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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124104/built-environment-and-active-commuting-rural-urban-differences-in-the-u-s
#1
Jessie X Fan, Ming Wen, Neng Wan
The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121096/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-while-commuting-an-examination-of-six-transport-modes-on-an-urban-arterial-roadway
#2
Robert A Chaney, Chantel D Sloan, Victoria C Cooper, Daniel R Robinson, Nathan R Hendrickson, Tyler A McCord, James D Johnston
Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108441/driven-to-support-individual-and-county-level-factors-associated-with-public-support-for-active-transportation-policies
#3
Angie L Cradock, Jessica L Barrett, Jamie F Chriqui, Kelly R Evenson, Karin Valentine Goins, Jeanette Gustat, Katie M Heinrich, Cynthia K Perry, Michele Scanze, Thomas L Schmid, Rachel G Tabak, M Renee Umstattd Meyer, Cheryl Valko
PURPOSE: To assess predictors of stated support for policies promoting physically active transportation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: US counties selected on county-level physical activity and obesity health status. PARTICIPANTS: Participants completing random-digit dialed telephone survey (n = 906). MEASURES: Survey measures assessed stated support for 5 policies to promote physically active transportation, access to active transportation facilities, and time spent in a car...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099044/impact-of-distance-on-mode-of-active-commuting-in-chilean-children-and-adolescents
#4
Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Carlos Celis-Morales, Danica Escobar-Gómez, Palma Chillón
Active commuting could contribute to increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to characterise patterns of active commuting to and from schools in children and adolescents in Chile. A total of 453 Chilean children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years were included in this study. Data regarding modes of commuting and commuting distance was collected using a validated questionnaire. Commuting mode was classified as active commuting (walking and/or cycling) or non-active commuting (car, motorcycle and/or bus)...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079981/commuter-exposure-to-black-carbon-particles-on-diesel-buses-on-bicycles-and-on-foot-a-case-study-in-a-brazilian-city
#5
Admir Créso Targino, Marcos Vinicius C Rodrigues, Patricia Krecl, Yago Alonso Cipoli, João Paulo M Ribeiro
Commuting in urban environments accounts for a large fraction of the daily dose of inhaled air pollutants, especially in countries where vehicles have old technologies or run on dirty fuels. We measured black carbon (BC) concentrations during bus, walk and bicycle commutes in a Brazilian city and found a large spatial variability across the surveyed area, with median values between 2.5 and 12.0 μg m(-3). Traffic volume on roadways (especially the number of heavy-duty diesel vehicles), self-pollution from the bus tailpipe, number of stops along the route and displacement speed were the main drivers of air pollution on the buses...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036781/transport-on-prescription-how-can-gps-contribute-to-the-promotion-of-active-transport
#6
Chance Pistoll, John Furler
BACKGROUND: Active transport (ie walking, cycling, using public transport) can play a part in reducing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Very little is known about how general practitioners (GPs) can contribute to promoting active transport. We explored GPs' ideas around active transport, and potential barriers and facilitators to its promotion in the clinical setting. METHODS: Using a maximal variation sample, we conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with GPs in Victoria, Australia...
October 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034171/does-exposure-to-new-transport-infrastructure-result-in-modal-shifts-patterns-of-change-in-commute-mode-choices-in-a-four-year-quasi-experimental-cohort-study
#7
Eva Heinen, Amelia Harshfield, Jenna Panter, Roger Mackett, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Intervention studies suggest that changing the built environment may encourage a modal shift from car travel towards active travel. However, little is known about the detail of patterns of changes in travel behaviour. METHOD: Adult commuters working in Cambridge (UK) completed annual questionnaires between 2009 and 2012. Commuting was assessed using a validated seven-day travel-to-work record. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in 2011...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026267/control-of-reaction-diffusion-equations-on-time-evolving-manifolds
#8
Francesco Rossi, Nastassia Pouradier Duteil, Nir Yakoby, Benedetto Piccoli
Among the main actors of organism development there are morphogens, which are signaling molecules diffusing in the developing organism and acting on cells to produce local responses. Growth is thus determined by the distribution of such signal. Meanwhile, the diffusion of the signal is itself affected by the changes in shape and size of the organism. In other words, there is a complete coupling between the diffusion of the signal and the change of the shapes. In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model to investigate such coupling...
December 2016: Proceedings of the ... IEEE Conference on Decision & Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993882/commuter-exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particulate-matter-in-vienna
#9
Georg Strasser, Stefan Hiebaum, Manfred Neuberger
Mass concentrations PM10, PM2.5, PM1, particle number concentrations of ultrafine particles and lung deposited surface area were measured during commutes with a subway, tram, bus, car and bicycle in Vienna for the first time. Obtained data were examined for significant differences in personal exposure when using various transport modalities along similar routes. Mean PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to buses. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to cars using low ventilation settings...
