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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225074/the-wasp-arp2-3-complex-signal-cascade-is-involved-in-actin-dependent-sperm-nuclei-migration-during-double-fertilization-in-tobacco-and-maize
#1
Xiongbo Peng, Tingting Yan, Mengxiang Sun
Sperm nuclear migration during fertilization in Arabidopsis and rice has recently been found to be actin-dependent, but the driving force behind this actin cytoskeleton-dependent motion is unclear. Here, we confirmed that the actin-dependent sperm nuclei migration during fertilization is a conserved mechanism in plants. Using in vitro fertilization systems, we showed that a functional actin is also essential in maize and tobacco for sperm nuclei migration after gamete membrane fusion. Cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibitor treatments supported the view that sperm nuclei migration is actin-dependent but microtubule-independent in both egg cell and central cell during double fertilization...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225020/improved-antitumor-activity-of-trail-fusion-protein-via-formation-of-self-assembling-nanoparticle
#2
Kaizong Huang, Ningjun Duan, Chunmei Zhang, Ran Mo, Zichun Hua
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been known as a promising agent for cancer therapy due to its specific apoptosis-inducing effect on tumor cells rather than most normal cells. However, systemically delivered TRAIL suffers from a rapid clearance from the body with an extremely short half-life. Thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a promising class of temperature sensitive biopolymers based on the structural motif found in mammalian tropoelastin and retain the advantages of polymeric drug delivery systems...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224980/alpha-synuclein-prevents-the-formation-of-spherical-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-under-oxidative-stress
#3
Stefanie Menges, Georgia Minakaki, Patrick M Schaefer, Holger Meixner, Iryna Prots, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Kristina Friedland, Beate Winner, Tiago F Outeiro, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Christine A F von Arnim, Wei Xiang, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
Oxidative stress (OS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and dysregulation of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) homeostasis are key pathogenic factors in Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the role of aSyn in mitochondrial physiology remains elusive. Thus, we addressed the impact of aSyn specifically on mitochondrial response to OS in neural cells. We characterize a distinct type of mitochondrial fragmentation, following H2O2 or 6-OHDA-induced OS, defined by spherically-shaped and hyperpolarized mitochondria, termed "mitospheres"...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224701/pathogenic-role-of-anti-srp-and-anti-hmgcr-antibodies-in-necrotizing-myopathies-myofiber-atrophy-and-impairment-of-muscle-regeneration-in-necrotizing-autoimmune-myopathies
#4
Louiza Arouche-Delaperche, Yves Allenbach, Damien Amelin, Corinna Preusse, Vincent Mouly, Wladimir Mauhin, Gaelle Dzangue Tchoupou, Laurent Drouot, Olivier Boyer, Werner Stenzel, Gillian Butler-Browne, Olivier Benveniste
OBJECTIVE: Immune mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM) may be associated with either anti-SRP or anti-HMGCR antibodies (Abs) and the titer of these Abs is correlated with the disease activity. We investigated if anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR Abs could be involved in muscle damages. METHODS: Muscle biopsies of patients were analyzed for atrophy and regeneration, by measuring the fibers size and by performing immunostaining of neonatal myosin heavy chain. To further understand the role of the Abs in the pathology, we performed muscle cell co-culture with the Abs...
