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Lateral skull base

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919116/stylohyoid-complex-eagle-syndrome-starting-in-a-9-year-old-boy
#1
Maite Gárriz-Luis, Pablo Irimia, Juan M Alcalde, Pablo Domínguez, Juan Narbona
Background There are only four previous pediatric reports of the glossopharyngeal neuralgic form of the stylohyoid complex syndrome. Stylohyoid complex has merely been described as cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia in children. Case Report A 12-year-old boy came to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of severe cranial pain (9/10) lasting for 5 to 15 minutes. Pain affected the right tonsillar fossa, ear, and mastoid region. Since the start at the age of 9 years, the frequency of painful episodes has progressively increased: when admitted to our clinics 3 years later, the child was having up to five episodes daily in spite of analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant drugs; he had abandoned school and leisure...
December 5, 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911234/ventriculostomy-associated-hemorrhage-a-risk-assessment-by-radiographic-simulation
#2
Faith C Robertson, Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr, Srinivasan Mukundan, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Ventriculostomy entry sites are commonly selected by freehand estimation of Kocher's point or approximations from skull landmarks and a trajectory toward the ipsilateral frontal horn of the lateral ventricles. A recognized ventriculostomy complication is intracranial hemorrhage from cortical vessel damage; reported rates range from 1% to 41%. In this report, the authors assess hemorrhagic risk by simulating traditional ventriculostomy trajectories and using CT angiography (CTA) with venography (CTV) data to identify potential complications, specifically from cortical draining veins...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898607/effects-of-intratympanic-dexamethasone-on-high-dose-radiation-ototoxicity-in-vivo
#3
Christine T Dinh, Si Chen, John Dinh, Stefania Goncalves, Esperanza Bas, Kyle Padgett, Perry Johnson, Nagy Elsayyad, Fred Telischi, Thomas Van De Water
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiosurgery for lateral skull base tumors can cause hearing loss when the cochleae are exposed to high doses of single-fraction radiation. Currently, there are no known nondosimetric preventative treatments for radiation-induced ototoxicity. HYPOTHESIS: Intratympanic (IT) dexamethasone (DXM), a synthetic steroid, protects against radiation-induced auditory hair cell (HC) and hearing losses in rats in vivo. METHODS: Seven rats received radiation (12 Gy) to both cochleae...
November 24, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888641/carotid-artery-and-lower-cranial-nerve-exposure-with-increasing-surgical-complexity-to-the-parapharyngeal-space
#4
Ana M Lemos-Rodriguez, Satyan B Sreenath, Rounak B Rawal, Lewis J Overton, Zainab Farzal, Adam M Zanation
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the extent of carotid artery exposure attained, including the identification of the external carotid branches and lower cranial nerves in five sequential external approaches to the parapharyngeal space, and to provide an anatomical algorithm. STUDY DESIGN: Anatomical study. METHODS: Six latex-injected adult cadaver heads were dissected in five consecutive approaches: transcervical approach with submandibular gland removal, posterior extension of the transcervical approach, transcervical approach with parotidectomy, parotidectomy with lateral mandibulotomy, and parotidectomy with mandibulectomy...
November 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888510/tenosynovial-giant-cell-tumors-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-and-lateral-skull-base-review-of-11-cases
#5
Matthew L Carlson, L Mariel Osetinsky, Eran E Alon, Carrie Y Inwards, John I Lane, Eric J Moore
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the clinical behavior, treatment, and outcomes of tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and adjacent temporal bone. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series with histopathologic review. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed identifying and collecting data from all cases of TGCT involving the TMJ and adjacent temporal bone that were treated at the authors' center between January 1960 and December 2015...
