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Fulminant hepatitis

Alejandro José García Ferreira, Aida Ortega Alonso, Julia Cobos Rodríguez, Paula Bardón de Tena, Miguel Calderón Cid, Alberto Manuel García García, María Dolores García Escaño, Ramiro Alcántara Benitez, Encarnacíon Clavijo Frutos, Miren García-Cortés, Raúl Andrade
In 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A was identified in the Malaga province among patients with specific epidemiological characteristics, which were predominantly males. This is a report of 51 subjects with acute hepatitis A and a mean age of 35.7 years, 90% were male and 55% of cases were men who had had sex with other men within the last two months. Half of them required hospitalization for significant coagulopathy at diagnosis and no cases progressed to fulminant failure or encephalopathy. Four patients had ascites at the time of diagnosis...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Nehal El-Koofy, Hanan M Fouad, Mona E Fahmy, Heba Helmy, Olfat Shaker, Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Nabil Mohsen
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Hepatobiliary cholestatic disorders produce excess copper (Cu) retention in the liver, which is toxic and may cause hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, cirrhosis and death. In this study, we measured hepatic Cu and tested its correlation with serum Cu (S. Cu) and serum ceruloplasmin (S. ceruloplasmin) in cholestatic infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 41 cholestatic infants were enrolled as cases and 11 healthy infants as control subjects...
March 6, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
P Kashyap, M Deka, S Medhi, S Dutta, K Kashyap, N Kumari
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) which causes liver disease is recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through the viral nucleic acid, initiating the host defense response. The study aims to analyze the role of TLR4 rs11536889 polymorphism in the pathogenesis of hepatitis A cases from Assam. There was significant correlation between TLR4 SNP G/C (rs11536889) and between acute viral hepatitis (AVH) A cases and controls. The correlation of the 3 different genotypes GG, GC and CC of TLR4 rs11536889 with the TLR4 mRNA expression level in all the HAV cases groups have been found to be statistically significant (p <0...
2018: Acta Virologica
Wail A Hayajneh, Vincent J Daniels, Cerise K James, Muhammet Nabi Kanıbir, Matthew Pilsbury, Morgan Marks, Michelle G Goveia, Elamin H Elbasha, Erik Dasbach, Camilo J Acosta
BACKGROUND: As the socioeconomic conditions in Jordan have improved over recent decades the disease and economic burden of Hepatitis A has increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential health and economic impact of a two-dose hepatitis A vaccine program covering one-year old children in Jordan. METHODS: We adapted an age-structured population model of hepatitis A transmission dynamics to project the epidemiologic and economic impact of vaccinating one-year old children for 50 years in Jordan...
March 7, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Marina Gazdic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Nemanja Jovicic, Aleksandar Acovic, C Randall Harrell, Crissy Fellabaum, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic, Vladislav Volarevic
One of the therapeutic options for the treatment of fulminant hepatitis is re-population of intrahepatic regulatory cells since their pool is significantly reduced during acute liver failure. Although it is known that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have beneficent effects in the therapy of fulminant hepatitis, may promote expansion of T regulatory cells (Tregs) and B regulatory cells (Bregs), the role of these regulatory cells in MSC-mediated attenuation of acute liver injury is unknown. Herewith, we described the molecular mechanisms involved in the crosstalk between MSCs and liver regulatory cells and analyzed the potential of MSC-based therapy for the expansion of intrahepatic regulatory cells in mouse model of acute liver failure...