February 22, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224119/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vectored-multi-antigen-tuberculosis-vaccine-limits-bacterial-proliferation-in-mice-following-a-single-intranasal-dose
#5
Ming Zhang, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem worldwide, and an urgent need exists to improve or replace the available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Most vaccination protocols adapt two or three doses to induce long-term lasting immunity. Our previous study showed that the naked DNA encoding the triple-antigen fusion TFP846 (Rv3615c-Mtb10.4-Rv2660c) induced robust T cellular immune responses accompanying four inoculations against mycobacteria infection. However, a number of compliance issues exist in some areas lacking the appropriate medical infrastructure with multiple administrations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224002/secretion-and-endocytosis-in-pollen-tubes-models-of-tip-growth-in-the-spot-light
#6
REVIEW
Gleb Grebnev, Maria Ntefidou, Benedikt Kost
Pollen tube tip growth is a widely used model ideally suited to study cellular processes underlying polarized cell expansion. Local secretion supplying material for plasma membrane (PM) and cell wall extension is essential for this process. Cell wall biogenesis requires fusion of secretory vesicles with the PM at an about 10× higher rate than PM extension. Excess material is therefore incorporated into the PM, which needs to be reinternalized through endocytosis. The classical model of tip growth proposes that exocytosis occurs at the apex and that newly incorporated PM material is transported to adjacent lateral regions, where excess material is endocytically recycled...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223543/role-of-caspases-in-cd95-induced-biphasic-activation-of-acid-sphingomyelinase
#7
Mario Stephan, Bärbel Edelmann, Supandi Winoto-Morbach, Ottmar Janssen, Uwe Bertsch, Cristiana Perrotta, Stefan Schütze, Jürgen Fritsch
Acid sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) plays an important role in the initiation of CD95 signaling by forming ceramide-enriched membrane domains that enable clustering and activation of the death receptors. In TNF-R1 and TRAIL-R1/R2 signaling, A-SMase also contributes to the lysosomal apoptosis pathway triggered by receptor internalization. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of CD95-mediated A-SMase activation, demonstrating that A-SMase is located in internalized CD95-receptosomes and is activated by the CD95/CD95L complex in a biphasic manner...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223490/sequential-activation-of-the-three-protomers-in-the-moloney-murine-leukemia-virus-env
#8
Mathilda Sjöberg, Robin Löving, Birgitta Lindqvist, Henrik Garoff
Viral membrane fusion proteins of class I are trimers in which the protomeric unit is a complex of a surface subunit (SU) and a fusion active transmembrane subunit (TM). Here we have studied how the protomeric units of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein (Env) are activated in relation to each other, sequentially or simultaneously. We followed the isomerization of the SU-TM disulfide and subsequent SU release from Env with biochemical methods and found that this early activation step occurred sequentially in the three protomers, generating two asymmetric oligomer intermediates according to the scheme (SU-TM)3 → (SU-TM)2TM → (SU-TM)TM2 → TM3 This was the case both when activation was triggered in vitro by depleting stabilizing Ca(2+) from solubilized Env and when viral Env was receptor triggered on rat XC cells...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223315/the-focal-adhesion-targeting-fat-domain-of-p130-crk-associated-substrate-p130cas-confers-mechanosensing-function
#9
Peta M Bradbury, Kylie Turner, Camilla Mitchell, Kaitlyn R Griffin, Shiloh Middlemiss, Loretta Lau, Rebecca Dagg, Elena Taran, Justin Cooper-White, Ben Fabry, Geraldine M O'Neill
The Cas family of focal adhesion proteins contain a highly conserved C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. To determine the role of the FAT domain we compared wildtype exogenous NEDD9 with a hybrid construct in which the NEDD9 FAT domain is exchanged for the p130Cas FAT domain. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed significantly slowed exchange of the fusion protein at focal adhesions and significantly slower 2D migration. No differences were detected in cell stiffness measured with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and cell adhesion forces measured with a magnetic tweezer device...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223285/butyrate-regulates-liver-mitochondrial-function-efficiency-and-dynamic-in-insulin-resistant-obese-mice
#10
Maria Pina Mollica, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Gina Cavaliere, Giovanna Trinchese, Chiara De Filippo, Serena Aceto, Marina Prisco, Claudio Pirozzi, Francesca Di Guida, Adriano Lama, Marianna Crispino, Diana Tronino, Paola Di Vaio, Roberto Berni Canani, Antonio Calignano, Rosaria Meli
Fatty liver, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are key pathophysiological features of insulin resistance and obesity. Butyrate, produced by fermentation in the large intestine by gut microbiota, and its synthetic derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide, FBA, have been demonstrated to be protective against insulin resistance and fatty liver.Here, hepatic mitochondria were identified as the main target of the beneficial effect of both butyrate-based compounds in reverting insulin resistance and fat accumulation in diet induced obese mice...
