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infectious diseases, HIV, AIDS, infection, tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#1
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736507/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#2
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732536/national-mortality-burden-due-to-communicable-non-communicable-and-other-diseases-in-ethiopia-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#3
Awoke Misganaw, Tilahun N Haregu, Kebede Deribe, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Amare Deribew, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw Ferede Abera, Molla Gedefaw, Muluken Dessalegn, Yihunie Lakew, Tolesa Bekele, Mesoud Mohammed, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw, Solomon Abrha Damtew, Kristopher J Krohn, Tom Achoki, Jed Blore, Yibeltal Assefa, Mohsen Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. METHODS: GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries...
July 21, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720173/simultaneous-determination-of-first-line-4-fdc-antituberculosis-drugs-by-uhplc-uv-and-hplc-uv-a-comparative-study
#4
Pedro H C Franco, Paula R Chellini, Marcone A L Oliveira, Gerson A Pianetti
Tuberculosis is the second most deadly infectious disease, surpassed only by HIV/AIDS, and has resulted in over 1 billion deaths in the last 200 years. The World Health Organization estimates that in 2014, 9.6 million people were infected by this disease and 1.5 million had died. First-choice treatment consists of fixed-dose combination tablets containing rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol hydrochloride (4-FDC). There are pharmacopeial protocols available to test 4-FDC, but they are prolonged, two-step methods...
July 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657261/rare-case-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#5
N Marathe, B Canavan
Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial (NTM) infections occur in HIV-negative patients with or without underlying lung disease. It is generally felt that these organisms are acquired from the environment. Unlike tuberculosis, there are no convincing data demonstrating human-to-human OR animal-to-human transmission of NTM. We report a case of NTM infection in a 38 year old patient with underlying emphysematous lung disease. The case highlights the diagnostic dilemma which occurs when persistent sputum Acid- Fast Bacilli (AFB) smears are positive, but Nucleic acid amplification test is negative...
February 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579016/executive-summary-of-the-gesida-national-aids-plan-consensus-document-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-adults-infected-by-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-updated-january-2017
#6
(no author information available yet)
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by HIV-1. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should be based on a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir in either of its two formulations plus emtricitabine or abacavir plus lamivudine) and another drug from a different family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase inhibitor as the third drug (dolutegravir, elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat or raltegravir), are considered preferential, whereas a further 3 regimens (based on elvitegravir/cobicistat, rilpivirine, or darunavir boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir) are considered alternatives...
May 31, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558689/mortality-in-patients-with-hiv-1-and-tuberculosis-co-infection-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-associated-factors-and-causes-of-death
#7
Rodrigo Otavio da Silva Escada, Luciane Velasque, Sayonara Rocha Ribeiro, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Luana Monteiro Spindola Marins, Eduarda Grinsztejn, Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the most frequent opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV in several low and middle-income countries. Mortality rates during tuberculosis treatment and death causes among HIV-1/TB co-infected patients may differ based on the immunosuppression severity, timing of diagnosis and prompt initiation of tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted in the clinical cohort of patients with HIV-1/Aids of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
May 30, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527251/-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-lymphadenopathies
#8
Federico Rodríguez-Vega, Miguel Botero, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ángela Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367350/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-occurring-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
Jose Iglesias, Kandria Jumil Ledesma, Paul J Couto, Jessie Liu
Tuberculosis (TB) occurring in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality usually due to delays in diagnosis, drug toxicity encountered with antimycobacterial therapy, and drug-drug interactions. TB in SOT patients may mimic other infectious and noninfectious posttransplant complications such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a host response resulting in paradoxical worsening of an infectious disease which occurs after the employment of effective therapy and reversal of an immunosuppressed state...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220322/serious-fungal-infections-in-the-philippines
#10
M C R Batac, D Denning
The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Fungal disease surveillance has not been done, and its burden has never been estimated. This becomes more important as the population of immunocompromised patients increases, drawn from patients with AIDS, TB, malignancies, and autoimmune diseases requiring chronic steroid use. Using the methodology of the LIFE program ( www...
June 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
March 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005986/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-reporting-cost-per-daly-averted
#12
REVIEW
Peter J Neumann, Teja Thorat, Yue Zhong, Jordan Anderson, Megan Farquhar, Mark Salem, Eileen Sandberg, Cayla J Saret, Colby Wilkinson, Joshua T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA) Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860197/crispr-cas9-the-ultimate-weapon-to-battle-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
M Doerflinger, W Forsyth, G Ebert, M Pellegrini, M J Herold
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Novel therapeutics are urgently required to treat multidrug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by acute infections such as malaria and dengue fever virus as well as chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, which has revolutionized biomedical research, holds great promise for the identification and validation of novel drug targets...
February 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#14
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824436/tuberculosis-in-poland-in-2014
#15
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2014 in Poland and to compare with the data on the same phenomena in EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drugsusceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2014, data from National Institute of Public Health- NationalInstitute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office ondeaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for DiseasePrevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812090/diagnosis-of-persistent-fever-in-the-tropics-set-of-standard-operating-procedures-used-in-the-nidiag-febrile-syndrome-study
#16
Emilie Alirol, Ninon Seiko Horie, Barbara Barbé, Veerle Lejon, Kristien Verdonck, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs, Philippe Büscher, Basudha Kanal, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Sayda El Safi, Thong Phe, Kruy Lim, Long Leng, Pascal Lutumba, Deby Mukendi, Emmanuel Bottieau, Marleen Boelaert, Suman Rijal, François Chappuis
In resource-limited settings, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers complex [1-5]. Febrile illnesses are diagnosed clinically in most rural centers, and both Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and clinical algorithms can be valuable aids to health workers and facilitate therapeutic decisions [6,7]. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. The NIDIAG clinical research consortium focused on potentially severe and treatable infections and therefore targeted the following conditions as differential diagnosis of persistent fever: visceral leishmaniasis (VL), human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), enteric (typhoid and paratyphoid) fever, brucellosis, melioidosis, leptospirosis, malaria, tuberculosis, amoebic liver abscess, relapsing fever, HIV/AIDS, rickettsiosis, and other infectious diseases (e...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779831/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2014
#17
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621340/what-is-new-in-infectious-diseases
#18
Paul P Cook
The practice of infectious diseases is an ever-changing discipline. Diseases such as syphilis and tuberculosis have been with mankind for millennia, whereas conditions such as AIDS and Zika virus are relatively new maladies. A working knowledge of clinical presentations associated with Zika virus infection, syphilis, and common parasitic infections will help the primary care provider determine whom to treat and whom to refer to a specialist. Increasing the use of vaccination for influenza and pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection should reduce the burden of these common diseases...
September 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525403/-a-pediatric-case-of-hiv-who-diagnosed-by-virtue-of-disseminated-cryptococcus-infection
#19
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510660/pathology-of-thyroid-in-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#20
Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar, Sushma Nagsen Ramraje, Sonali Dhaneshwar Lanjewar
BACKGROUND: The course of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be complicated by a variety of endocrine abnormalities, including abnormalities of thyroid gland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed to understand the spectrum of pathology of thyroid in Indian patients with AIDS. The present study describes the findings of retrospective autopsy findings of 158 patients with AIDS which revealed infectious diseases from a time period before the use of highly active antiretroviral regimen...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
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