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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894803/evaluating-the-impacts-of-the-clean-cities-program
#1
Shiyong Qiu, Nikhil Kaza
The Department of Energy's Clean Cities program was created in 1993 to reduce petroleum usage in the transportation sector. The program promotes alternative fuels such as biofuels and fuel-saving strategies such as idle reduction and fleet management through coalitions of local government, non-profit, and private actors. Few studies have evaluated the impact of the program because of its complexity that include interrelated strategies of grants, education and training and diversity of participants. This paper uses a Difference-in-Differences (DiD) approach to evaluate the effectiveness of the program between 1990 and 2010...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878483/fine-particulate-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-vehicles-in-rome-italy
#2
Paola Romagnoli, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Nunziata L'Episcopo, Claudio Gariazzo, Maria Pia Gatto, Andrea Gordiani, Monica Gherardi
Urban commuters are exposed to elevated levels of air pollutants, especially in heavily polluted areas and traffic congested roads. In order to assess the contribution of commuting to citizens' exposure, measurements of fine particulate (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out in cars, busses, and metro trains, within the LIFE+ EXPAH Project. Monitoring campaigns were performed in Rome, Italy, from April 2011 to August 2012. Inside the busses, the concentration of total PAHs ranged from 2...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848721/results-from-malaysia-s-2016-report-card-on-physical-activity-for-children-and-adolescents
#3
Razinah Sharif, Kar Hau Chong, Nur Hadiyani Zakaria, Min Li Ong, John J Reilly, Jyh Eiin Wong, Hazizi Abu Saad, Bee Koon Poh
BACKGROUND: The 2016 Malaysia Active Healthy Kids Report Card aims to collect, assess, and grade current and comprehensive data on physical activity (PA) and associated factors in Malaysian children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years. METHODS: This report card was developed following the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card protocol. The Research Working Group identified the core matrices, assessed the key data sources, and evaluated the evidence gathered for grade assignments...
November 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799235/bicycling-to-work-and-primordial-prevention-of-cardiovascular-risk-a-cohort-study-among-swedish-men-and-women
#4
Anders Grøntved, Robert W Koivula, Ingegerd Johansson, Patrik Wennberg, Lars Østergaard, Göran Hallmans, Frida Renström, Paul W Franks
BACKGROUND: Bicycling to work may be a viable approach for achieving physical activity that provides cardiovascular health benefits. In this study we investigated the relationship of bicycling to work with incidence of obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired glucose tolerance across a decade of follow-up in middle-aged men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 23 732 Swedish men and women with a mean age of 43.5 years at baseline who attended a health examination twice during a 10-year period (1990-2011)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752309/socio-demographic-personal-environmental-and-behavioral-correlates-of-different-modes-of-transportation-to-work-among-norwegian-parents
#5
Oline Anita Bjørkelund, Hanna Degerud, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748215/do-neighbourhoods-in-vancouver-and-surrounding-areas-demonstrate-different-rates-of-bystander-cpr-and-survival-for-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#6
David Barbic, Brian Klinkenberg, Brian Grunau, Jim Christenson
OBJECTIVE: No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747747/association-of-the-safe-routes-to-school-program-with-school-age-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-injury-risk-in-texas
#7
Charles DiMaggio, Joanne Brady, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) is a federally funded transportation program for facilitating physically active commuting to and from school in children through improvements of the built environment, such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and safe crossings. Although it is evident that SRTS programs increase walking and bicycling in school-age children, their impact on pedestrian and bicyclist injury has not been adequately examined. METHODS: We analyzed quarterly traffic crash data between January 2008 and June 2013 in Texas to assess the effect of the SRTS program implemented after 2009 on school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injuries...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734826/leisure-time-and-commuting-physical-activity-and-high-blood-pressure-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#8
C Treff, I M Benseñor, P A Lotufo
This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726996/end-of-life-in-the-railway-sector-analysis-of-recyclability-and-recoverability-for-different-vehicle-case-studies
#9
Massimo Delogu, Francesco Del Pero, Lorenzo Berzi, Marco Pierini, Davide Bonaffini
The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693862/how-do-the-definitions-of-urban-and-rural-matter-for-transportation-safety-re-interpreting-transportation-fatalities-as-an-outcome-of-regional-development-processes
#10
Carolyn McAndrews, Kirsten Beyer, Clare E Guse, Peter Layde
Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their integration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistently demonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investigates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three different definitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates per person-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin...
