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Roberto Barcala-Furelos, Cristian Abelairas-Gomez, Jose Palacios-Aguilar, Ezequiel Rey, Javier Costas-Veiga, Sergio Lopez-Garcia, Antonio Rodriguez-Nunez
PURPOSE: Drowning is a high-priority public health problem around the world. The European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 put special emphasis on special environments like open waters. Stopping the drowning process as soon as possible and starting an early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improve survival. Inflatable rescue boats (IRBs) are used around the world in the water rescue of drowning victims. Our objective was to test the quality of CPR performed by surf-lifeguards while sailing on an IRB...
January 27, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
A Claesson, L Svensson, P Nordberg, M Ringh, M Rosenqvist, T Djarv, J Samuelsson, O Hernborg, P Dahlbom, A Jansson, J Hollenberg
BACKGROUND: Drowning leading to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and death is a major public health concern. Submersion with duration of less than 10min is associated with favorable neurological outcome and nearby bystanders play a considerable role in rescue and resuscitation. Drones can provide a visual overview of an accident scene, their potential as lifesaving tools in drowning has not been evaluated. AIM: The aim of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a drone for providing earlier location of a submerged possible drowning victim in comparison with standard procedure...
January 18, 2017: Resuscitation
P G M'Angale, B E Staveley
Lifeguard is an integral transmembrane protein that modulates FasL-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the activation of caspase 8. It is evolutionarily conserved, with homologues present in plants, nematodes, zebra fish, frog, chicken, mouse, monkey, and human. The Lifeguard homologue in Drosophila, CG3814, contains the Bax inhibitor-1 family motif of unknown function. Downregulation of Lifeguard disrupts cellular homeostasis and disease by sensitizing neurons to FasL-mediated apoptosis. We used bioinformatic analyses to identify CG3814, a putative homologue of Lifeguard, and knocked down CG3814/LFG expression under the control of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc-Gal4) transgene in Drosophila melanogaster neurons to investigate whether it possesses neuroprotective activity...
December 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ana Sousa, Ricardo J Fernandes, Núria Rodríguez, J Arturo Abraldes
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after a drowning episode is performed under fatigue conditions. However, the characterization of CPR in this context is still unknown. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of a 100-m simulated in-water rescue on CPR and physiological parameters in trained certified lifeguards. METHODS: Thirty trained certified lifeguards (age 24.6 ± 3.8 yrs; height 178.2 ± 7.4 cm and weight 76.9 ± 10.6 kg) completed two protocols using an adult manikin: (i) 4-min CPR after 4-min baseline conditions (CPR), and (ii) 4-min CPR after a 100-m simulated in-water rescue in the sea (CPR Rescue), both with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2...
December 5, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
Élie Vignac, Pascal Lebihain, Bastien Soulé
To prevent drowning incidents in French public swimming pools (PSP), bathing must be constantly supervised by qualified lifeguards. However, fatal drownings regularly occurs in supervised aquatic facilities, calling into question the efficacy of the supervision chain. The aim of this research is to fully assess the periods during which supervision is not carried out, or carried out in an inadequate manner. The observations made in 108 French PSP show that constant supervision, as stipulated by regulations, represents only half of the time...
July 18, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Rachel J Marchalik, Suraj Venna
An 87-year-old man presented for treatment of a stye on his left upper eyelid. Despite conservative interventions, the stye had persisted and the skin had become noticeably darker over several weeks (Panels A and B). He reported itching but no pain or bleeding. His risk factors for skin cancer..
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Masood Ali Shaikh
Karachi Municipal Corporation's Emergency Response Center's lifeguards save drowning individuals, recover dead bodies of drowned individuals, and provide first aid care to injured victims of near-drowning and road traffic accidents on the road along the various beaches.Cumulatively302 drowning and near-drowning 302 incidents were recorded from 2012 to 2014, with 291 (96.3%) incidents involving males. One hundred ninety-six (64.9%) individuals were saved from drowning, out of which 116 (59.2%) were saved on Sundays, followed by 31 (15...
May 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Daniel Radin, Arnold Lippa, Parth Patel, Donna Leonardi
Triple-negative breast cancer does not express estrogen receptor-α, progesterone or the HER2 receptor making hormone or antibody therapy ineffective. Cisplatin may initiate p73-dependent apoptosis in p53 mutant cell lines through Fas trimerization and Caspase-8 activation and Bax up regulation and subsequent Caspase-9 activation. The triple-negative breast cancer, MDA-MB-231, overexpresses the protein Lifeguard, which inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Caspase-8 activation after Fas trimerization...
February 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Roberto Barcala-Furelos, David Szpilman, Jose Palacios-Aguilar, Javier Costas-Veiga, Cristian Abelairas-Gomez, Antonio Bores-Cerezal, Sergio López-García, Antonio Rodríguez-Nuñez
PURPOSE: The whole drowning process usually occurs within seconds to a few minutes. An early rescue may stop and/or prevent most medical complications. Fins, rescue tube, and rescue board (RB) are the equipment most frequently used by lifeguards. Our objective was to compare, in a water rescue quasiexperimental trial, these different pieces of rescue equipment to define the safest and with the lower rescue time as well as to assess their effects on the lifeguards' physiological state and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance...