March 3, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Eita Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market or restricted to avoid unexpected adverse outcomes. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious issue for drug development. Among DILIs, idiosyncratic DILIs have been a serious problem in drug development and clinical uses. Idiosyncratic DILI is most often unrelated to pharmacological effects or the dosing amount of a drug. The number of drugs that cause idiosyncratic DILI continue to grow in part because no practical preclinical tests have emerged that can identify drug candidates with the potential for developing idiosyncratic DILIs...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Satoru Joshita, Kaname Yoshizawa, Takeji Umemura, Hiromasa Ohira, Atsushi Takahashi, Kenichi Harada, Nguyen Canh Hiep, Koichi Tsuneyama, Masayoshi Kage, Masayuki Nakano, Jong-Hon Kang, Kazuhiko Koike, Mikio Zeniya, Tetsuya Yasunaka, Akinobu Takaki, Takuji Torimura, Masanori Abe, Osamu Yokosuka, Atsushi Tanaka, Hajime Takikawa
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by progressive inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and eventually leads to a variety of phenotypes, including acute liver dysfunction, chronic progressive liver disease, and fulminant hepatic failure. Although the precise mechanisms of AIH are unknown, environmental factors may trigger disease onset in genetically predisposed individuals. Patients with the recently established entity of AIH with acute presentation often display atypical clinical features that mimic those of acute hepatitis forms even though AIH is categorized as a chronic liver disease...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yoshihiro Yokoi, Takeshi Kaneko, Tomoki Sawayanagi, Yasuo Takano, Yoichi Watahiki
We present a case of a healthy 72-year-old man with herpes simplex hepatitis (HSVH) development soon after ordinary surgery for biliary stones. A sudden onset of hepatitis associated with high fever and leukopenia emerged on postoperative day 5, followed by a rapid and lethal course (died on day 9), despite an acyclovir therapy on day 8. Postmortem liver biopsy revealed positive immunostaining for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1. The serum tests (available after the death) were negative for anti-HSV immunogloblulins, but positive for HSV DNA...
February 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Hyunsuk Kim, Jiwon Ryu, Young-Ki Lee, Myoung Jin Choi, Ajin Cho, Ja-Ryong Koo, Sae Yun Baik, Eun Hee Lee, Jong-Woo Yoon, Jung-Woo Noh
Background/Aims: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a self-limiting infectious disease, but 1% of subjects develop fulminant hepatitis. The prevalence of the anti-HAV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in hemodialysis subjects in Korea remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the seropositive rate of anti-HAV antibody among hemodialysis subjects in two hospitals according to age group. Methods: A total of 170 hemodialysis subjects were evaluated for the seropositive rate of the anti-HAV IgG antibody and its titer...
February 23, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Drishti Tolani, Ira Shah
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted infection that is typically self-limited. It spreads by fecally contaminated water within endemic areas. Hepatitis E infection occurs in both sporadic and epidemic forms in developing countries. HEV infection is usually subclinical in children but in a pregnant woman, it manifests commonly as fulminant hepatic failure. A few cases of acute liver failure caused primarily by HEV infection in children have been reported. We present a case of fulminant hepatitis E in a 1-year-old child...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Robert S Venick, Douglas G Farmer, Jose R Soto, Jorge Vargas, Hasan Yersiz, Fady M Kaldas, Vatche G Agopian, Jonathan R Hiatt, Sue V McDiarmid, Ronald W Busuttil
BACKGROUND: Pediatric liver transplantation (pLTx) has been the standard of care for children with liver failure since the 1980s. This study examined the world's largest single-center experiences and aimed to identify unique pre-operative predictors of early graft and patient survival for primary (1º-pLTx) and re-transplantation (Re-pLTx). STUDY DESIGN: An IRB approved, retrospective study of all consecutive, isolated pLTx patients ≤ 18 years of age was conducted...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Jung-Ran Noh, Yong-Hoon Kim, Don-Kyu Kim, Jung Hwan Hwang, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Seon-Jin Lee, Hee Gu Lee, Tae Geol Lee, Hong-Lei Weng, Steven Dooley, Hueng-Sik Choi, Chul-Ho Lee
Although detailed pathophysiological mechanisms of fulminant hepatitis remain elusive, immune cell recruitment with excessive cytokine production is a well-recognized hallmark of the disease. We determined the function of orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) in concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis model. Male C57BL/6J mice were injected intravenously with either a lethal dose (25 mg/kg) or a sub-lethal dose (15 mg/kg) of ConA. For the C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 2 neutralization study, mice were intravenously administered anti-mouse CXCL2 antibody (100 μg/mouse)...
