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Lateral skull base

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765689/a-new-archaic-baleen-whale-toipahautea-waitaki-early-late-oligocene-new-zealand-and-the-origins-of-crown-mysticeti
#1
Cheng-Hsiu Tsai, R Ewan Fordyce
A new genus and species of extinct baleen whale † Toipahautea waitaki (Late Oligocene, New Zealand) is based on a skull and associated bones, from the lower Kokoamu Greensand, about 27.5 Ma (local upper Whaingaroan Stage, early Chattian). The upper jaw includes a thin, elongate and apparently toothless maxilla, with evidence of arterial supply for baleen. Open sutures with the premaxilla suggest a flexible (kinetic) upper jaw. The blowhole is well forward. The mandible is bowed laterally and slightly dorsally; unlike the Eomysticetidae, there are no mandibular alveoli, and the coronoid process is tapered and curved laterally...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762450/three-dimensional-analysis-of-mandibular-angle-classification-and-aesthetic-evaluation-of-the-lower-face-in-chinese-female-adults
#2
Xiaoyan Mao, Xi Fu, Feng Niu, Ying Chen, Qi Jin, Jia Qiao, Lai Gui
BACKGROUND: Reduction gonioplasty is very popular in East Asia. However, there has been little quantitative criteria for mandibular angle classification or aesthetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the quantitative differences of mandibular angle types and determine the morphologic features of mandibular angle in attractive women. METHODS: We created a database of skull computed tomography and standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 96 Chinese female adults...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762326/temporal-progression-of-craniofacial-dysmorphology-in-unilateral-coronal-synostosis-a-mechanistic-hypothesis
#3
Kirun Baweja, Alexander H Sun, Rajendra Sawh-Martinez, John A Persing
AIM: This study chronicles skull base and face development in nonsyndromic unilateral coronal synostosis (UCS) during infancy, to characterize the mechanistic progression of facial dysmorphology. METHODS: Computed tomography scans from 51 subjects were reviewed (26 UCS, 25 controls) and data were reconstructed. Patients were stratified into 5 age groups. A series of measurements were taken from the reconstructions. RESULTS: All patients had a unilaterally fused coronal suture at the time of analysis...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737743/-clinical-experience-of-resection-for-nasal-skull-base-tumors-by-microsurgical-assisted-technique
#4
Xin Jie Zhu, Zhi Bin Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the application of the microsurgical treatment in nasal skull-base tumors resection. METHODS: In a retrospective study, totally 15 cases with tumors in the nasal skull-base received microsurgical-assisted treatment in our department from February 2012 to June 2017 were analysed. Lateral rhinotomy approach was carried out in 11 patients and posterior wall of the maxillary sinus approach in 4 patients. RESULTS: Tumors of all cases were completely resected under the microscope...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729847/siope-brain-tumor-group-consensus-guideline-on-craniospinal-target-volume-delineation-for-high-precision-radiotherapy
#5
Thankamma Ajithkumar, Gail Horan, Laetitia Padovani, Nicky Thorp, Beate Timmermann, Claire Alapetite, Lorenza Gandola, Monica Ramos, Karen Van Beek, Melissa Christiaens, Yasmin Lassen-Ramshad, Henriette Magelssen, Kristina Nilsson, Frank Saran, Barbara Rombi, Rolf Kortmann, Geert O Janssens
OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus guideline for craniospinal target volume (TV) delineation in children and young adults participating in SIOPE studies in the era of high-precision radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: During four consensus meetings (Cambridge, Essen, Liverpool, and Marseille), conventional field-based TV has been translated into image-guided high-precision craniospinal TV by a group of expert paediatric radiation oncologists and enhanced by MRI images of liquor distribution...
May 2, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722897/mucopolysaccharidosis-vi-and-effects-on-growth-of-the-apical-bases-a-case-report
#6
Moema Ferreira Dos Reis, Lucas Rodrigues Pinheiro, Maria das Graças Rodrigues Pinheiro, Haroldo Amorim de Almeida, Patrícia do Socorro Queiroz Feio, Sâmia Cordovil de Almeida, Isabel Cristina Neves de Souza, Roberto Giugliani, Ida Vanessa Doederlein Schwartz, Rosely Maria Dos Santos Cavaleiro, João de Jesus Viana Pinheiro, Luiz Carlos Santana da Silva
OBJECTIVE: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI is a rare disorder caused by an autosomal recessive mutation in the short arm of chromosome 5 (5q12-13) leading to an N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfatase lysosomal enzyme deficiency and numerous systemic clinical changes. The oral and maxillofacial complex may exhibit tooth eruption anomalies, macroglossia, gingival hypertrophy, mouth breathing, increased lower facial height, open bite, retrognathia, and progressive TMJ arthrosis. This report describes craniofacial growth changes in two MPS VI patients, sisters and daughters of outbred parents, who were longitudinally monitored from 11 to 15 years of age...
