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commuting, transportation

Jenna Panter, Oliver Mytton, Stephen Sharp, Søren Brage, Steven Cummins, Anthony A Laverty, Katrien Wijndaele, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between using alternatives to the car which are more active for commuting and non-commuting purposes, and morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study using data from 3 58 799 participants, aged 37-73 years, from UK Biobank. Commute and non-commute travel were assessed at baseline in 2006-2010. We classified participants according to whether they relied exclusively on the car or used alternative modes of transport that were more active at least some of the time...
May 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Stephen J Mooney, Caroline Magee, Kolena Dang, Julie C Leonard, Jingzhen Yang, Frederick P Rivara, Beth E Ebel, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, D Alex Quistberg
"Complete Streets" policies require transportation engineers to make provisions for pedestrians, cyclists and transit users. These policies may make bicycling safer for individual cyclists while increasing overall bicycle fatalities if more individuals cycle due to improved infrastructure. We merged county-level records of Complete Streets policies with Fatality Analysis Reporting System counts of cyclist fatalities occurring between January 2000 and December 2015. Because comprehensive county cycling estimates were not available, we used bicycle commute estimates from the American Community Survey and US Census as a proxy for the cycling population, and limited analysis to 183 counties (accounting for over half the US population) for which cycle commute estimates were consistently non-zero...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Malbor Asllani, Timoteo Carletti
The network of interactions in complex systems strongly influences their resilience and the system capability to resist external perturbations or structural damages and to promptly recover thereafter. The phenomenon manifests itself in different domains, e.g., parasitic species invasion in ecosystems or cascade failures in human-made networks. Understanding the topological features of the networks that affect the resilience phenomenon remains a challenging goal for the design of robust complex systems. We hereby introduce the concept of non-normal networks, namely networks whose adjacency matrices are non-normal, propose a generating model, and show that such a feature can drastically change the global dynamics through an amplification of the system response to exogenous disturbances and eventually impact the system resilience...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Hyeran Jeong, Donguk Park
The objectives of this study were to examine characteristics of peak concentrations, including frequency, duration, and relative magnitude, and estimate its contributions to overall daily exposure to BC by activity and microenvironment. We assessed daily personal exposures from August 2015 to January 2016 (75.2% of weekdays and 24.8% of weekend days; 64.1% of school days and 35.9% of holidays) among forty 10-12 years old children living in the Seoul metropolitan area. These children were equipped with a microaethalometer (BC monitor) and recorded a time-activity diary...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yi Lu, Guibo Sun, Chinmoy Sarkar, Zhonghua Gou, Yang Xiao
Hong Kong is a densely populated and transit-oriented Chinese city, which provides an ideal urban environment with which to study the various successful facets of land use policy as a model for potential replication to curb increasing car use in other Chinese cities. We examine the commuting mode choice of 203,900 households living in 4768 street blocks in Hong Kong from 2011 census. A street block is the smallest planning unit, made up of one or more housing estates with a homogenous built environment and socioeconomic status...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rahul Goel, Leandro M T Garcia, Anna Goodman, Rob Johnson, Rachel Aldred, Manoradhan Murugesan, Soren Brage, Kavi Bhalla, James Woodcock
BACKGROUND: Street imagery is a promising and growing big data source providing current and historical images in more than 100 countries. Studies have reported using this data to audit road infrastructure and other built environment features. Here we explore a novel application, using Google Street View (GSV) to predict travel patterns at the city level. METHODS: We sampled 34 cities in Great Britain. In each city, we accessed 2000 GSV images from 1000 random locations...
2018: PloS One
Chris Rissel, Melanie Crane, Chris Standen, Li Ming Wen, Richard Ellison, Stephen Greaves
OBJECTIVE: To describe the degree of community support - and factors associated with this support - for a number of potential transport policy options among an inner-city sample of residents in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: This study analysed data collected from a cross-sectional online survey: Wave 3 of the Sydney Transport and Health Study, conducted in September-October 2015 (n=418). RESULTS: There was a high level of overall support for policies to make public transport cheaper (85%), have more bicycle paths separated from motor vehicles (82%) and have a public bike-share program (72%), with similar levels of support across usual commute mode, age and sex...
