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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434146/differential-regulation-of-h3s10-phosphorylation-mitosis-progression-and-cell-fate-by-aurora-kinase-b-and-c-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#1
Wenzhi Li, Peizhe Wang, Bingjie Zhang, Jing Zhang, Jia Ming, Wei Xie, Jie Na
Coordination of cell division and cell fate is crucial for the successful development of mammalian early embryos. Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinases and key regulators of mitosis. Aurora kinase B (AurkB) is ubiquitously expressed while Aurora kinase C (AurkC) is specifically expressed in gametes and preimplantation embryos. We found that increasing AurkC level in one blastomere of the 2-cell embryo accelerated cell division and decreasing AurkC level slowed down mitosis. Changing AurkB level had the opposite effect...
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433719/isolation-and-characterization-of-monocyte-macrophage-from-peripheral-blood-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#2
Zhenxia Sha, Linqing Wang, Luming Sun, Yadong Chen, Yuan Zheng, Mei Xin, Chen Li, Songlin Chen
In the present study, the peripheral blood cells of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were examined by blood smear under the light microscopy. The proportion of main types of blood cells are as following: erythrocyte occupied the majority (92.3%), followed by thrombocyte (4.15%), granulocyte (1.7%), lymphocyte (1.5%) and monocyte (0.3%), respectively. Meanwhile, the isolation method of monocytes was established, by density gradient centrifugation to isolate mononuclear leukocytes of peripheral blood...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433077/development-and-clinical-utility-of-a-blood-based-test-service-for-the-rapid-identification-of-actionable-mutations-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma
#3
Hestia Mellert, Trudi Foreman, Leisa Jackson, Dianna Maar, Scott Thurston, Kristina Koch, Amanda Weaver, Samantha Cooper, Nicholas Dupuis, Ubaradka G Sathyanarayana, Jakkie Greer, Westen Hahn, Dawne Shelton, Paula Stonemetz, Gary A Pestano
Nearly 80% of cancer patients do not have genetic mutation results available at initial oncology consultation; up to 25% of patients begin treatment before receiving their results. These factors hinder the ability to pursue optimal treatment strategies. This study validates a blood-based genome-testing service that provides accurate results within 72 hours. We focused on targetable variants in advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma-epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) variant L858R, exon 19 deletion (ΔE746-A750), and T790M; GTPase Kirsten ras gene (KRAS) variants G12C/D/V; and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like and 4 anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase fusion (EML4-ALK) transcripts 1/2/3...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433053/the-envelope-proteins-of-the-bunyavirales
#4
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Félix A Rey
The Bunyavirales Order encompasses nine families of enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome divided into three segments. The small (S) and large (L) segments encode proteins participating in genome replication in the infected cell cytoplasm. The middle (M) segment encodes the viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc, which are derived from a precursor polyprotein by host cell proteases. Entry studies are available only for a few viruses in the Order, and in each case they were shown to enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432958/membrane-fusion-between-baculovirus-budded-virus-enveloped-particles-and-giant-liposomes-generated-using-a-droplet-transfer-method-for-the-incorporation-of-recombinant-membrane-proteins
#5
Misako Nishigami, Takaaki Mori, Masahiro Tomita, Kingo Takiguchi, Kanta Tsumoto
Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432497/immobilization-of-ulp1-protease-on-nhs-activated-sepharose-a-useful-tool-for-cleavage-of-the-sumo-tag-of-recombinant-proteins
#6
Qiujin Liang, Zhengzhi Huang, Yuan Zhang, Hongtao Li
OBJECTIVE: To fabricate an active and stable enzyme through covalent immobilization, a Ubl-specific protease (Ulp1) was used to cleave small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) fusion proteins. RESULTS: We immobilized Ulp1 on N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated Sepharose with a coupling efficiency of 1.7 mg/ml. The immobilized Ulp1 maintains 95% substrate-cleavage ability and significantly enhances pH and thermal stability, especially can withstand pH of 10.5. Besides resistance against some small molecules, the immobilized Ulp1 can tolerate 15% (v/v) DMSO and 20% (v/v) ethanol...
