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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088011/particulates-and-noise-exposure-during-bicycle-bus-and-car-commuting-a-study-in-three-european-cities
#1
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Taimisto, Arto Pennanen, Ilias Vouitsis, Zissis Samaras, Marita Voogt, Menno Keuken, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. METHODS: We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039182/national-10-year-trend-in-road-injuries-involving-school-children-on-the-way-to-and-from-school-in-japan-2003-2012
#2
Haruhiko Inada, Jun Tomio, Shinji Nakahara, Xin Xu, Ayako Taniguchi, Masao Ichikawa
OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively describe the recent longitudinal trend in road injuries involving school children while commuting to and from school in Japan and to identify groups or situations with particularly large or small decreasing trends. METHODS: Data on the number of children aged 6-15 years who sustained road injuries while commuting were obtained, stratified by year, demographic characteristics, mode of transport and other variables. The rates of killed or seriously injured (KSI) children were calculated from the number of KSI cases (the numerator) and the product of population and the proportion of each mode of transport estimated using the Person Trip Survey data (the denominator)...
December 30, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007633/the-go-actiwe-randomized-controlled-trial-an-interdisciplinary-study-designed-to-investigate-the-health-effects-of-active-commuting-and-leisure-time-physical-activity
#3
Mads Rosenkilde, Martin Bæk Petersen, Anne Sofie Gram, Jonas Salling Quist, Jonas Winther, Simon Due Kamronn, Desirée Hornbæk Milling, Jakob Eg Larsen, Astrid Pernille Jespersen, Bente Stallknecht
Regular physical activity is efficacious for improving metabolic health in overweight and obese individuals, yet, many adults lead sedentary lives. Most exercise interventions have targeted leisure time, but physical activity also takes place in other domains of everyday life. Active commuting represents a promising alternative to increase physical activity, but it has yet to be established whether active commuting conveys health benefits on par with leisure time physical activity (LTPA). A 6-month randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of increased physical activity in transport (bicycling) or leisure time domains (moderate or vigorous intensity endurance exercise)...
December 19, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992590/statistical-analysis-of-bus-networks-in-india
#4
Atanu Chatterjee, Manju Manohar, Gitakrishnan Ramadurai
In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986862/demographic-factors-workplace-factors-and-active-transportation-use-in-the-usa-a-secondary-analysis-of-2009-nhts-data
#5
Tyler D Quinn, John M Jakicic, Carl I Fertman, Bethany Barone Gibbs
BACKGROUND: While active transportation has health, economic and environmental benefits, participation within the USA is low. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships of demographic and workplace factors with health-enhancing active transportation and commuting. METHODS: Participants in the 2009 National Household Travel Survey reported demographics, workplace factors (time/distance to work, flextime availability, option to work from home and work start time) and active transportation (for any purpose) or commuting (to and from work, workers only) as walking or biking (≥10 min bouts only)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924739/active-commuting-to-school-in-finland-the-potential-for-physical-activity-increase-in-different-seasons
#6
Jouni Kallio, Salla Turpeinen, Harto Hakonen, Tuija Tammelin
BACKGROUND: Active commuting to school (ACS) can be a significant source of physical activity and provide many health benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study identified the potential to increase physical activity levels by promoting ACS in Finnish schools and evaluated the effects of season, distance and age on ACS. DESIGN: Data were collected with a questionnaire from 5,107 students, aged 10-16, in 45 comprehensive schools in Finland. The distance and the mode of transport to school in different seasons were self-reported...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894803/evaluating-the-impacts-of-the-clean-cities-program
#7
Shiyong Qiu, Nikhil Kaza
The Department of Energy's Clean Cities program was created in 1993 to reduce petroleum usage in the transportation sector. The program promotes alternative fuels such as biofuels and fuel-saving strategies such as idle reduction and fleet management through coalitions of local government, non-profit, and private actors. Few studies have evaluated the impact of the program because of its complexity that include interrelated strategies of grants, education and training and diversity of participants. This paper uses a Difference-in-Differences (DiD) approach to evaluate the effectiveness of the program between 1990 and 2010...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878483/fine-particulate-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-vehicles-in-rome-italy
#8
Paola Romagnoli, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Nunziata L'Episcopo, Claudio Gariazzo, Maria Pia Gatto, Andrea Gordiani, Monica Gherardi
Urban commuters are exposed to elevated levels of air pollutants, especially in heavily polluted areas and traffic congested roads. In order to assess the contribution of commuting to citizens' exposure, measurements of fine particulate (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out in cars, busses, and metro trains, within the LIFE+ EXPAH Project. Monitoring campaigns were performed in Rome, Italy, from April 2011 to August 2012. Inside the busses, the concentration of total PAHs ranged from 2...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848721/results-from-malaysia-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-adolescents