November 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888089/quantitative-measurements-of-the-skull-base-and-craniovertebral-junction-in-congenital-occipitalization-of-the-atlas-a-ct-based-anatomical-study
#6
Rui Zong, Yiheng Yin, Guangyu Qiao, Yazhou Jin, Xinguang Yu
BACKGROUND: To study the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and determine the anatomical characteristics of occipitalization of the atlas (OC) by computed tomography imaging. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 80 cases of patients with OC who underwent cervical CT scanning between March 2012 and March 2014. Forty healthy subjects were recruited as a control cohort. Fusion pattern and associated osseous anomalies were recorded. Fifteen linear quantitative parameters were measured to study the outlet of the foramen magnum, angular dimension of the skull base, posterior cranial fossa, and height of the odontoid process...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870353/eye-size-and-set-in-small-bodied-fossil-primates-a-three-dimensional-method
#7
Alfred L Rosenberger, Tim D Smith, Valerie B DeLeon, Anne M Burrows, Robert Schenck, Lauren B Halenar
We introduce a new method to geometrically reconstruct eye volume and placement in small-bodied primates based on the three-dimensional contour of the intraorbital surface. We validate it using seven species of living primates, with dry skulls and wet dissections, and test its application on seven species of Paleogene fossils of interest. The method performs well even when the orbit is damaged and incomplete, lacking the postorbital bar and represented only by the orbital floor. Eye volume is an important quantity for anatomic and metabolic reasons, which due to differences in eye set, or position within (or outside) the bony orbit, can be underestimated in living and fossil forms when calculated from aperture diameter...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857875/dual-endoscopic-endonasal-transsphenoidal-and-precaruncular-transorbital-approaches-for-clipping-of-the-cavernous-carotid-artery-a-cadaveric-simulation
#8
Jeremy Ciporen, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Aclan Dogan, Justin S Cetas, William E Cameron
Background Endoscopic skull base approaches are being used to address complicated neurovascular pathology. These approaches are safest when proximal vascular control of the cavernous carotid artery (CavCA) can be obtained. Methods We present a cadaver-based anatomic simulation study showing the feasibility of clip placement for the CavCA as it courses through the cavernous sinus. The arterial vessels were injected with red microfil (Flow Tech, Carver, Massachusetts) to enhance visibility. The endoscope was directed through a precaruncular transorbital approach and instrumentation was managed through an endonasal transsphenoidal approach...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857789/epidemiology-of-the-neural-tube-defects-in-kashmir-valley
#9
Masood Ahmed Laharwal, Arif Hussain Sarmast, Altaf Umer Ramzan, Abrar Ahad Wani, Nayil Khursheed Malik, Sajad Hussain Arif, Masooma Rizvi
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations affecting the brain and spinal cord and have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic and environmental factors have been found to cause these defects, both individually and in combination. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, types, demographics, risk factors, and other associated anomalies relevant to NTDs in Kashmir Valley. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 2-year hospital-based prospective study was carried out from November 2013 to October 2015...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832006/reconstruction-outcomes-following-lateral-skull-base-resection
#10
Nicholas J Thompson, Joseph P Roche, Nathan M Schularick, Kristi E Chang, Marlan R Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Compare reconstruction outcomes for various lateral skull base closure techniques. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective medical records review. SETTING: University-based tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Patients who underwent resections of tumors involving the lateral skull base requiring reconstruction beyond primary closure. INTERVENTION(S): Reconstructive techniques, from rotational flaps to free tissue transfer...
November 9, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830332/neck-swelling-due-to-skull-base-pseudo-meningocele-protruding-through-a-congenital-skull-base-bone-defect-a-case-report
#11
Rajeev Sharma, Bhoopendra Singh, Shweta Kedia, Rajinder Kumar Laythalling
BACKGROUND: Meningocele is defined as a protrusion of the meninges through an opening in the skull or spinal column, forming a bulge or sac filled with cerebrospinal fluid. A pseudomeningocele is defined as a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection formed due to escape of CSF through a dural defect with trapping of CSF into the surrounding soft tissues. We herby report rare occurrence of a large (pseudo)meningocele in a young patient with congenital skull base defect presenting as upper lateral neck swelling...
November 9, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822356/efficacy-of-pazopanib-and-sunitinib-in-advanced-axial-chordoma-a-single-reference-centre-case-series
#12
Astrid Lipplaa, Sander Dijkstra, Hans Gelderblom
BACKGROUND: Chordomas are rare malignant tumours of the axial skeleton and skull base supposed to arise from cellular remnants of the notochord. These tumours have the potential to metastasize (30-40 %), usually in the later course of the disease. However, the greatest morbidity is usually a result of loco-regional recurrence with infiltration and destruction of surrounding bone and soft tissue. Patients with unresectable or metastatic chordoma are faced with a poor prognosis since cytotoxic chemotherapy or other systemic therapies have not proven their efficacy yet...
2016: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780157/the-geometric-effects-of-a-woodpecker-s-hyoid-apparatus-for-stress-wave-mitigation
#13
Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771110/image-guided-transoral-approach-in-severe-craniovertebral-junction-malformations-at-the-golden-age-of-endoscopy-regarding-2%C3%A2-cases
#14
E Mazerand, N Karmani, L Le Fournier, L Laccourreye, H-D Fournier
INTRODUCTION: The image-guided transoral approach (IGTOA) provides a safe exposure to skull base midline lesions and the ventral aspect of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ). The IGTOA has several advantages: the head being placed in the extended position, it decreases the brainstem angulation during surgery; the approach being done through the avascular median pharyngeal raphe, not only lowers the bleeding risk but also provides a direct access to the bony pathology and granulation tissue accessible only via the ventral route...