March 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jose A Prieto, Paloma Nistal, David Méndez, Cristian Abelairas-Gomez, Roberto Barcala-Furelos
INTRODUCTION: The strong physical demands that are required of lifeguards during rescues also require an accurate self-perception of one's fitness level to be able to regulate the intensity of effort. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the real aerobic capacity (RAC) and to compare it with two self-reported measurements: subjective appraisal of aerobic capacity (SAAC) and appraisal of physical exercise (APE). METHODS: Fifty-two professional lifeguards were included in the study...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Jorge Urresti, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, Elena Coccia, Juan Carlos Arévalo, José Castellano, Celia Fernández-Sanz, Koen M O Galenkamp, Laura Planells-Ferrer, Rana S Moubarak, Núria Llecha-Cano, Stéphanie Reix, David García-Dorado, Bruna Barneda-Zahonero, Joan X Comella
Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Lifeguard (LFG) is a death receptor antagonist mainly expressed in the nervous system that specifically blocks Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis. To investigate its mechanism of action, we studied its subcellular localization and its interaction with members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. We performed an analysis of LFG subcellular localization in murine cortical neurons and found that LFG localizes mainly to the ER and Golgi...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tatiana Hurtado de Mendoza, Fei Liu, Inder M Verma
Anti-apoptotic protein Lifeguard (LFG) is upregulated on T cells upon in vitro activation. To investigate its role in T cell immunity we infected wild type and LFG knockout bone marrow chimaeras mice with LCMV. We observed a decreased number of LFG KO activated CD8 and CD4 T cells throughout the infection and a marked decrease in LFG KO LCMV specific memory T cells. WT and KO T cells proliferated at the same rate, however, LFG KO CD44(hi) T cells showed increased cell death during the initial phase of the immune response...
2015: PloS One
Dawn A Shively, Meredith B Nevers, Cathy Breitenbach, Mantha S Phanikumar, Kasia Przybyla-Kelly, Ashley M Spoljaric, Richard L Whitman
Predictive empirical modeling is used in many locations worldwide as a rapid, alternative recreational water quality management tool to eliminate delayed notifications associated with traditional fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) culturing (referred to as the persistence model, PM) and to prevent errors in releasing swimming advisories. The goal of this study was to develop a fully automated water quality management system for multiple beaches using predictive empirical models (EM) and state-of-the-art technology...
January 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Judith Müller, Viktor Maurer, Kerstin Reimers, Peter M Vogt, Vesna Bucan
Lifeguard (LFG) is a transmembrane protein which is highly expressed in tissues of the hippocampus and the cerebellum, especially during postnatal development. This protein is responsible for the protection of neurons against Fas-induced apoptosis, and the same effect can be seen in tumor cells derived from mastocarcinoma. However, the molecular function of LFG and its regulation in the carcinogenesis of human breast cells remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the connection of the interaction of LFG within an array analysis of over 9,000 different proteins...
November 2015: International Journal of Oncology
Olivia Cheung, Alfonso Caramazza
What are the factors that determine how objects are represented in the visual system? Apart from visual shape, conceptual information such as animacy and object size has been established as major organizational principles for object representations in the occipito-temporal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether object representations may also be influenced by contextual information (i.e., where objects appear in the world). There has been debate regarding whether contextual information is retrieved when objects are seen, and whether the neural locus of contextual effect may be in the object-selective lateral occipital complex (LOC) or the scene-selective parahippocampal cortex (PHC)...
2015: Journal of Vision
Mathieu C Morissette, Nicolas Murray, Julie Turmel, Julie Milot, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Valérie Bougault
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the levels of 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP) in the airways of competitive swimmers at baseline and after a swimming session according to their airway responsiveness. METHODS: Twenty-three swimmers and six lifeguards had a baseline spirometry and bronchoprovocative challenges. During a second visit, swimmers performed a usual swimming session while lifeguards stayed in the same pool environment for the same time period. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured before and 5 min after the end of the session...
August 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Flore Kruiswijk, Christiaan F Labuschagne, Karen H Vousden
The function of p53 as a tumour suppressor has been attributed to its ability to promote cell death or permanently inhibit cell proliferation. However, in recent years, it has become clear that p53 can also contribute to cell survival. p53 regulates various metabolic pathways, helping to balance glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, limiting the production of reactive oxygen species, and contributing to the ability of cells to adapt to and survive mild metabolic stresses. Although these activities may be integrated into the tumour suppressive functions of p53, deregulation of some elements of the p53-induced response might also provide tumours with a survival advantage...
July 2015: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Anna Attard, Robert W Brander, Wendy S Shaw
This study describes the demographics, occurrence, location, primary hazards and outcomes involved in rescues performed by surfers on Australian beaches. Conservative estimates suggest that the number of rescues conducted by Australian surfers each year is on par with the number conducted by volunteer surf lifesavers. Surfers perform a considerable number of serious rescues in both lifesaver/lifeguard patrolled (45%) and unpatrolled (53%) beach locations. Rip currents represent the major physical hazard leading to rescue (75%) and the dominant emotional response of people rescued is one of panic (85%)...
September 2015: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Yannick P Lungwitz, Benedikt L Nussbaum, Klaus Paulat, Claus-Martin Muth, Peter Kranke, Bernd E Winkler
BACKGROUND: In-water resuscitation (IWR) is recommended in the 2010 guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council. As IWR represents a physical challenge to the rescuer, a novel Rescue Tube device with an integrated "Oxylator" resuscitator might facilitate IWR. The aim of the present study was the assessment of IWR using the novel Rescue Tube device. METHODS: Tidal and minute volumes were recorded using a modified Laerdal Resusci Anne mannequin. Furthermore, rescue time, water aspiration, submersions, and physical exertion were assessed...
April 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Peter Iserbyt, Gilles Schouppe, Nathalie Charlier
BACKGROUND: Research investigating lifeguards' performance of Basic Life Support (BLS) with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is limited. AIM: Assessing simulated BLS/AED performance in Flemish lifeguards and identifying factors affecting this performance. METHODS: Six hundred and sixteen (217 female and 399 male) certified Flemish lifeguards (aged 16-71 years) performed BLS with an AED on a Laerdal ResusciAnne manikin simulating an adult victim of drowning...
April 2015: Resuscitation
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