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infectious diseases, HIV, AIDS, infection, tuberculosis

Paul P Cook
The practice of infectious diseases is an ever-changing discipline. Diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis have been with mankind for millennia, whereas conditions such as AIDS and Zika virus are relatively new maladies. A working knowledge of clinical presentations associated with Zika virus infection, syphilis, and common parasitic infections will help the primary care provider determine whom to treat and whom to refer to a specialist. Increasing the use of vaccination for influenza and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection should reduce the burden of these common diseases...
September 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar, Sushma Nagsen Ramraje, Sonali Dhaneshwar Lanjewar
BACKGROUND: The course of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be complicated by a variety of endocrine abnormalities, including abnormalities of thyroid gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed to understand the spectrum of pathology of thyroid in Indian patients with AIDS. The present study describes the findings of retrospective autopsy findings of 158 patients with AIDS which revealed infectious diseases from a time period before the use of highly active antiretroviral regimen...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Josiah D Rich, Curt G Beckwith, Alexandria Macmadu, Brandon D L Marshall, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Joseph J Amon, M-J Milloy, Maximilian R F King, Jorge Sanchez, Lukoye Atwoli, Frederick L Altice
The burden of HIV/AIDS and other transmissible diseases is higher in prison and jail settings than in the non-incarcerated communities that surround them. In this comprehensive review, we discuss available literature on the topic of clinical management of people infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, and tuberculosis in incarcerated settings in addition to co-occurrence of one or more of these infections. Methods such as screening practices and provision of treatment during detainment periods are reviewed to identify the effect of community-based treatment when returning inmates into the general population...
September 10, 2016: Lancet
Caio Mauricio Mendes de Cordova, Caroline Galgowski, Leonardo Lange
Background. Mycoplasmas are known to cause various infections in humans, mainly in the respiratory and urogenital tracts. The different species are usually host-specific and cause diseases in well-defined sites. New species have been isolated, including those from HIV-infected persons. Summary. Its in vitro properties, combined with clinical findings, have led to the hypothesis that these microorganisms may act as cofactors of HIV in AIDS development. Even today this point of view is quite polemic among infectious disease specialists and many aspects remain to be clarified, in contrast to what happens, for instance, with HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
João P Silva, Carine Gonçalves, César Costa, Jeremy Sousa, Rita Silva-Gomes, António G Castro, Jorge Pedrosa, Rui Appelberg, F Miguel Gama
Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, recently joined HIV/AIDS on the top rank of deadliest infectious diseases. Low patient compliance due to the expensive, long-lasting and multi-drug standard therapies often results in treatment failure and emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. In this scope, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) arise as promising candidates for TB treatment. Here we describe the ability of the exogenous AMP LLKKK18 to efficiently kill mycobacteria...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
L Čeledová, R Čevela, M Bosák
AIM: The article features the new medical assessment paradigm for invalidity as a result of infectious disease which is applied as of 1 January 2010. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The invalidity assessment criteria are regulated specifically by Regulation No. 359/2009. Chapter I of the Annexe to the invalidity assessment regulation addresses the area of infectious diseases with respect to functional impairment and its impact on the quality of life. Since 2010, the invalidity has also been newly categorized into three groups...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Nina Mariana, Purwantyastuti, Instiaty, Adria Rusli
AIM: to determine the effect of a rifampicin-containing tuberculosis regimen on efavirenz plasma concentrations and viral load in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients who received efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: plasma efavirenz concentrations and HIV viral load were measured in HIV/AIDS patients treated with 600 mg efavirenz-based antiretroviral for 3 to 6 months and in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients treated with similar antiretroviral regimen plus rifampicin-containing antituberculosis in Sulianti Saroso Infectious disease Hospital, Jakarta...
January 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Jiansong Tang, Wing-Cheong Yam, Zhiwei Chen
Following HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the second most deadly infectious disease in humans. The global TB prevalence has become worse in recent years due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains, as well as co-infection with HIV. Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has nearly been used for a century in many countries, it does not protect adult pulmonary tuberculosis and even causes disseminated BCG disease in HIV-positive population...
May 2016: Tuberculosis
A Abutidze, N Bolokadze, N Chkhartishvili, L Sharvadze, T Tsertsvadze
Treatment of hepatitis C is necessary for ensuring higher life expectancy among HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However antiviral treatment for chronic HCV infection with Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) is associated with a variety of side effects. In Georgia up to 22% of HIV-infected patients were found to have active Tuberculosis (TB) and 22.4 to 32.6% had latent TB. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of tuberculosis in HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and calculate incidence rate of TB...
