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commuting, transportation

Oline Anita Bjørkelund, Hanna Degerud, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
David Barbic, Brian Klinkenberg, Brian Grunau, Jim Christenson
OBJECTIVE: No prior work exists examining the relation between the geographic distribution of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas that may exhibit a clustering of cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution of OHCA within the Vancouver Coastal Health region using a geographic information system (GIS) analysis and appropriate statistical analyses. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc GIS-based analysis of OHCA patients in the city of Vancouver and surrounding areas, using data collected by the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium between September 2007 and December 2011...
October 17, 2016: CJEM
Charles DiMaggio, Joanne Brady, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Safe Routes to School (SRTS) is a federally funded transportation program for facilitating physically active commuting to and from school in children through improvements of the built environment, such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and safe crossings. Although it is evident that SRTS programs increase walking and bicycling in school-age children, their impact on pedestrian and bicyclist injury has not been adequately examined. METHODS: We analyzed quarterly traffic crash data between January 2008 and June 2013 in Texas to assess the effect of the SRTS program implemented after 2009 on school-age pedestrian and bicyclist injuries...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
C Treff, I M Benseñor, P A Lotufo
This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
Massimo Delogu, Francesco Del Pero, Lorenzo Berzi, Marco Pierini, Davide Bonaffini
The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles...
October 7, 2016: Waste Management
Carolyn McAndrews, Kirsten Beyer, Clare E Guse, Peter Layde
Urban and rural places are integrated through economic ties and population flows. Despite their integration, most studies of road safety dichotomize urban and rural places, and studies have consistently demonstrated that rural places are more dangerous for motorists than urban places. Our study investigates whether these findings are sensitive to the definition of urban and rural. We use three different definitions of urban-rural continua to quantify and compare motor vehicle occupant fatality rates per person-trip and person-mile for the state of Wisconsin...
September 28, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
X Triadó-Margarit, M Veillette, C Duchaine, M Talbot, F Amato, M C Minguillón, V Martins, E de Miguel, E O Casamayor, T Moreno
Subway systems worldwide transport more than 100 million people daily, therefore air quality on station platforms and inside trains is an important urban air pollution issue. We examined the microbiological composition and abundance in space and time of bioaerosols collected in the Barcelona subway system during a cold period. Quantitative PCR was used to quantify total bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus, influenza A and B and rhinoviruses. Multitag 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess bacterial community composition and biodiversity...
September 30, 2016: Indoor Air
Fu Chen, Baodan Yang, Wangyuan Zhang, Jing Ma, Jie Lv, Yongjun Yang
Electric bicycles (e-bicycles) are a primary means of commuting in China because of their light weight, speed, and low maintenance costs. Owing to short service life and environmental pollution hazards, recycling and reuse of e-bicycle batteries has always been a focus of industry and academia. As a typical case of both production and use of large electric bicycles, 113 major sellers, 378 corporate and individual buyers, 147 large e-bicycle repair centers, and 1317 e-bicycle owners in Xuzhou City were investigated in order to understand the sales, use, recycling, and disposal of spent e-bicycle batteries...
September 24, 2016: Waste Management
Terhi Urhonen, Arve Lie, Geir Aamodt
Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Emily N Ussery, Brian Riordan, Arthur M Wendel
Creating environments that support all types of physical activity, including active transportation, is a public health priority (1). Public health surveillance that identifies the locations where community members walk and bicycle (i.e., engage in active transportation) can inform such efforts. Traditional population-representative active transportation surveillance incurs a considerable time lag between data collection and dissemination, and often lacks geographic specificity (2). Conversely, user-generated active transportation data from Global Positioning System (GPS)-based activity tracking devices and mobile applications can provide near real-time information, but might be subject to self-selection bias among users...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Arthur M Wendel, Amy H Auchincloss
We conducted an ecological study to determine whether parking prices are associated with active commuting across US cities. We obtained parking prices for 107 US cities from the Drexel University Central Business District Public Parking Survey, obtained city prevalence of walking and bicycling to work from the American Community Survey, and used weighted least squares linear regression to explore associations between parking prices and active commuting. After adjusting for several covariates, walking to work was 3...
