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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329015/modelling-of-road-traffic-fatalities-in-india
#1
Rahul Goel
Passenger modes in India include walking, cycling, buses, trains, intermediate public transport modes (IPT) such as three-wheeled auto rickshaws or tuk-tuks, motorised two-wheelers (2W) as well as cars. However, epidemiological studies of traffic crashes in India have been limited in their approach to account for the exposure of these road users. In 2011, for the first time, census in India reported travel distance and mode of travel for workers. A Poisson-lognormal mixture regression model is developed at the state level to explore the relationship of road deaths of all the road users with commute travel distance by different on-road modes...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291243/resilience-and-efficiency-in-transportation-networks
#2
Alexander A Ganin, Maksim Kitsak, Dayton Marchese, Jeffrey M Keisler, Thomas Seager, Igor Linkov
Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under normal conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic support for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. In this effort, we represent paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249477/levels-of-ambient-air-pollution-according-to-mode-of-transport-a-systematic-review
#3
Magda Cepeda, Josje Schoufour, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Chantal M Koolhaas, Klodian Dhana, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro])...
January 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185553/neurologists-should-endorse-active-transportation-for-their-patients
#4
Daniel Foster
It has been well-established that social determinants prevent far more deaths than medical care. Both behavior and social circumstance are closely linked to transportation. The connection between health and transportation is both direct (pedestrian injury, for example) and indirect (commuting access to work leading to employer-based health insurance, for example). Thus, transportation policy and health policy are interrelated. Neurologists should join community partnerships to promote safe and healthy transportation options for all people but especially for their patients...
August 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166946/noise-exposure-while-commuting-in-toronto-a-study-of-personal-and-public-transportation-in-toronto
#5
Christopher M K L Yao, Andrew K Ma, Sharon L Cushing, Vincent Y W Lin
BACKGROUND: With an increasing proportion of the population living in cities, mass transportation has been rapidly expanding to facilitate the demand, yet there is a concern that mass transit has the potential to result in excessive exposure to noise, and subsequently noise-induced hearing loss. METHODS: Noise dosimetry was used to measure time-integrated noise levels in a representative sample of the Toronto Mass Transit system (subway, streetcar, and buses) both aboard moving transit vehicles and on boarding platforms from April - August 2016...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124104/built-environment-and-active-commuting-rural-urban-differences-in-the-u-s
#6
Jessie X Fan, Ming Wen, Neng Wan
The purpose of this research was to investigate rural-urban differences in participation rates in three modes of active commuting (AC) and their built environmental correlates. The 2010 Census supplemented with other datasets were used to analyze AC rates in percent of workers age 16+ walking, biking, or taking public transportation to work in 70,172 Census tracts, including 12,844 rural and 57,328 urban. Random-intercept factional logit regressions were used to account for zero-inflated data and for clustering of tracts within counties...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121096/personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-while-commuting-an-examination-of-six-transport-modes-on-an-urban-arterial-roadway
#7
Robert A Chaney, Chantel D Sloan, Victoria C Cooper, Daniel R Robinson, Nathan R Hendrickson, Tyler A McCord, James D Johnston
Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108441/driven-to-support-individual-and-county-level-factors-associated-with-public-support-for-active-transportation-policies
#8
Angie L Cradock, Jessica L Barrett, Jamie F Chriqui, Kelly R Evenson, Karin Valentine Goins, Jeanette Gustat, Katie M Heinrich, Cynthia K Perry, Michele Scanze, Thomas L Schmid, Rachel G Tabak, M Renee Umstattd Meyer, Cheryl Valko
PURPOSE: To assess predictors of stated support for policies promoting physically active transportation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: US counties selected on county-level physical activity and obesity health status. PARTICIPANTS: Participants completing random-digit dialed telephone survey (n = 906). MEASURES: Survey measures assessed stated support for 5 policies to promote physically active transportation, access to active transportation facilities, and time spent in a car...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099044/impact-of-distance-on-mode-of-active-commuting-in-chilean-children-and-adolescents
#9
Fernando Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos Cristi-Montero, Carlos Celis-Morales, Danica Escobar-Gómez, Palma Chillón
Active commuting could contribute to increasing physical activity. The objective of this study was to characterise patterns of active commuting to and from schools in children and adolescents in Chile. A total of 453 Chilean children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years were included in this study. Data regarding modes of commuting and commuting distance was collected using a validated questionnaire. Commuting mode was classified as active commuting (walking and/or cycling) or non-active commuting (car, motorcycle and/or bus)...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079981/commuter-exposure-to-black-carbon-particles-on-diesel-buses-on-bicycles-and-on-foot-a-case-study-in-a-brazilian-city
#10
Admir Créso Targino, Marcos Vinicius C Rodrigues, Patricia Krecl, Yago Alonso Cipoli, João Paulo M Ribeiro
Commuting in urban environments accounts for a large fraction of the daily dose of inhaled air pollutants, especially in countries where vehicles have old technologies or run on dirty fuels. We measured black carbon (BC) concentrations during bus, walk and bicycle commutes in a Brazilian city and found a large spatial variability across the surveyed area, with median values between 2.5 and 12.0 μg m(-3). Traffic volume on roadways (especially the number of heavy-duty diesel vehicles), self-pollution from the bus tailpipe, number of stops along the route and displacement speed were the main drivers of air pollution on the buses...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036781/transport-on-prescription-how-can-gps-contribute-to-the-promotion-of-active-transport
#11
Chance Pistoll, John Furler
BACKGROUND: Active transport (ie walking, cycling, using public transport) can play a part in reducing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Very little is known about how general practitioners (GPs) can contribute to promoting active transport. We explored GPs' ideas around active transport, and potential barriers and facilitators to its promotion in the clinical setting. METHODS: Using a maximal variation sample, we conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with GPs in Victoria, Australia...