February 2, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Y Hirata, Y Sanada, T Urahashi, Y Ihara, N Yamada, N Okada, T Katano, S Otomo, K Ushijima, K Mizuta
BACKGROUND: Antibody drugs have been used to treat steroid-resistant rejection (SRR) after liver transplantation. Although anti-thymocyte globulin has been used for SRR after liver transplantation in place of muromonab-CD3 since 2011 in Japan, the effectiveness of anti-thymocyte globulin after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antibody drug treatment for SRR after pediatric LDLT in our single center...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Haidy Mohammed Zakaria, Tahany Abdel-Hamid Salem, Hanaa Ahmed El-Araby, Rawan Mohammed Salama, Doaa Yousry Elbadry, Ahmad Mohamed Sira, Mohammed Abdul-Hafeez Ali, Menan El-Sayed Salem, Basma Mahmoud Abd-Alaaty, Shaimaa Samy Goda, Sara Mohammed Eltaras, Fatma Omar Khalil, Sahar Shahein Abou-Zeinah, Mostafa Mohamed Sira
Fulminant hepatic failure is a life-threatening disease. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause fulminant hepatic failure and death in about 0.2% of cases. Extensive destruction of infected hepatocytes by immune-mediated lysis is thought to be the cause. We aimed to evaluate the use of steroid therapy in children with fulminant HAV. This study included 33 children with fulminant HAV in two groups. Steroid group; comprised of 18 children who received prednisolone (1 mg/kg/d) or its equivalent dose of methylprednisolone and the non-steroid group; comprised another 15 children who did not receive steroid therapy...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
J Izopet
HEV infections are mainly food- and water-borne but transfusion-transmission has occurred in both developing and developed countries. The infection is usually asymptomatic but it can lead to fulminant hepatitis in patients with underlying liver disease and pregnant women living in developing countries. It also causes chronic hepatitis E, with progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis, in approximately 60 % of immunocompromised patients infected with HEV genotype 3. Extra-hepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal manifestations have been reported...
January 29, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Adam M Szewc, Steve Taylor, Gary D Cage, Jeffery Jacobsen, Ozlem Pinar Bulut, Daphne E de Mello
A previously healthy 11-year-old Caucasian boy presented with a 2-week history of nonspecific symptoms of nausea and nonbilious, nonbloody emesis. He developed significant jaundice and hepatic encephalopathy within 1 week of beginning symptoms and was discovered to have fulminant liver failure. Extensive work-ups for underlying etiologies included serologic evaluation for underlying chronic liver diseases, toxicology screening, inborn errors of metabolism, and infectious diseases. The results of the entire assessment were negative except for human herpesvirus 6B, which was detected in the liver by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis...
January 30, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
Rubén Peña-Vélez, Enory Almanza-Miranda
In pediatrics, autoimmune hepatitis and sclerosing cholangitis are liver disorders with an immunological damage mechanism. Autoimmune hepatitis is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinemia, circulating autoantibodies and a favorable response to immunosuppression. It is an eminently pediatric disease with a prevalent condition in young women. Therapy should be instituted promptly to prevent rapid deterioration, promote remission of disease and long-term survival...
September 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Petr Husa, Jan Šperl, Petr Urbánek, Soňa Fraňková, Stanislav Plíšek, Petr Kümpel, Luděk RoŽnovský
The new recommendations reflect the increase in knowledge that has been reported since the release of previous Czech guidelines in September 2014. The basis for these guidelines were the European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines from April 2017. According to qualified estimates, there are 240 million people with chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection worldwide. The Czech Republic is among the countries with a low prevalence of HBV infection. According to the latest seroprevalence study, 0.56 % of the Czech citizens were chronically infected with HBV in 2001...
December 2017: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Bushra Moiz, Sidra Asad Ali
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked disorder affecting some 400 million people worldwide. Though clinically silent, it may result in hemolysis on oxidative stress induced by drugs or infections. Viral hepatitis A with coexisting G6PD deficiency can be devastating associated with severe hemolysis, anemia, renal failure, and hepatic encephalopathy.
January 2018: Clinical Case Reports
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