October 9, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993386/patterns-and-correlates-of-active-commuting-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-cross-sectional-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#10
Catherine L Falconer, Ashley R Cooper, Ellen Flint
OBJECTIVES: To describe the active commuting (AC) patterns of adults with type 2 diabetes and how these relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour in UK Biobank. Social and environmental correlates of AC will also be explored. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. SETTINGS: This is a population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 37 and 73 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974051/distance-duration-and-velocity-in-cycle-commuting-analyses-of-relations-and-determinants-of-velocity
#11
Peter Schantz
Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose. Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832850/changes-in-commuting-to-work-and-physical-activity-in-the-population-of-three-municipalities-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-region-in-2000-and-2010
#12
Josivaldo de Souza Lima, Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Tatiane Kosimenko Ferrari, Timóteo Leandro Araujo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo
Objective: To evaluate the changes in commuting to work and physical activity (PA) in the population of three municipalities in the São Paulo region in 2000 and 2010. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 602 adults (62.3% men) carried out in the municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul in 2000 (n = 304; 66.1% men) and 2010 (n = 298; 58.4% men). Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and participants were classified into active (≥ 150 min/week) and insufficiently active (< 150 min/week)...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832826/-study-of-perceptions-regarding-health-in-people-who-use-bicycles-as-a-means-of-transport
#13
Mario Jordi
In recent years, the development of specific promotion policies in some Spanish cities has led to increased use of bicycles as a means of transport. In the case of the city of Seville, bicycle commuting within the metropolitan area has gone from being quantitatively insignificant to amounting to more than 6% of the modal share. Based in ethnographic research carried out in the region of Andalucía between 2013 and 2015, implementing interviews, focus groups and participatory forums in which 320 adults took part, this article analyzes from a sociocultural point of view perceptions about the health of those who use bicycles as a means of transportation and evidences some challenges that need to be faced in promoting bicycle transportation in the city...
April 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831371/effect-of-weather-on-pedestrian-trip-count-and-duration-city-scale-evaluations-using-mobile-phone-application-data
#14
Anthony P Vanky, Santosh K Verma, Theodore K Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti
We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of seasonality...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809754/associations-of-built-environment-and-children-s-physical-activity-a-narrative-review
#15
Houshmand E Masoumi
PROBLEM: Childhood obesity has been an epidemic particularly in high-income countries. There is a considerable volume of data and studies depicting the rising number of obese children and adolescents in different countries. As suggested by the literature, physical inactivity is one the main drivers of childhood obesity. This paper addresses the associations of the built environment with physical activity of children in order to find to theoretically facilitate intervention and prevention measures...
August 15, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720799/reduced-ultrafine-particle-levels-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-s-atmosphere-during-shifts-from-gasoline-to-ethanol-use
#16
Alberto Salvo, Joel Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Franz M Geiger
Despite ethanol's penetration into urban transportation, observational evidence quantifying the consequence for the atmospheric particulate burden during actual, not hypothetical, fuel-fleet shifts, has been lacking. Here we analyze aerosol, meteorological, traffic, and consumer behavior data and find, empirically, that ambient number concentrations of 7-100-nm diameter particles rise by one-third during the morning commute when higher ethanol prices induce 2 million drivers in the real-world megacity of São Paulo to substitute to gasoline use (95% confidence intervals: +4,154 to +13,272 cm(-3))...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699010/chemical-characterization-of-size-segregated-pm-from-different-public-transport-modes-and-implications-of-source-specific-contribution-to-public-exposure
#17
Sabrina Yanan Jiang, Nirmal Kumar Gali, Fenhuan Yang, Junke Zhang, Zhi Ning
To investigate the chemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in different public transport microenvironments in Hong Kong, the coarse (2.5-10 μm) and fine (<2.5 μm) PM samples were collected in three different types of transport modes including Mass Transit Railway (MTR)-Aboveground (AG), MTR Underground (UG), and Bus routes from October 2013 to April 2014. Average PM2.5 concentrations through UG, AG, and Bus routes were 47.9, 86.8, and 43.8 μg m(-3), respectively, whereas the coarse PM concentrations were 4-5 folds less...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679793/light-oiling-of-feathers-increases-flight-energy-expenditure-in-a-migratory-shorebird
#18
Ivan Maggini, Lisa V Kennedy, Alexander Macmillan, Kyle H Elliott, Karen Dean, Christopher G Guglielmo
Flying birds depend on their feathers to undertake most activities, and maintain them in peak condition through periodic molt and frequent preening. Even small exposures to crude oil reduce the integrity of feathers, and could impair flight performance. We trained wild western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) to perform endurance flights in a wind tunnel, and used magnetic resonance body composition analysis to measure energy expenditure after birds were exposed to weathered MC252 crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651798/cycling-to-school-and-body-composition-physical-fitness-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Antonio García-Hermoso, Cesar Agostinis-Sobrinho, Jorge Mota, Rute Santos, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Deisy Constanza Amaya-Tambo, Emilio Villa-González
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cycling to/from school and body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome among a sample of Colombian children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: During the 2014-2015 school year, we examined a cross-sectional component of the Association for muscular strength with early manifestation of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Colombian children and adolescents (FUPRECOL) study. Participants included 2877 youths (54...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651166/air-quality-inside-subway-metro-indoor-environment-worldwide-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Bin Xu, Jinliang Hao
The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environment International
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