February 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222903/modified-mrna-vaccines-protect-against-zika-virus-infection
#11
Justin M Richner, Sunny Himansu, Kimberly A Dowd, Scott L Butler, Vanessa Salazar, Julie M Fox, Justin G Julander, William W Tang, Sujan Shresta, Theodore C Pierson, Giuseppe Ciaramella, Michael S Diamond
The emergence of ZIKV infection has prompted a global effort to develop safe and effective vaccines. We engineered a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding wild-type or variant ZIKV structural genes and tested immunogenicity and protection in mice. Two doses of modified mRNA LNPs encoding prM-E genes that produced virus-like particles resulted in high neutralizing antibody titers (∼1/100,000) that protected against ZIKV infection and conferred sterilizing immunity. To offset a theoretical concern of ZIKV vaccines inducing antibodies that cross-react with the related dengue virus (DENV), we designed modified prM-E RNA encoding mutations destroying the conserved fusion-loop epitope in the E protein...
February 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222130/dengue-virus-antibody-database-systematically-linking-serotype-specificity-with-epitope-mapping-in-dengue-virus
#12
Sidhartha Chaudhury, Gregory D Gromowski, Daniel R Ripoll, Ilja V Khavrutskii, Valmik Desai, Anders Wallqvist
BACKGROUND: A majority infections caused by dengue virus (DENV) are asymptomatic, but a higher incidence of severe illness, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever, is associated with secondary infections, suggesting that pre-existing immunity plays a central role in dengue pathogenesis. Primary infections are typically associated with a largely serotype-specific antibody response, while secondary infections show a shift to a broadly cross-reactive antibody response. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that the basis for the shift in serotype-specificity between primary and secondary infections can be found in a change in the antibody fine-specificity...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221782/the-cation-%C3%AF-interaction-enables-a-halo-tag-fluorogenic-probe-for-fast-no-wash-live-cell-imaging-and-gel-free-protein-quantification
#13
Yu Liu, Kun Miao, Noah P Dunham, Hongbin Liu, Matthew Fares, Amie K Boal, Xiaosong Li, Xin Zhang
Design of fluorogenic probes for Halo-tag is highly desirable but challenging. Previous work achieved this goal by controlling the chemical switch of spirolactones upon the covalent conju-gation between Halo-tag and probes or by incorporating a 'channel dye' into the substrate bind-ing tunnel of Halo-tag. In this work, we have developed a novel class of Halo-tag fluorogenic probes that are derived from solvatochromic fluorophores. The optimal probe, harboring a ben-zothiadiazole scaffold, exhibits a 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement upon reaction with Halo-tag...
February 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221100/intracellular-degradation-and-localization-of-ns1-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-affect-its-protective-properties
#14
Yulia V Kuzmenko, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Anastasia S Shevtsova, Liubov L Chernokhaeva, Anastasia A Latanova, Olga V Preobrazhenskaia, Andrey V Timofeev, Galina G Karganova, Vadim L Karpov
Currently, many DNA vaccines against infectious diseases are in clinical trials; however, their efficacy needs to be improved. The potency of DNA immunogen can be optimized by targeting technologies. In the current study, to increase the efficacy of NS1 encoded by plasmid, proteasome targeting was applied. NS1 variants with or without translocation sequence and with ornithine decarboxylase as a signal of proteasomal degradation were tested for expression, localization, protein turnover, proteasomal degradation and protection properties...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220294/chromogranin-a-regulates-vesicle-storage-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-to-influence-insulin-secretion
#15
Joshua Wollam, Sumana Mahata, Matthew Riopel, Angelina Hernandez-Carretero, Angshuman Biswas, Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Nai-Wen Chi, Lee E Eiden, Nitish R Mahapatra, Angelo Corti, Nicholas J G Webster, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and a granulogenic factor that regulates secretory pathways in neuroendocrine tissues. In β-cells of the endocrine pancreas, CgA is a major cargo in insulin secretory vesicles. The impact of CgA deficiency on the formation and exocytosis of insulin vesicles is yet to be investigated. In addition, no literature exists on the impact of CgA on mitochondrial function in β-cells. Using three different antibodies, we demonstrate that CgA is processed to vasostatin- and catestatin-containing fragments in pancreatic islet cells...