April 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432123/an-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helix-directs-palmitoylation-of-the-large-intracellular-loop-of-the-sodium-calcium-exchanger
#7
Fiona Plain, Samitha Dilini Congreve, Rachel Sue Zhen Yee, Jennifer Kennedy, Jacqueline Howie, Chien-Wen Kuo, Niall Fraser, William Fuller
The electrogenic sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) mediates bidirectional calcium transport controlled by the transmembrane sodium gradient. NCX inactivation occurs in the absence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and is facilitated by palmitoylation of a single cysteine at position 739 within NCX's large intracellular loop. The aim of this investigation was to identify the structural determinants of NCX1 palmitoylation. Full-length NCX1 (FL-NCX1) and a YFP fusion protein of the NCX1 large intracellular loop (YFP-NCX1) were expressed in HEK cells...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432021/the-er-phagosome-connection-in-the-era-of-membrane-contact-sites
#8
REVIEW
Paula Nunes-Hasler, Nicolas Demaurex
Phagocytosis is an essential mechanism through which innate immune cells ingest foreign material that is either destroyed or used to generate and present antigens and initiate adaptive immune responses. While a role for the ER during phagosome biogenesis has been recognized, whether fusion with ER cisternae or vesicular derivatives occurs has been the source of much contention. Membrane contact sites (MCS) are tight appositions between ER membranes and various organelles that coordinate multiple functions including localized signalling, lipid transfer and trafficking...
April 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431907/telomere-shortening-during-aging-attenuation-by-antioxidants-and-anti-inflammatory-agents
#9
REVIEW
Kedar N Prasad, Meixia Wu, Stephen C Bondy
Telomeres are a repeated sequence of bases found at the ends of chromosomes. In humans, this sequence is TTAGGG, which is repeated over 2000 times. Telomeres protect the ends chromosomes from fusion with nearby chromosomes, and allow effective replication of DNA. Each time a cell divides, 25-200 base pairs are lost from the terminal sequence of chromosomes. By becoming truncated during cell division, telomeres protect essential genes from being shortened and thus inactivated. In addition, telomeres are sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress, which can further promote telomere shortening...
April 18, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431467/influence-of-glycosylation-on-interfacial-properties-of-recombinant-mucins-adsorption-surface-forces-and-friction
#10
Junxue An, Chunsheng Jin, Andra Dédinaité, Jan Holgersson, Niclas G Karlsson, Per Martin Claesson
Interfacial properties of two brush-with-anchor mucins, C-P55 and C-PSLex, have been investigated at the aqueous solution/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) interface. Both are recombinant mucin-type fusion proteins, produced by fusing the glycosylated mucin part of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSLG-1) to the Fc part of a mouse immunoglobulin in two different cells. They are mainly expressed as dimers upon production. Analysis of the O-glycans shows that the C-PSLex mucin has the longer and more branched side chains, but C-P55 has slightly higher sialic acid content...
April 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431397/sensitization-of-tamoxifen-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-by-z-ligustilide-through-inhibiting-autophagy-and-accumulating-dna-damages
#11
Hongyi Qi, Zhuyun Jiang, Chengqiang Wang, Yi Yang, Li Li, Hui He, Zanyang Yu
Autophagy plays a pro-survival role in the tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Herein we found that autophagy was concomitantly induced in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TR5) cells through the dissociation of Bcl-2 from Beclin 1 and subsequent enhancement of interaction among the ATG14-Beclin1-PI3KC3 complex. Moreover, higher level of DNA damage was observed in MCF-7TR5 cells with the decreased BRCA1 and RAD51 level and the increased Ku80 level. Interestingly, Nur77 was selectively degraded by autophagy, which causes the release of Ku80 from the Nur77-Ku80 complex, resulting in the increase of the DNA binding of Ku80 and DNA-PKcs...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431088/stationary-phase-genes-upregulated-by-polyamines-are-responsible-for-the-formation-of-escherichia-coli-persister-cells-tolerant-to-netilmicin
#12
Alexander G Tkachenko, Natalya M Kashevarova, Elena A Tyuleneva, Mikhail S Shumkov
Persisters are rare phenotypic variants of regular bacterial cells that survive lethal antibiotics or stresses owing to slowing down of their metabolism. Recently, we have shown that polyamine putrescine can upregulate persister cell formation in Escherichia coli via the stimulation of rpoS expression, encoding a master regulator of general stress response. We hypothesized that rmf and yqjD, the stationary-phase genes responsible for ribosome inactivation, might be good candidates for the similar role owing to their involvement in translational arrest and the ability to be affected by polyamines...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#13
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429156/crystallization-and-preliminary-x-ray-diffraction-analysis-of-a-mammal-inositol-1-3-4-5-6-pentakisphosphate-2-kinase
#14
Elsa Franco-Echevarría, Julia Sanz-Aparicio, Nathalie Troffer-Charlier, Arnaud Poterszman, Beatriz González
Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) is an enzyme that catalyses the formation of phytic acid (IP6) from IP5 and ATP. In mammals, IP6 is involved in multiple events such as DNA repair and mRNA edit and it is the precursor of inositol pyrophosphates, emerging compounds shown to have an essential role in apoptosis. In addition, IP5 2-K have functions in cells independently of its catalytic activity, for example in rRNA biogenesis. We pursue the structure determination of a mammal IP5 2-K by Protein Crystallography...
