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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926856/insulin-dependent-activation-of-mch-neurons-impairs-locomotor-activity-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-obesity
#1
A Christine Hausen, Johan Ruud, Hong Jiang, Simon Hess, Hristo Varbanov, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning
Melanin-concentrating-hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons (MCH neurons) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are critical regulators of energy and glucose homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that insulin increases the excitability of these neurons in control mice. In vivo, insulin promotes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in MCH neurons, and cell-type-specific deletion of the insulin receptor (IR) abrogates this response. While lean mice lacking the IR in MCH neurons (IR(ΔMCH)) exhibit no detectable metabolic phenotype under normal diet feeding, they present with improved locomotor activity and insulin sensitivity under high-fat-diet-fed, obese conditions...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923524/the-therapeutic-potential-of-metabolic-hormones-in-the-treatment-of-age-related-cognitive-decline-and-alzheimer-disease
#2
REVIEW
John Grizzanti, Hyoung-Gon Lee, Antoni Camins, Merce Pallas, Gemma Casadesus
Aging leads to a number of physiological alterations, specifically changes in circulating hormone levels, increases in fat deposition, decreases in metabolism, changes in inflammatory responses, and reductions in growth factors. These progressive changes in physiology and metabolism are exacerbated by modern culture and Western diet and give rise to diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (T2D). These age and lifestyle-related metabolic diseases are often accompanied by insulin and leptin resistance, as well as aberrant amylin production and signaling...
November 8, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923219/nonoperative-versus-operative-treatment-of-displaced-ankle-fractures-in-diabetics
#3
Andrew J Lovy, James Dowdell, Aakash Keswani, Steven Koehler, Jaehon Kim, Steven Weinfeld, David Joseph
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for complications related to displaced ankle fractures. Limited literature exists comparing complication rates in nonoperative versus operative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. No study has highlighted the natural history of nonoperative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult ankle fractures from September 2011 through December 2014. Inclusion was limited to ambulatory adults (>18 years) with closed, displaced (widened mortise) ankle fractures with diabetes mellitus...
November 14, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918728/cholesterol-metabolism-in-rabbit-blastocysts-under-maternal-diabetes
#4
S Mareike Pendzialek, Maria Schindler, Torsten Plösch, Jacqueline Gürke, Elisa Haucke, Stefanie Hecht, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
In the rabbit reproductive model, maternal experimentally induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (expIDD) leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in blastocysts. Cholesterol metabolism is a likely candidate to explain such metabolic changes. Therefore, in the present study we analysed maternal and embryonic cholesterol concentrations and expression of related genes in vivo (diabetic model) and in vitro (embryo culture in hyperglycaemic medium). In pregnant expIDD rabbits, the serum composition of lipoprotein subfractions was changed, with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; in uterine fluid, total cholesterol concentrations were elevated...
December 6, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906796/cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-with-celiac-disease-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#5
Amit Assa, Yael Frenkel-Nir, Dorit Tzur, Lior H Katz, Raanan Shamir
BACKGROUND: Recent data have shown that adults with celiac disease (CD) may have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association of CD with CVD risk factors at late adolescence in a cross-sectional population based study. METHODS: A total of 2,001,353 Jewish Israeli adolescents who underwent a general health examination at median age of 17.1y from 1988 to 2015 were included...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903296/factors-affecting-long-term-efficacy-of-t-regulatory-cell-based-therapy-in-type-1-diabetes
#6
Natalia Marek-Trzonkowska, Małgorzata Myśliwiec, Dorota Iwaszkiewicz-Grześ, Mateusz Gliwiński, Ilona Derkowska, Magdalena Żalińska, Maciej Zieliński, Marcelina Grabowska, Hanna Zielińska, Karolina Piekarska, Anna Jaźwińska-Curyłło, Radosław Owczuk, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Krystyna Wyka, Piotr Witkowski, Wojciech Młynarski, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Artur Bossowski, Janusz Siebert, Piotr Trzonkowski
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy using T regulatory cells (Tregs) prolongs remission in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Here, we report factors that possibly affect the efficacy of this treatment. METHODS: The metabolic and immune background of 12 children with recently diagnosed T1DM, as well as that of untreated subjects, during a 2-year follow-up is presented. Patients were treated with up to 30 × 10(6)/kg b.w. of autologous expanded CD3(+)CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) Tregs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903221/in-vitro-generated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-suitable-tools-to-target-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Shruti D Dave, Patel C N, Patel J V, Thakkar U G
A synergy of a pre-accumulated genes with an autoimmunity advancing to slow abolition of pancreatic beta-cells causes insulin deficiency and results enrooting insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). As per WHO data worldwide about 150 million people are diabetic and the number may rise to more than double by the year 2025. Any absolute cure for IDDM is not available yet, and one of the credible advent in the field include cell-based therapy. At this conjecture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seems to have a specific and beneficial characteristics due to their in vivo as well as in vitro potential to mimic a pancreatic endocrine phenotype and immune-regulatory actions...