April 26, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Amanda Maria Carvalho, Patricia Krecl, Admir Créso Targino
Black carbon (BC) is a fraction of airborne PM2.5 emitted by combustion, causing deleterious effects on human health. Due to its abundance in cities, assessing personal exposure to BC is of utmost importance. Personal exposure and dose of six couples with different working routines were determined for 48 h based on 1-min mobile BC measurements and on ambient concentrations monitored simultaneously at home (outdoor) and at a suburban site. Although couples spent on average ~ 10 h together at home, the routine of each individual in other microenvironments led to 3-55% discrepancies in exposure between partners...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yi Xu, Jiangnan He, Senlin Lin, Bo Zhang, Jianfeng Zhu, Serge Resnikoff, Lina Lu, Haidong Zou
BACKGROUND: It was reported that lack of knowledge, less confidence of medical services, commute difficulties, and poor economic conditions would be the main barriers for cataract surgery practice. The influencing factors could have changed in cities with high developing speed. Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in China and the world. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing cataract surgery practice in Shanghai. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Craig S Knott, Jenna Panter, Louise Foley, David Ogilvie
Although commuting provides an opportunity for incorporating physical activity into daily routines, little is known about the effect of active commuting upon depressive symptoms. This study aimed to determine whether changes in commute mode are associated with differences in the severity of depressive symptoms in working adults. Commuters were selected from the UK Biobank cohort if they completed ≥2 assessment centre visits between 2006 and 2016. Modes of travel to work were self-reported at each visit. Participants were categorised as 'inactive' (car only) or 'active' commuters (any other mode(s), including walking, cycling and public transport)...
March 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Simone Tengattini, Alexander York Bigazzi
This study investigates the rolling and drag resistance parameters and bicycle and cargo masses of typical urban cyclists. These factors are important for modelling of cyclist speed, power and energy expenditure, with applications including exercise performance, health and safety assessments and transportation network analysis. However, representative values for diverse urban travellers have not been established. Resistance parameters were measured utilizing a field coast-down test for 557 intercepted cyclists in Vancouver, Canada...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Emilio Villa-González, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Kelly R Evenson, Palma Chillón
Active commuting to school has been recognized as a potential avenue to increase physical activity in children and adolescents. However, active commuting to school has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The main aim in the current study was to update a previous systematic review on interventions focused on active travel to school, following the same methodology and addressing the quality and effectiveness of new studies detected in the more recent scientific literature. A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active commuting to school published from February 2010 to December 2016...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine
Wasif Raza, Bertil Forsberg, Christer Johansson, Johan Nilsson Sommar
BACKGROUND: Promotion of active commuting provides substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents, and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on a mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated health impacts with varying validity and precision. OBJECTIVE: To review and discuss the estimation of air pollution exposure and its impacts in health impact assessment studies of a shift in transport from cars to bicycles in order to guide future assessments...
2018: Global Health Action
Teresa Moreno, Eladio de Miguel
This article comments on the current reality of particulate matter (PM) concentrations breathed by commuters on subway train platforms and considers what can be done to improve air quality underground. We propose the introduction of a targeted, color-coded approach to the problem, based on the methodology of the World Health Organisation and designed to encourage transport authorities to aim for progressive PM reductions. The method defines thresholds that cascade down through bands of decreasing PM concentrations towards the ideal WHO Air Quality Guideline of PM2...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Audrey Giocanti-Aurégan, Elige Chbat, Adil Darugar, Christophe Morel, Bruno Morin, John Conrath, François Devin
BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of unstudied societal factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on functional outcomes after anti-VEGFs. METHODS: Charts of 94 nAMD patients treated in the Monticelli-Paradis Centre, Marseille, France, were reviewed. Phone interviews were conducted to assess societal factors, including transportation, living status, daily reading and social security scheme (SSS). Primary outcome was the impact of family support and disease burden on functional improvement in nAMD...
February 1, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Aidan Yuen, Carla Martins Rocha, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant
OBJECTIVE: Advances in geospatial technologies have recognized the role of geographic distance as a barrier to healthcare accessibility. Frequent transportation is supposed to buffer issues with distance, while infrequent services impede the uptake of care. The role of public transportation on the accessibility of health care-including oral health care-is not well elucidated in the context of megacities, such as the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. This study aimed to compare the supply of public transportation to primary dental clinics and the population between advantaged and disadvantaged areas in São Paulo city...
January 29, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Rahul Goel
Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes...
March 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Alexander A Ganin, Maksim Kitsak, Dayton Marchese, Jeffrey M Keisler, Thomas Seager, Igor Linkov
Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under normal conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic support for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. In this effort, we represent paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links...
December 2017: Science Advances
Magda Cepeda, Josje Schoufour, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Chantal M Koolhaas, Klodian Dhana, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro])...
January 2017: Lancet. Public Health
Daniel Foster
It has been well-established that social determinants prevent far more deaths than medical care. Both behavior and social circumstance are closely linked to transportation. The connection between health and transportation is both direct (pedestrian injury, for example) and indirect (commuting access to work leading to employer-based health insurance, for example). Thus, transportation policy and health policy are interrelated. Neurologists should join community partnerships to promote safe and healthy transportation options for all people but especially for their patients...
August 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
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