October 19, 2016: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767395/endoscopic-endonasal-transclival-resection-of-a-ventral-pontine-cavernous-malformation-technical-case-report
#15
Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Luis Alberto Ortega-Porcayo, Isaac Jair Palacios-Ortíz, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Felipe Eduardo Nares-López, Alfredo Vega-Alarcón
Brainstem cavernous malformations are challenging due to the critical anatomy and potential surgical risks. Anterolateral, lateral, and dorsal surgical approaches provide limited ventral exposure of the brainstem. The authors present a case of a midline ventral pontine cavernous malformation resected through an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach based on minimal brainstem transection, negligible cranial nerve manipulation, and a straightforward trajectory. Technical and reconstruction technique advances in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery provide a direct, safe, and effective corridor to the brainstem...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766473/endoscopic-transnasal-skull-base-surgery-pushing-the-boundaries
#16
Nathan T Zwagerman, Georgios Zenonos, Stefan Lieber, Wei-Hsin Wang, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has significantly evolved since its initial uses in pituitary and sinonasal surgery. The literature is filled with reports and case series demonstrating efficacy and advantages for the entire ventral skull base. With competence in 'minimally invasive' parasellar approaches, larger and more complex approaches were developed to utilize the endonasal corridor to create maximally invasive endoscopic skull base procedures. The challenges of these more complex endoscopic procedures include a long learning curve and navigating in a narrow corridor; reconstruction of defects presented new challenges and early experience revealed a significantly higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755457/posterior-fossa-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-leaks
#17
Cameron C Wick, Daniel E Killeen, Michael Clark, Joe Walter Kutz, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: Describe the diagnosis and management of spontaneous lateral skull base cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks that originate from the posterior fossa. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS: Adult patients from 2005 to 2015 who underwent surgical repair of a spontaneous lateral skull base CSF leak with intraoperative confirmation of a posterior fossa leak source...
October 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731516/transnasal-endoscopically-guided-skull-based-surgery-by-pharyngotomy-for-mass-removal-from-the-sphenopalatine-sinus-in-a-horse
#18
Rolfe M Radcliffe, Yasmine Messiaen, Nita L Irby, Thomas J Divers, Curtis W Dewey, Katharyn J Mitchell, Lauren V Schnabel, Abraham J Bezuidenhout, Peter V Scrivani, Norm G Ducharme
OBJECTIVE: To report a transnasal, endoscopically guided ventral surgical approach for accessing the cranial and caudal segments of the sphenopalatine sinus for mass removal in a horse. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMAL: Adult horse with acute onset blindness referable to a soft tissue mass within the sphenopalatine sinus. CLINICAL REPORT: A 7-year-old Warmblood gelding presented with a history of running into a fence and falling...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729302/unusual-association-between-spontaneous-lateral-sphenoid-encephalocele-and-chiari-malformation-type-i-endoscopic-repair-through-a-transpterygoid-approach
#19
Daniele Starnoni, Roy Thomas Daniel, Mercy George, Mahmoud Messerer
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous meningoencephaloceles of the lateral sphenoid sinus are rare entities and their peculiar location represent a surgical challenge due to the importance of a wide exposure and skull base reconstruction. They are thought to arise from congenital base defect of the lateral sphenoid or in some cases have been postulated to represent a rare manifestation of altered CSF dynamics. We report the first case in literature of a Chiari malformation type I and a lateral sphenoid encephaloceles revising the theoretical etiology and surgical technique of endoscopic repair...
October 8, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729085/chordoma-dedifferentiation-after-proton-beam-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Joseph Frankl, Cassi Grotepas, Baldassare Stea, G Michael Lemole, Alexander Chiu, Rihan Khan
BACKGROUND: Chordoma is a rare invasive bone tumor that may occur anywhere along the neuraxis. A total of three primary histological varieties have been identified: conventional, chondroid, and dedifferentiated. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an 8-year-old white girl who presented with conventional chordoma, was treated with surgical resection and mixed proton and photon beam therapy, and had a recurrence in the resection cavity 2.5 years later with dedifferentiated morphology...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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