February 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219927/molecular-role-of-the-pax5-etv6-oncoprotein-in-promoting-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
Leonie Smeenk, Maria Fischer, Sabine Jurado, Markus Jaritz, Anna Azaryan, Barbara Werner, Mareike Roth, Johannes Zuber, Martin Stanulla, Monique L den Boer, Charles G Mullighan, Sabine Strehl, Meinrad Busslinger
PAX5 is a tumor suppressor in B-ALL, while the role of PAX5 fusion proteins in B-ALL development is largely unknown. Here, we studied the function of PAX5-ETV6 and PAX5-FOXP1 in mice expressing these proteins from the Pax5 locus. Both proteins arrested B-lymphopoiesis at the pro-B to pre-B-cell transition and, contrary to their proposed dominant-negative role, did not interfere with the expression of most regulated Pax5 target genes. Pax5-Etv6, but not Pax5-Foxp1, cooperated with loss of the Cdkna2a/b tumor suppressors in promoting B-ALL development...
February 20, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219835/marked-in-vivo-donor-treg-expansion-via-il-2-and-tl1a-ig-stimulation-ameliorates-gvhd-but-preserves-gvl-in-recipients-post-hsct
#17
Dietlinde Wolf, Henry Barreras, Cameron S Bader, Sabrina Copsel, Casey O Lightbourn, Brent J Pfeiffer, Norman H Altman, Eckhard R Podack, Krishna V Komanduri, Robert B Levy
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for self-tolerance. While adoptive transfer of expanded Tregs limits graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), ex vivo generation of large numbers of functional Tregs remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo targeting of the TNF superfamily receptor TNFRSF25 using the TL1A-Ig fusion protein, along with IL-2, resulted in transient but massive Treg expansion in donor mice, which peaked within days and was nontoxic. Tregs increased in multiple compartments, including blood, lymph nodes, spleen and colon (a GVHD target tissue)...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219805/fusion-of-spatial-gray-level-dependency-and-fractal-texture-features-for-the-characterization-of-thyroid-lesions
#18
U Raghavendra, U Rajendra Acharya, Anjan Gudigar, Jen Hong Tan, Hamido Fujita, Yuki Hagiwara, Filippo Molinari, Pailin Kongmebhol, Kwan Hoong Ng
Thyroid is a small gland situated at the anterior side of the neck and one of the largest glands of the endocrine system. The abrupt cell growth or malignancy in the thyroid gland may cause thyroid cancer. Ultrasound images distinctly represent benign and malignant lesions, but accuracy may be poor due to subjective interpretation. Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) can minimize the errors created due to subjective interpretation and assists to make fast accurate diagnosis. In this work, fusion of Spatial Gray Level Dependence Features (SGLDF) and fractal textures are used to decipher the intrinsic structure of benign and malignant thyroid lesions...
February 6, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219774/dynamic-causal-modelling-revisited
#19
K J Friston, Katrin H Preller, Chris Mathys, Hayriye Cagnan, Jakob Heinzle, Adeel Razi, Peter Zeidman
This paper revisits the dynamic causal modelling of fMRI timeseries by replacing the usual (Taylor) approximation to neuronal dynamics with a neural mass model of the canonical microcircuit. This provides a generative or dynamic causal model of laminar specific responses that can generate haemodynamic and electrophysiological measurements. In principle, this allows the fusion of haemodynamic and (event related or induced) electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, it enables Bayesian model comparison of competing hypotheses about physiologically plausible synaptic effects; for example, does attentional modulation act on superficial or deep pyramidal cells - or both? In this technical note, we describe the resulting dynamic causal model and provide an illustrative application to the attention to visual motion dataset used in previous papers...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219219/-clinical-features-and-prognosis-in-cd10-pre-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
X Y Gong, Y Wang, B C Liu, H Wei, C L Zhou, D Lin, K Q Liu, S N Wei, B F Gong, G J Zhang, Y T Liu, X L Zhao, Y Li, R X Gu, S W Qiu, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objective: To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with immunophenotype of CD10(-)pre-B (CD10(-) pre B-ALL) . Methods: 6 adult cases with CD10(-) pre B-ALL immunophenotypes were analyzed retrospectively, related literatures were reviewed to clarify these kind of patients' clinical features and prognosis. Results: CD10(-) pre B-ALL occurred in 1.5% of ALL, 1.8% of B-ALL and 11.5% of pre B-ALL respectively. All the 6 patients were male with the median age as 33...
January 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
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