November 21, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902459/anti-tumor-activity-of-metformin-from-metabolic-and-epigenetic-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Xilan Yu, Wuxiang Mao, Yansheng Zhai, Chong Tong, Min Liu, Lixin Ma, Xiaolan Yu, Shanshan Li
Metformin has been used to treat type 2 diabetes for over 50 years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that metformin treatment reduces cancer incidence in diabetes patients. Due to its potential as an anti-cancer agent and its low cost, metformin has gained intense research interest. Its traditional anti-cancer mechanisms involve both indirect and direct insulin-dependent pathways. Here, we discussed the anti-tumor mechanism of metformin from the aspects of cell metabolism and epigenetic modifications...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898267/combining-treatment-with-myo-inositol-and-d-chiro-inositol-40-1-is-effective-in-restoring-ovary-function-and-metabolic-balance-in-pcos-patients
#9
Giovanni Monastra, Vittorio Unfer, Abdel Halim Harrath, Mariano Bizzarri
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a relevant cause of infertility, is a heterogeneous, endocrine disorder affecting up to 10-15% of women in reproductive age. Besides hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance (IR) plays a key role in such syndrome. Insulin-sensitizing drugs, such as Metformin, are effective in treating hyper-insulinemic PCOS patients. Recently, inositols - myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) - have shown to be an efficient and safe alternative in PCOS management, as both inositol isoforms are able to counteract downstream consequences of insulin resistance...
November 29, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895387/retention-of-acetylcarnitine-in-chronic-kidney-disease-causes-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Yasunori Miyamoto, Teruo Miyazaki, Akira Honda, Homare Shimohata, Kouichi Hirayama, Masaki Kobayashi
Insulin resistance occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the mechanisms of insulin resistance associated with chronic kidney disease are unclear. It is known that an increase in the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (AcCoA)/CoA ratio causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this ratio is regulated by carnitine acetyltransferase that exchanges acetyl moiety between CoA and carnitine. Because excess acetyl moiety of AcCoA is excreted in urine as acetylcarnitine, we hypothesized that retention of acetylcarnitine might be a cause of insulin resistance in chronic kidney disease patients...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892226/an-overview-of-the-management-of-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis
#11
Carolyn C Johnstone
Chronic pancreatitis is a complex inflammatory condition characterised by irreversible damage to the pancreas. This article explores the pathophysiology of this condition and its effects on pancreatic function. It outlines the causes and presenting features of chronic pancreatitis, as well as its effect on patients' quality of life and the changes to their lifestyle that are likely to be required. Chronic pancreatitis cannot be cured; therefore, treatment aims to control pain, manage problems associated with malabsorption, and assess and manage long-term complications that may develop, such as insulin dependence...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891268/a-case-report-describing-a-rare-presentation-of-simultaneous-occurrence-of-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Nathalie Foray, Tamer Hudali, Muralidhar Papireddy, John Gao
Background. Renal-limited myeloperoxidase vasculitis with simultaneous rheumatoid arthritis is reported as a rare occurrence. Review of literature suggests that most patients had a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis for several years prior to presenting with renal failure from myeloperoxidase vasculitis. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old Caucasian male presented to the hospital experiencing malaise, fevers, decreased oral intake, nausea, and vomiting for one week duration. His past medical history consisted of newly diagnosed but untreated rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871509/a-cross-sectional-study-of-preoperative-medication-adherence-and-early-postoperative-recovery
#13
Anthony P Notaras, Elisabeth Demetriou, Jessica Galvin, Erez Ben-Menachem
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact of preoperative medication adherence on recovery length of stays and complication rates. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analytical study. SETTING: Postanesthetic care unit (PACU) of a single-center tertiary hospital. PATIENTS: Surgical patients admitted for surgery at our institution over a 4-month period. INTERVENTION: A data collection tool was used to collect demographic data, length of stay in recovery, prespecified conditions likely to impact on PACU recovery (chronic pain, insulin-dependent diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, on a methadone program, and Parkinson disease), medication compliance, and complications in PACU...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871165/acute-pancreatitis-complicated-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-young-adult-without-hypertriglyceridemia-a-case-report
#14
Jung Hyun Kim, Myung Jin Oh
Systemic complications related to acute pancreatitis include acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin dependent diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis. In practice, the development of diabetic ketoacidosis induced by acute pancreatitis is rare and generally associated with hypertriglyceridemia. However, herein we report a case of a 34-year-old female without hypertriglyceridemia, who was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis complicated with diabetic ketoacidosis...