May 3, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688804/are-patients-with-spontaneous-csf-otorrhea-and-superior-canal-dehiscence-congenitally-predisposed-to-their-disorders
#7
Shawn M Stevens, Kiefer Hock, Ravi N Samy, Myles L Pensak
Objectives (1) Compare lateral skull base (LSB) height/thickness in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea (CSF), superior canal dehiscence (SCD), acoustic neuromas (AN), and otosclerosis (OTO). (2) Perform correlations between age, body mass index (BMI), sex, and LSB height/thickness. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Patients with CSF, SCD, AN, and OTO diagnosed from 2006 to 2016 were included if they had high-definition temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and absence of trauma, radiation, chronic ear disease, and/or congenital anomaly...
April 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682260/correlation-between-coronal-and-apical-arch-form-and-degree-of-divergence-a-volumetric-computed-tomography-analysis
#8
L Lombardo, F Veronesi, V Candotto, M Nardone, G Siciliani
Purpose: To determine the existence of any correlation between the degree of divergence and apical and coronal arch form using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 176 (88 coronal and 88 apical) CBCT scans pertaining to a sample of 44 subjects (16 males and 28 females), of which 26 were Class I, 14 Class II and 4 Class III, were analysed. A lateral projection of the skull was obtained from each VCT and cephalometric tracing was performed (according to Ricketts) so as to divide the sample into subgroups based on the degree of divergence (11 short-faced, 18 norm-faced and 15 long-faced subjects)...
October 2017: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682061/transcranial-and-epidural-approach-for-spontaneous-cerebrospinal-fluid-leakage-due-to-meningoencephalocele-of-the-lateral-sphenoid-sinus
#9
Ryosuke Shintoku, Masahiko Tosaka, Tatsuya Shimizu, Yuhei Yoshimoto
We experienced a case of sphenoid sinus type meningoencephalocele manifesting as severe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. A 35-year-old man became aware of serous nasal discharge 1 year previously, which had gradually worsened. The nasal discharge was diagnosed as CSF rhinorrhea. Head computed tomography (CT) showed several small depressions in the bone of the left middle cranial fossa, and the largest depression extended through the bone to the lateral sphenoid sinus. Head magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the meningoencephalocele projected to the lateral sphenoid sinus, through this small bone defect of the middle cranial fossa...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676691/defining-the-lateral-limits-of-the-endoscopic-endonasal-transtuberculum-transplanum-approach-anatomical-study-with-pertinent-quantitative-analysis
#10
Alberto Di Somma, Jorge Torales, Luigi Maria Cavallo, Jose Pineda, Domenico Solari, Rosa Maria Gerardi, Federico Frio, Joaquim Enseñat, Alberto Prats-Galino, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECTIVE The extended endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum transplanum approach is currently used for the surgical treatment of selected midline anterior skull base lesions. Nevertheless, the possibility of accessing the lateral aspects of the planum sphenoidale could represent a limitation for such an approach. To the authors' knowledge, a clear definition of the eventual anatomical boundaries has not been delineated. Hence, the present study aimed to detail and quantify the maximum amount of bone removal over the planum sphenoidale required via the endonasal pathway to achieve the most lateral extension of such a corridor and to evaluate the relative surgical freedom...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669134/giant-olfactory-groove-meningioma-2-staged-approach-2-dimensional-operative-video
#11
Alexandre B Todeschini, Mostafa Shahein, Alaa S Montaser, Douglas Hardesty, Bradley A Otto, Ricardo L Carrau, Daniel M Prevedello
A 42-yr-old female presented with an olfactory groove meningioma causing progressive vision loss and anosmia. Given the size of the tumor, we opted for a 2-stage surgery: endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) followed by a craniotomy. Stage I surgery was a transcribriform transplanum EEA using a binostril 4-hand/2 surgeons (ENT and neuro) technique, with the patient positioned supine with the head slightly turned to the right side and tilted to the left, fixed in a 3-pin head clamp, under imaging guidance, in which we drilled out all the affected skull base bone, devascularized and debulked the tumor...
April 16, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668015/skull-shape-and-size-variation-within-and-between-mendocinus-and-torquatus-groups-in-the-genus-ctenomys-rodentia-ctenomyidae-in-chromosomal-polymorphism-context
#12
Rodrigo Fornel, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela, Thales Renato O de Freitas
We tested the association between chromosomal polymorphism and skull shape and size variation in two groups of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys. The hypothesis is based on the premise that chromosomal rearrangements in small populations, as it occurs in Ctenomys, produce reproductive isolation and allow the independent diversification of populations. The mendocinus group has species with low chromosomal diploid number variation (2n=46-48), while species from the torquatus group have a higher karyotype variation (2n=42-70)...