October 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034171/does-exposure-to-new-transport-infrastructure-result-in-modal-shifts-patterns-of-change-in-commute-mode-choices-in-a-four-year-quasi-experimental-cohort-study
#12
Eva Heinen, Amelia Harshfield, Jenna Panter, Roger Mackett, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Intervention studies suggest that changing the built environment may encourage a modal shift from car travel towards active travel. However, little is known about the detail of patterns of changes in travel behaviour. METHOD: Adult commuters working in Cambridge (UK) completed annual questionnaires between 2009 and 2012. Commuting was assessed using a validated seven-day travel-to-work record. The intervention consisted of the opening of a guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in 2011...
September 2017: Journal of Transport & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026267/control-of-reaction-diffusion-equations-on-time-evolving-manifolds
#13
Francesco Rossi, Nastassia Pouradier Duteil, Nir Yakoby, Benedetto Piccoli
Among the main actors of organism development there are morphogens, which are signaling molecules diffusing in the developing organism and acting on cells to produce local responses. Growth is thus determined by the distribution of such signal. Meanwhile, the diffusion of the signal is itself affected by the changes in shape and size of the organism. In other words, there is a complete coupling between the diffusion of the signal and the change of the shapes. In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model to investigate such coupling...
December 2016: Proceedings of the ... IEEE Conference on Decision & Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993882/commuter-exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particulate-matter-in-vienna
#14
Georg Strasser, Stefan Hiebaum, Manfred Neuberger
Mass concentrations PM10, PM2.5, PM1, particle number concentrations of ultrafine particles and lung deposited surface area were measured during commutes with a subway, tram, bus, car and bicycle in Vienna for the first time. Obtained data were examined for significant differences in personal exposure when using various transport modalities along similar routes. Mean PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to buses. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to cars using low ventilation settings...
October 9, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993386/patterns-and-correlates-of-active-commuting-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-cross-sectional-evidence-from-uk-biobank
#15
Catherine L Falconer, Ashley R Cooper, Ellen Flint
OBJECTIVES: To describe the active commuting (AC) patterns of adults with type 2 diabetes and how these relate to physical activity and sedentary behaviour in UK Biobank. Social and environmental correlates of AC will also be explored. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study. SETTINGS: This is a population cohort of over 500 000 people recruited from 22 centres across the UK. Participants aged between 37 and 73 years were recruited between 2006 and 2010...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974051/distance-duration-and-velocity-in-cycle-commuting-analyses-of-relations-and-determinants-of-velocity
#16
Peter Schantz
Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose. Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832850/changes-in-commuting-to-work-and-physical-activity-in-the-population-of-three-municipalities-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-region-in-2000-and-2010
#17
Josivaldo de Souza Lima, Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Tatiane Kosimenko Ferrari, Timóteo Leandro Araujo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo
Objective: To evaluate the changes in commuting to work and physical activity (PA) in the population of three municipalities in the São Paulo region in 2000 and 2010. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 602 adults (62.3% men) carried out in the municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul in 2000 (n = 304; 66.1% men) and 2010 (n = 298; 58.4% men). Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and participants were classified into active (≥ 150 min/week) and insufficiently active (< 150 min/week)...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832826/-study-of-perceptions-regarding-health-in-people-who-use-bicycles-as-a-means-of-transport
#18
Mario Jordi
In recent years, the development of specific promotion policies in some Spanish cities has led to increased use of bicycles as a means of transport. In the case of the city of Seville, bicycle commuting within the metropolitan area has gone from being quantitatively insignificant to amounting to more than 6% of the modal share. Based in ethnographic research carried out in the region of Andalucía between 2013 and 2015, implementing interviews, focus groups and participatory forums in which 320 adults took part, this article analyzes from a sociocultural point of view perceptions about the health of those who use bicycles as a means of transportation and evidences some challenges that need to be faced in promoting bicycle transportation in the city...
April 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831371/effect-of-weather-on-pedestrian-trip-count-and-duration-city-scale-evaluations-using-mobile-phone-application-data
#19
Anthony P Vanky, Santosh K Verma, Theodore K Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti
We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of seasonality...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809754/associations-of-built-environment-and-children-s-physical-activity-a-narrative-review
#20
Houshmand E Masoumi
PROBLEM: Childhood obesity has been an epidemic particularly in high-income countries. There is a considerable volume of data and studies depicting the rising number of obese children and adolescents in different countries. As suggested by the literature, physical inactivity is one the main drivers of childhood obesity. This paper addresses the associations of the built environment with physical activity of children in order to find to theoretically facilitate intervention and prevention measures...
August 15, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
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