September 28, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687789/bioaerosols-in-the-barcelona-subway-system
#11
X Triadó-Margarit, M Veillette, C Duchaine, M Talbot, F Amato, M C Minguillón, V Martins, E de Miguel, E O Casamayor, T Moreno
Subway systems worldwide transport more than 100 million people daily, therefore air quality on station platforms and inside trains is an important urban air pollution issue. We examined the microbiological composition and abundance in space and time of bioaerosols collected in the Barcelona subway system during a cold period. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, influenza A and B and rhinoviruses. Multitag 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess bacterial community composition and biodiversity...
September 30, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679969/enhanced-recycling-network-for-spent-e-bicycle-batteries-a-case-study-in-xuzhou-china
#12
Fu Chen, Baodan Yang, Wangyuan Zhang, Jing Ma, Jie Lv, Yongjun Yang
Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries...
September 24, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660744/associations-between-long-commutes-and-subjective-health-complaints-among-railway-workers-in-norway
#13
Terhi Urhonen, Arve Lie, Geir Aamodt
Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632357/association-between-user-generated-commuting-data-and-population-representative-active-commuting-surveillance-data-four-cities-2014-2015
#14
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Emily N Ussery, Brian Riordan, Arthur M Wendel
Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609301/ecological-analysis-of-parking-prices-and-active-commuting-in-us-cities-2009
#15
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Arthur M Wendel, Amy H Auchincloss
We conducted an ecological study to determine whether parking prices are associated with active commuting across US cities. We obtained parking prices for 107 US cities from the Drexel University Central Business District Public Parking Survey, obtained city prevalence of walking and bicycling to work from the American Community Survey, and used weighted least squares linear regression to explore associations between parking prices and active commuting. After adjusting for several covariates, walking to work was 3...
September 8, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535570/health-risk-assessment-and-personal-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-in-metro-carriages-a-case-study-in-shanghai-china
#16
Yu Gong, Yijie Wei, Jinghui Cheng, Tianyao Jiang, Ling Chen, Bin Xu
Air pollution in transportation cabins has recently become a public concern. However, few studies assessed the exposure levels of suspected air pollutants including Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). This paper studied the exposure levels of in-carriage VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and acrolein) in Shanghai, China and estimated the health risk in different conditions. The results indicated that VOCs concentrations in metro carriages varied from different train models, due to the difference in carriage size and ventilation system...
August 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534360/challenges-and-successes-in-the-application-of-universal-access-principles-in-the-development-of-bus-rapid-transport-sytems-in-south-africa
#17
Phillip Thompson
The National Department of Transport started a programme to upgrade public transport systems throughout South Africa in 2008, which included the upgrading of transport systems for host cities of the 2010 World Cup. This was the first time there was a clear commitment to produce universally accessible public transport systems in South Africa. The requirement to achieve universal access was reinforced by National Treasuries stipulation, that universal access was a precondition for the approval of all funding for these projects...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516181/the-contribution-of-travel-related-urban-zones-cycling-and-pedestrian-networks-and-green-space-to-commuting-physical-activity-among-adults-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study-using-geographical-information-systems
#18
Tomi E Mäki-Opas, Katja Borodulin, Heli Valkeinen, Sari Stenholm, Anton E Kunst, Thomas Abel, Tommi Härkänen, Leena Kopperoinen, Pekka Itkonen, Ritva Prättälä, Sakari Karvonen, Seppo Koskinen
BACKGROUND: The current political agenda aims to promote active environments and physical activity while commuting to work, but research on it has provided mixed results. This study examines whether the proximity of green space and people's residence in different travel-related urban zones contributes to commuting physical activity. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional health examination survey, Health 2011 study, and geographical information system (GIS) data were utilized...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506819/association-between-perceived-neighbourhood-characteristics-physical-activity-and-diet-quality-results-of-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#19
Dóra Chor, Letícia Oliveira Cardoso, Aline Araújo Nobre, Rosane Härter Griep, Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca, Luana Giatti, Isabela Bensenor, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Estela M L Aquino, Ana Diez-Roux, Débora de Pina Castiglione, Simone M Santos
BACKGROUND: The study explores associations between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality, which in Latin America and Brazil have been scarcely studied and with inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14,749 individuals who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The study included current and retired civil servants, aged between 35 and 74 years, from universities and research institutes in six Brazilian states...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504603/trauma-in-veterans-with-substance-use-disorder-similar-treatment-need-among-urban-and-rural-residents
#20
Lance Brendan Young, Christine Timko, Kimberly A Tyler, Kathleen M Grant
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine whether rural residence is associated with trauma exposure or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among military veterans seeking treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Delivering mental health services to veterans in rural areas is a challenge, so identifying differences in the causes and outcomes of trauma exposure would assist in effectively targeting service delivery. METHODS: Veterans (N = 196) entering SUD treatment at 3 Midwestern VA treatment centers were designated as either urban or rural, based on rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
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