#9
Razinah Sharif, Kar Hau Chong, Nur Hadiyani Zakaria, Min Li Ong, John J Reilly, Jyh Eiin Wong, Hazizi Abu Saad, Bee Koon Poh
BACKGROUND: The 2016 Malaysia Active Healthy Kids Report Card aims to collect, assess, and grade current and comprehensive data on physical activity (PA) and associated factors in Malaysian children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years. METHODS: This report card was developed following the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card protocol. The Research Working Group identified the core matrices, assessed the key data sources, and evaluated the evidence gathered for grade assignments...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799235/bicycling-to-work-and-primordial-prevention-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-cohort-study-among-swedish-men-and-women
#10
Anders Grøntved, Robert W Koivula, Ingegerd Johansson, Patrik Wennberg, Lars Østergaard, Göran Hallmans, Frida Renström, Paul W Franks
BACKGROUND: Bicycling to work may be a viable approach for achieving physical activity that provides cardiovascular health benefits. In this study we investigated the relationship of bicycling to work with incidence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance across a decade of follow-up in middle-aged men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 23 732 Swedish men and women with a mean age of 43.5 years at baseline who attended a health examination twice during a 10-year period (1990-2011)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752309/socio-demographic-personal-environmental-and-behavioral-correlates-of-different-modes-of-transportation-to-work-among-norwegian-parents
#11
Oline Anita Bjørkelund, Hanna Degerud, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748215/do-neighbourhoods-in-vancouver-and-surrounding-areas-demonstrate-different-rates-of-bystander-cpr-and-survival-for-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#12
David Barbic, Brian Klinkenberg, Brian Grunau, Jim Christenson
OBJECTIVE: No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747747/association-of-the-safe-routes-to-school-program-with-school-age-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-injury-risk-in-texas
#13
Charles DiMaggio, Joanne Brady, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) is a federally funded transportation program for facilitating physically active commuting to and from school in children through improvements of the built environment, such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and safe crossings. Although it is evident that SRTS programs increase walking and bicycling in school-age children, their impact on pedestrian and bicyclist injury has not been adequately examined. METHODS: We analyzed quarterly traffic crash data between January 2008 and June 2013 in Texas to assess the effect of the SRTS program implemented after 2009 on school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injuries...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734826/leisure-time-and-commuting-physical-activity-and-high-blood-pressure-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#14
C Treff, I M Benseñor, P A Lotufo
This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726996/end-of-life-in-the-railway-sector-analysis-of-recyclability-and-recoverability-for-different-vehicle-case-studies
#15
Massimo Delogu, Francesco Del Pero, Lorenzo Berzi, Marco Pierini, Davide Bonaffini
The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693862/how-do-the-definitions-of-urban-and-rural-matter-for-transportation-safety-re-interpreting-transportation-fatalities-as-an-outcome-of-regional-development-processes
#16
Carolyn McAndrews, Kirsten Beyer, Clare E Guse, Peter Layde
Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their integration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistently demonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investigates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three different definitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates per person-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin...
December 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687789/bioaerosols-in-the-barcelona-subway-system
#17
X Triadó-Margarit, M Veillette, C Duchaine, M Talbot, F Amato, M C Minguillón, V Martins, E de Miguel, E O Casamayor, T Moreno
Subway systems worldwide transport more than 100 million people daily, therefore air quality on station platforms and inside trains is an important urban air pollution issue. We examined the microbiological composition and abundance in space and time of bioaerosols collected in the Barcelona subway system during a cold period. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, influenza A and B and rhinoviruses. Multitag 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess bacterial community composition and biodiversity...
September 30, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679969/enhanced-recycling-network-for-spent-e-bicycle-batteries-a-case-study-in-xuzhou-china
#18
Fu Chen, Baodan Yang, Wangyuan Zhang, Jing Ma, Jie Lv, Yongjun Yang
Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries...
September 24, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660744/associations-between-long-commutes-and-subjective-health-complaints-among-railway-workers-in-norway
#19
Terhi Urhonen, Arve Lie, Geir Aamodt
Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632357/association-between-user-generated-commuting-data-and-population-representative-active-commuting-surveillance-data-four-cities-2014-2015
#20
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Emily N Ussery, Brian Riordan, Arthur M Wendel
Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users...
September 16, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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