November 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870552/glycemic-predictors-of-insulin-independence-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-auto-transplantation
#15
Michael Quartuccio, Erica Hall, Vikesh Singh, Martin A Makary, Kenzo Hirose, Niraj Desai, Christi Walsh, Daniel Warren, Zhaoli Sun, Ellen Stein, Rita R Kalyani
CONTEXT: Total pancreatectomy with islet auto transplantation (TPIAT) is a treatment for medically refractory chronic pancreatitis that can prevent postsurgical diabetes in a subset of patients. Predictors of insulin independence are needed for appropriate patient selection and counseling. OBJECTIVE: To explore glycemic predictors of insulin independence after TPIAT. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of patients undergoing TPIAT from 2011-2016...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866134/one-year-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-treated-with-everolimus-eluting-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffolds-versus-everolimus-eluting-metallic-stents-a-propensity-score-comparison-of-patients-enrolled-in-the-absorb-extend-and-spirit-trials
#16
José de Ribamar Costa, Alexandre Abizaid, Antonio L Bartorelli, Robert Whitbourn, Nigel Jepson, Marco Perin, Clemens Steinwender, Marrianne Stuteville, Divine Ediebah, Krishnankutty Sudhir, Patrick W Serruys
AIMS: We sought to compare the outcomes of low/moderate complexity patients treated with the Absorb BVS from the ABSORB EXTEND trial with patients treated with the XIENCE everolimus-eluting stent (EES), using propensity score (PS) matching of pooled data from the SPIRIT trials (SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV) and the XIENCE V USA trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: ABSORB EXTEND was a prospective, single-arm, open-label clinical study in which 812 patients were enrolled at 56 sites...
November 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866130/outcomes-of-stenting-extra-small-%C3%A2-2-25-mm-vessels-using-the-resolute-zotarolimus-eluting-stent-r-zes
#17
Manish A Parikh, Jonathan Soverow, Martin B Leon, Patrick Serruys, Bo Xu, Zuyi Yuan, Robayaah Zambahari, Ajay Kirtane
AIMS: We assessed long-term outcomes in patients with extra-small (XS) (≤2.25 mm) and small vessels (SV) (>2.25-2.75 mm) treated with the Resolute zotarolimus-eluting stent (R-ZES). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from eight studies including patients with XS or SV were pooled for this analysis. Among 2,141 patients (837 XS, 1,304 SV), three-year cumulative major adverse cardiac events (15.4% vs. 11.5%; adj. HR [95% CI]: 1.3 [1.0, 1.7], p=0.12), target lesion failure (12...
November 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856934/range-of-motion-of-diabetic-frozen-shoulder-recovers-to-the-contralateral-level
#18
Heidi Vastamäki, Leena Ristolainen, Martti Vastamäki
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether frozen shoulder heals equally well in patients with and without diabetes and whether dependency on insulin affects the outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 178 patients with idiopathic frozen shoulder; 27 patients had diabetes. We evaluated range of motion, pain, and functional results. The mean follow-up was 9.7 years (SD, 7.1 years). RESULTS: In the presence of frozen shoulder, range of motion did not differ between patients with and without diabetes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849439/liver-proteome-in-diabetes-type-1-rat-model-insulin-dependent-and-independent-changes
#19
Camila Pereira Braga, Cory H T Boone, Ryan A Grove, Dana Adamcova, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Jiri Adamec, Pedro de Magalhães Padilha
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is a major public health problem that continues to burden the healthcare systems worldwide, costing exponentially more as the epidemic grows. Innovative strategies and omics system diagnostics for earlier diagnosis or prognostication of DM1 are essential to prevent secondary complications and alleviate the associated economic burden. In a preclinical study design that involved streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM1, insulin-treated STZ-induced DM1, and control rats, we characterized the insulin-dependent and -independent changes in protein profiles in liver samples...
November 16, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845231/streptozotocin-diabetes-increases-mrna-expression-of-ketogenic-enzymes-in-the-rat-heart
#20
George A Cook, Eduard N Lavrentyev, Kevin Pham, Edwards A Park
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy develops in insulin-dependent diabetic patients who have no hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy or vascular disease. Diabetes increases cardiac fatty acid oxidation, but cardiac hypertrophy limits fatty acid oxidation. Here we examined effects of diabetes on gene expression in rat hearts. METHODS: We used oligonucleotide microarrays to examine effects of insulindependent diabetes in the rat heart. RTQ PCR confirmed results of microarrays...
November 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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