April 21, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429049/dysregulation-of-haematopoietic-stem-cell-regulatory-programs-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#15
REVIEW
Silvia Basilico, Berthold Göttgens
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are situated at the apex of the haematopoietic differentiation hierarchy, ensuring the life-long supply of mature haematopoietic cells and forming a reservoir to replenish the haematopoietic system in case of emergency such as acute blood loss. To maintain a balanced production of all mature lineages and at the same time secure a stem cell reservoir, intricate regulatory programs have evolved to control multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428402/micromanaging-muscle-cell-fusion
#16
EDITORIAL
Paula A Kiberstis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428342/lysibodies-are-igg-fc-fusions-with-lysin-binding-domains-targeting-staphylococcus-aureus-wall-carbohydrates-for-effective-phagocytosis
#17
Assaf Raz, Anna Serrano, Christine Lawson, Maneesha Thaker, Tricia Alston, Stylianos Bournazos, Jeffrey V Ravetch, Vincent A Fischetti
The cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria contains abundant surface-exposed carbohydrate molecules that are highly conserved within and often across species. The potential therapeutic usefulness of high-affinity antibodies to cell wall carbohydrates is unquestioned, however obtaining such antibodies is challenging due to the poor overall immunogenicity of these bacterial targets. Autolysins and phage lysins are peptidoglycan hydrolases, enzymes that have evolved over a billion years to degrade bacterial cell wall...
April 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428274/egfr-mediates-responses-to-small-molecule-drugs-targeting-oncogenic-fusion-kinases
#18
Aria Vaishnavi, Laura Schubert, Uwe Rix, Lindsay A Marek, Anh T Le, Stephen Keysar, Magdalena J Glogowska, Matthew A Smith, Severine L Kako, Natalia J Sumi, Kurtis D Davies, Kathryn E Ware, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Eric B Haura, Antonio Jimeno, Lynn E Heasley, Dara L Aisner, Robert C Doebele
Oncogenic kinase fusions of ALK, ROS1, RET and NTRK1 act as drivers in human lung and other cancers. Residual tumor burden following treatment of ALK or ROS1+ lung cancer patients with oncogene-targeted therapy ultimately enables the emergence of drug-resistant clones, limiting the long-term effectiveness of these therapies. To determine the signaling mechanisms underlying incomplete tumor cell killing in oncogene-addicted cancer cells, we investigated the role of EGFR signaling in drug-naive cancer cells harboring these oncogene fusions...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428263/different-requirements-of-functional-telomeres-in-neural-stem-cells-and-terminally-differentiated-neurons
#19
Anastasia Lobanova, Robert She, Simon Pieraut, Charlie Clapp, Anton Maximov, Eros Lazzerini Denchi
Telomeres have been studied extensively in peripheral tissues, but their relevance in the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the roles of telomeres at distinct stages of murine brain development by using lineage-specific genetic ablation of TRF2, an essential component of the shelterin complex that protects chromosome ends from the DNA damage response machinery. We found that functional telomeres are required for embryonic and adult neurogenesis, but their uncapping has surprisingly no detectable consequences on terminally differentiated neurons...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427235/catan-ionic-hybrid-lipidic-nano-carriers-for-enhanced-bioavailability-and-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-chemodrugs
#20
Bilin Liu, Dan He, Jianyong Wu, Quan Sun, Mi Zhang, Qunyou Tan, Yao Li, Jingqing Zhang
To date there has not been any report on catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers, let alone a report on applying them to deliver insoluble anti-tumor drugs. Catan-ionic hybrid lipidic nano-carriers containing curcumin (CUR-C-HLN) inherit the merits of catan-ionic systems, hybrid lipidic systems and nano-structured carriers (the second-generation substitute of solid lipidic nano-systems). Catan-ionic surfactants increased microvesicle stabilization by producing unordered isometric clusters, enhanced absorptive amount as an inhibitor of enzyme and protein, improved tumor accumulation by cellular endocytosis and membranous fusion; hybrid lipids helped to obtain high drug content and low leakage by forming a less-organized matrix arrangement...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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