2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660990/novel-radiographic-assessment-of-the-cribriform-plate
#13
Kimia G Ganjaei, Zachary M Soler, Elliott D Mappus, Robert J Taylor, Mitchell L Worley, Jennifer K Mulligan, Jose L Mattos, Nicholas R Rowan, Guilherme J M Garcia, Judy R Dubno, Mark A Eckert, Lois J Matthews, Rodney J Schlosser
Background The cribriform plate (CP) is a common site of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (SCSF) leaks. Radiographic assessment of the anterior and lateral skull base has shown thinner bone in patients with SCSFs; however, prior assessment of the CP has required postmortem cadaver dissection. Objective To develop novel radiographic techniques to assess the anatomy of the CP. Methods Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on cadaveric specimens. Bone density and anatomy of a predefined volume of interest of the posterior CP were assessed by two independent reviewers...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660043/delayed-occipitocervical-instability-with-cranial-settling-after-far-lateral-transcondylar-surgery-for-invasive-skull-base-tumor
#14
Marcus D Mazur, Andrew T Dailey, Lubdha Shah, Jonathan P Scoville, William T Couldwell
BACKGROUND: Occipitocervical instability is a rare but potentially severe complication of a far-lateral transcondylar surgical approach to the skull base. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of clinically significant occipitocervical instability after transcondylar surgery via a far-lateral approach and to determine whether the extent of occipital condyle resection relative to the hypoglossal canal was associated with the development of occipitocervical instability...
April 11, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657933/relationship-between-height-of-ethmoid-skull-base-and-length-of-lateral-lamella-by-sectional-coronal-computed-tomography-scan-before-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#15
Seyyed Mustafa Hashemi, Nezamoddin Berjis, Hamidreza Ebrahimi
Background: Damage to ethmoid skull base (ESB) and lateral lamella (LL) during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) causes penetration into the brain. This study is aimed to determine the relationship between the height of ESB and length of LL by sectional coronal computed tomography (CT) scans before ESS. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients admitted to ENT clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital, filled the consents regarding the use of CT scan stereotype...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657910/anterolateral-triangle-a-cadaveric-study-with-neurosurgical-significance
#16
Andre Granger, Ornella Bricoune, Tina Rajnauth, David Kimball, Heather Kimball, R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas
The anterolateral triangle is one of 10 surgical triangles of the cavernous sinus and serves as an important anatomic landmark for the skull base surgeon. There are few studies in the English literature that have precisely defined and measured the borders of the anterolateral triangle and little agreement has been made regarding the nomenclature within the English literature. A total of 12 midsagittally hemisected adult human cadaveric head halves were dissected to expose the anterolateral triangle. The triangle was defined and measurements of the anterior, posterior, and lateral borders were taken...
February 12, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650453/feasibility-of-real-time-intraoperative-fluorescence-imaging-of-dural-sinus-thrombosis
#17
Laureen D Hachem, Alireza Mansouri, Joseph Chen, Farhad Pirouzmand
Dural sinus thrombosis is a well-recognized and potentially serious complication following lateral skull base surgery. Methods of diagnosis are limited to post-operative computerized tomography scans or magnetic resonance venography. There are currently no reports of an intraoperative technique used to detect dural sinus thrombosis. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who underwent translabyrinthine resection of a right vestibular schwannoma with no evidence of sinus thrombosis on pre-operative scans...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649337/leg-length-skull-circumference-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-in-latin-america-and-china-a-10-66-population-based-cohort-study
#18
Martin J Prince, Daisy Acosta, Mariella Guerra, Yueqin Huang, Ivonne Z Jimenez-Velazquez, Juan J Llibre Rodriguez, Aquiles Salas, Ana Luisa Sosa, Michael E Dewey, Maelenn M Guerchet, Zhaorui Liu, Jorge J Llibre Guerra, A Matthew Prina
BACKGROUND: Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. Cross-sectional studies indicate inverse associations with dementia risk, but there have been few prospective studies. METHODS: Population-based cohort studies in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken, with ascertainment of incident dementia, and mortality, three to five years later...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624668/evolution-of-cranial-telescoping-in-echolocating-whales-cetacea-odontoceti
#19
Morgan Churchill, Jonathan H Geisler, Brian L Beatty, Anjali Goswami
Odontocete (echolocating whale) skulls exhibit extreme posterior displacement and overlapping of facial bones, here referred to as retrograde cranial telescoping. To examine retrograde cranial telescoping across 40 million years of whale evolution, we collected 3D scans of whale skulls spanning odontocete evolution. We used a sliding semilandmark morphometric approach with Procrustes superimposition and PCA to capture and describe the morphological variation present in the facial region, followed by Ancestral Character State Reconstruction (ACSR) and evolutionary model fitting on significant components to determine how retrograde cranial telescoping evolved...
April 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624590/taxonomic-revision-of-the-long-nosed-armadillos-genus-dasypus-linnaeus-1758-mammalia-cingulata
#20
Anderson Feijó, Bruce D Patterson, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela
Dasypus is the most speciose genus of the order Cingulata, including approximately 40% of known living armadillos. Nine species are currently recognized, although comprehensive analyses of the entire genus have never been done. Our aim is to revise the taxonomy of the long-nosed armadillos and properly define the taxa. We examined 2126 specimens of Dasypus preserved in 39 different museum collections, including 17 type specimens. Three complementary methods were applied to explore morphological datasets both qualitatively and quantitatively...
2018: PloS One
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