, Lisa Arasi
Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, is a rare life-threatening disease that has a high mortality rate and affects many organ systems. Causes of acute liver failure vary-it can be attributed to drugs, viruses, and other uncommon sources. Complications of liver failure can include encephalopathy, cerebral edema, sepsis, renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and respiratory failure. Fortunately, with advances in critical care medicine and emergent liver transplant, mortality rates have decreased in the past decade...
October 2016: AACN Advanced Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936480/treatment-of-fulminant-acute-hepatitis-b-with-nucles-t-id-analogues-is-safe-and-does-not-lead-to-secondary-chronification-of-hepatitis-b
#13
C Jochum, F Maischack, O E Anastasiou, J Verheyen, J Timm, L Bechmann, G Gerken, A Canbay
Background: Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still a major cause of acute liver failure (ALF), necessitating a high rate of emergency liver transplantation (LTx). Acute infection is followed by high viral replication rates leading to hepatocyte death and, ultimately, ALF. The objective of treating HBV-induced ALF thus is to eliminate, or significantly suppress, HBV replication and therefore reduce cell death and support regeneration. Objective: In this retrospective study, we want to evaluate the timing, the safety, and the long-term virological outcome of this approach...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932130/acute-liver-failure-caused-by-primary-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-of-the-liver
#14
L Romacho López, F J León Díaz, B Sánchez Pérez, J A Pérez Daga, J L Fernández Aguilar, M C Montiel Casado, J M Aranda Narváez, M A Suárez Muñoz, J Santoyo Santoyo
INTRODUCTION: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome involving maximum liver dysfunction. This disease is characterized by a less than 26-week history of coagulopathy (INR ≥1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy and generally occurs in patients without any previously known disease. METHODS: We report the case of a healthy 25-year-old subject who presented with fulminant liver failure caused by a primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver that required emergency liver transplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930723/fourteen-years-of-experience-of-liver-transplantation-for-wilson-s-disease-a-report-on-107-cases-from-shiraz-iran
#15
Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Ali Malek-Hosseini, Saman Nikeghbalian, Mohsen Dehghani, Mohammad Pourhashemi, Kourosh Kazemi, Parisa Janghorban, Maryam Akbari, Sulmaz Ghahramani, Bijan Eghtesad, Maryam Moini, Abbas Rahmi Jaberi, Alireza Shamsaifar, Siavosh Gholami, Fatemeh Rahmanian, Bita Geramizadeh
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver transplantation is a potential cure for liver damage from Wilson's disease but the course of neuropsychiatric manifestations after transplantation remains undetermined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, data on all patients who'd received a liver transplant for Wilson's disease at the Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center between December 2000 and March 2014 were reviewed and compared to data on a control group who'd received a liver transplant over the same period but due to other causes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927037/clinical-hepatotoxicity-associated-with-antifungal-agents
#16
Ioannis Kyriakidis, Athanasios Tragiannidis, Silke Munchen, Andreas H Groll
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients with bone marrow failure syndromes, hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), those admitted in intensive care units (ICUs) and those with prolonged febrile neutropenia. IFDs occur in a setting of multiple morbidities and are associated with case fatality rates between 30 and 70%. Along with the development of classes and compounds, the last two decades have seen substantial improvements in the prevention and management of these infections and an overall increased use of antifungal agents...
December 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920641/severe-de-novo-hepatitis-b-recovered-from-late-onset-liver-insufficiency-with-prolonged-ascites-and-hypoalbuminemia-due-to-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-bj-with-precore-mutation
#17
Akira Sato, Toshiya Ishii, Fumiaki Sano, Takayuki Yamada, Hideaki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Matsumoto
De novo hepatitis B is associated with a high risk of hepatic failure often resulting in fatal fulminant hepatitis even when nucleotide analogues are administered. A 77-year-old female developed de novo hepatitis B after R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolated from the patient was of genotype Bj, with a precore mutation (G1896A) exhibiting an extremely high viral load at the onset of hepatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912738/hepatoprotective-activity-of-lepidium-sativum-seeds-against-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-animal-model
#18
Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Khalid M Alkharfy, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Kazi Mohsin, Fahad I Al-Jenoobi, Abdullah M Al-Mohizea, Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari
BACKGROUND: Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is clinical syndrome with very poor prognosis and high mortality there is urgent need for the development of safe and non-toxic hepatoprotective agents for the adequate management of hepatitis. Hepatoprotective effect of the Lepidium sativum ethanolic extract (LSEE) was assessed by D-galactosamine-induced/lipopolysaccharide (400 mg/kg and 30 μg/kg) liver damage model in rats. METHODS: Hepatoprotective activity of LSEE (150 and 300 mg/kg) and silymarin on D-GalN/LPS induced FHF in rat was assessed using several liver function enzyme parameters...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906824/selection-of-patients-for-initial-clinical-trials-of-solid-organ-xenotransplantation
#19
David K C Cooper, Martin Wijkstrom, Sundaram Hariharan, Joshua L Chan, Avneesh Singh, Keith Horvath, Muhammad Mohiuddin, Arielle Cimeno, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina, Richard N Pierson
Several groups have reported extended survival of genetically-engineered pig organs in nonhuman primates, varying from almost 10 months for life-supporting kidney grafts and >2 years for nonlife-supporting heart grafts to less than 1 month for life-supporting liver and lung grafts. We have attempted to define groups of patients who may not have an option to wait for an allograft. These include kidney, heart, and lung candidates who are highly-allosensitized. In addition, some kidney candidates (who have previously lost at least 2 allografts from rapid recurrence of native kidney disease) have a high risk of further recurrence and will not be offered a repeat allotransplant...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891589/critical-roles-of-conventional-dendritic-cells-in-promoting-t-cell-dependent-hepatitis-through-regulating-nkt-cells
#20
Jingya Wang, Xueting Cao, Jiliang Zhao, Huiyuan Zhao, Jun Wei, Qiuying Li, Xiaofei Qi, Zishan Yang, Li Wang, Hongru Zhang, Li Bai, Zhenzhou Wu, Liqing Zhao, Zhangyong Hong, Zhinan Yin
Dendritic cells (DC) play critical roles in initiating and regulating the innate immunity as well as the adaptive immune responses. However, the role of conventional dendritic cells (cDC) in Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that depletion of cDC using either CD11c-DTR Tg mice or anti-CD11c antibody significantly reduced the severity of liver injury, indicating a detrimental role of cDC in Con A-induced hepatitis. We further elucidated the pathological role of cDC through being the critical source of IL-12, which induced the secretion of IFN-γ by NKT cells...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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