September 8, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Yu Gong, Yijie Wei, Jinghui Cheng, Tianyao Jiang, Ling Chen, Bin Xu
Air pollution in transportation cabins has recently become a public concern. However, few studies assessed the exposure levels of suspected air pollutants including Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). This paper studied the exposure levels of in-carriage VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and acrolein) in Shanghai, China and estimated the health risk in different conditions. The results indicated that VOCs concentrations in metro carriages varied from different train models, due to the difference in carriage size and ventilation system...
August 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Phillip Thompson
The National Department of Transport started a programme to upgrade public transport systems throughout South Africa in 2008, which included the upgrading of transport systems for host cities of the 2010 World Cup. This was the first time there was a clear commitment to produce universally accessible public transport systems in South Africa. The requirement to achieve universal access was reinforced by National Treasuries stipulation, that universal access was a precondition for the approval of all funding for these projects...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Tomi E Mäki-Opas, Katja Borodulin, Heli Valkeinen, Sari Stenholm, Anton E Kunst, Thomas Abel, Tommi Härkänen, Leena Kopperoinen, Pekka Itkonen, Ritva Prättälä, Sakari Karvonen, Seppo Koskinen
BACKGROUND: The current political agenda aims to promote active environments and physical activity while commuting to work, but research on it has provided mixed results. This study examines whether the proximity of green space and people's residence in different travel-related urban zones contributes to commuting physical activity. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional health examination survey, Health 2011 study, and geographical information system (GIS) data were utilized...
2016: BMC Public Health
Dóra Chor, Letícia Oliveira Cardoso, Aline Araújo Nobre, Rosane Härter Griep, Maria de Jesus Mendes Fonseca, Luana Giatti, Isabela Bensenor, Maria Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Estela M L Aquino, Ana Diez-Roux, Débora de Pina Castiglione, Simone M Santos
BACKGROUND: The study explores associations between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality, which in Latin America and Brazil have been scarcely studied and with inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14,749 individuals who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The study included current and retired civil servants, aged between 35 and 74 years, from universities and research institutes in six Brazilian states...
2016: BMC Public Health
Lance Brendan Young, Christine Timko, Kimberly A Tyler, Kathleen M Grant
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine whether rural residence is associated with trauma exposure or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among military veterans seeking treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Delivering mental health services to veterans in rural areas is a challenge, so identifying differences in the causes and outcomes of trauma exposure would assist in effectively targeting service delivery. METHODS: Veterans (N = 196) entering SUD treatment at 3 Midwestern VA treatment centers were designated as either urban or rural, based on rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Laura Alessandretti, Márton Karsai, Laetitia Gauvin
Multimodal transportation systems, with several coexisting services like bus, tram and metro, can be represented as time-resolved multilayer networks where the different transportation modes connecting the same set of nodes are associated with distinct network layers. Their quantitative description became possible recently due to openly accessible datasets describing the geo-localized transportation dynamics of large urban areas. Advancements call for novel analytics, which combines earlier established methods and exploits the inherent complexity of the data...
July 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Eduardo Graells-Garrido, Oscar Peredo, José García
Mobile data has allowed us to sense urban dynamics at scales and granularities not known before, helping urban planners to cope with urban growth. A frequently used kind of dataset are Call Detail Records (CDR), used by telecommunication operators for billing purposes. Being an already extracted and processed dataset, it is inexpensive and reliable. A common assumption with respect to geography when working with CDR data is that the position of a device is the same as the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) it is connected to...
2016: Sensors
Marissa Zwald, Amy Eyler, Karin Valentine Goins, Stephenie C Lemon
PURPOSE: To investigate individual- and city-level factors associated with municipal officials' participation in a local land use policy that supports active living. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Eighty-three cities in eight states. SUBJECTS: Four hundred thirteen elected and appointed officials with various job functions including mayors, city councilors, aldermen, selectmen, city or town managers, and heads of departments of planning, community development, public works, transportation, engineering, parks and recreation, neighborhood services, and public health...
March 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
James C Liljegren, David F Brown, Melissa M Lunden, David Silcott
Following the release of an aerosolized biological agent in a transit venue, material deposited on waiting passengers and subsequently shed from their clothing may significantly magnify the scope and consequences of such an attack. Published estimates of the relevant particle deposition and resuspension parameters for complex indoor environments such as a transit facility are nonexistent. In this study, measurements of particle deposition velocity onto cotton fabric samples affixed to stationary and walking people in a large multimodal transit facility were obtained for tracer particle releases carried out as part of a larger study of subway airflows and particulate transport...
July 2016: Health Security
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