March 2016: Georgian Medical News
Karuna P Karunakaran, Hong Yu, Leonard J Foster, Robert C Brunham
Vaccines based on humoral immunity alone are unlikely to protect against infections caused by intracellular pathogens and today's most pressing infectious diseases of public health importance are caused by intracellular infections that include tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, and others such as Chlamydia trachomatis. For these infections, vaccines that induce cellular immune responses are essential. Major impediments in developing such vaccines include difficulty in identifying relevant T cell antigens and delivering them in ways that elicit protective cellular immunity...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
(no author information available yet)
In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise 3 drugs, namely, 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and 1 drug from another family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further 6 regimens, which are based on an INSTI, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir (PI/COBI, PI/r), are considered alternatives...
August 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
M G Moskvitcheva, Kitmanova L Yu
The organizational technologies of increasing effectiveness ofdispensarization monitoring of HIV-infected persons are to targeted to development in patients commitment to get medical care. The cohort monitoring of registered patients receiving anti-retrovirus therapy permitted to evaluate effectiveness of organizational model of multi-professional team developing commitment ofpatients to anti-retrovirus therapy in conditions of center ofprevention and struggle with AIDS and infectious diseases. The criteria ofeffectiveness offunctioning ofmulti-professional team are developed and implemented The list of criteria include percentage of patients in cohort with optimal commitment (not lower than 95% of applied dosage of anti-retrovirus pharmaceuticals at 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th and 60th month), percentage ofpatients with achieved effect of anti-retrovirus therapy, percentage of patients proceeding anti-retrovirus therapy...
September 2015: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Jian-Jun Sun, Hong-Zhou Lu
The third edition of Chinese guidelines for AIDS diagnosis and treatment was launched in 2015 by AIDS Professional Group, Society of Infectious Diseases, Chinese Medical Association. New edition emphasizes the importance of timely initiation of anti-retroviral therapy(ART). Like other guidelines, this edition recommends that once the HIV infection is confirmed, the ART should be initiated timely. For patients with HIV and opportunistic infections, once the infections are under control, the ART should be initiated without delay...
November 2015: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
T P Mashamba-Thompson, B Sartorius, L Thabane, C X Shi, P K Drain
INTRODUCTION: Studies indicate substandard diagnostic care, delayed and missed diagnosis as some of the contributing factors to maternal mortality. The clinical impact of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics has been shown in the monitoring and treatment of a variety of infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the impact of POC diagnostics on maternal outcomes for HIV-infected women. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review to evaluate the impact of POC diagnostics for improving desired healthcare outcomes for HIV-infected women...
2016: BMJ Open
Malika Davids, Keertan Dheda, Nitika Pant Pai, Dolphina Cogill, Madhukar Pai, Nora Engel
BACKGROUND: Effective infectious disease control requires early diagnosis and treatment initiation. Point-of-care testing offers rapid turn-around-times, facilitating same day clinical management decisions. To maximize the benefits of such POC testing programs, we need to understand how rapid tests are used in everyday clinical practice. METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey study, 400 primary healthcare providers in two cities in South Africa were interviewed on their use of rapid tests in general, and tuberculosis diagnostic practices, between September 2012 and June 2013...
2015: PloS One
Carolyn Sun, Jennifer Dohrn, Hester Klopper, Address Malata, Grace Omoni, Elaine Larson
BACKGROUND: Because of the profound shortage of nurse and midwifery researchers in many African countries, identification of clinical nursing and midwifery research is of highest priority for the region to improve health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to gain consensus from experts on the priorities of clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries. METHOD: A Delphi survey was conducted among experts in the region...
November 2015: Nursing Research
Renata Báez-Saldaña, Adriana Villafuerte-García, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Ada Melchor-Romero, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Respiratory manifestations of HIV disease differ globally due to differences in current availability of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) programs and epidemiology of infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between HAART and discharge diagnosis and all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with infectious respiratory disease and HIV/AIDS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients hospitalized at a specialty hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2011...
2015: PloS One
An Jiang Wang, Lu Xia Tu, Chen Yu, Xue Lian Zheng, Jun Bo Hong, Nong Hua Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Sintayehu Fekadu, Wondu Teshome, Getnet Alemu
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease that has represented a major health problem over the centuries. The human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS has substantially altered the epidemiology of TB by increasing the risk of reactivating latent TB, increasing chance of TB infection once exposed to tubercle bacilli (re-infection) and by increasing the risk of rapid progression soon after infection. METHODOLOGY: This study employs a retrospective review analysis of patient medical records...
August 2015: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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