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renal osteodystrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005175/research-on-kidney-and-mineral-metabolism-in-japan-past-present-and-future
#1
REVIEW
Masahide Mizobuchi, Hiroaki Ogata, Fumihiko Koiwa, Eriko Kinugasa, Tadao Akizawa
Since the identification of the kidney was the main site for the synthesis of calcitriol (1α, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), research on chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated mineral metabolism disorders and their management has made rapid progress. Various active analogues of calcitriol have clinically become available for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), which is a representative mineral metabolism abnormality in CKD patients. A calcimimetic compound cinacalcet hydrochloride has also been developed for the medical management of SHPT through a different mechanism involving the calcium-sensing receptor...
December 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995443/pseudohypoparathyroidism-one-gene-several-syndromes
#2
REVIEW
O Tafaj, H Jüppner
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) are caused by mutations and/or epigenetic changes at the complex GNAS locus on chromosome 20q13.3 that undergoes parent-specific methylation changes at several sites. GNAS encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) and several splice variants thereof. Heterozygous inactivating mutations involving the maternal GNAS exons 1-13 cause PHP type Ia (PHP1A). Because of much reduced paternal Gsα expression in certain tissues, such as the proximal renal tubules, thyroid, and pituitary, there is little or no Gsα protein in the presence of maternal GNAS mutations, thus leading to PTH-resistant hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990791/the-role-of-carbon-adsorbent-in-the-conservative-management-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Toshimitsu Niwa
Indoxyl sulfate is a uremic toxin, and cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis due to its protein-binding. Indoxyl sulfate induces cellular dysfunction by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor through its uptake via organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3). Indoxyl sulfate shows toxic effects on a variety of cells such as renal proximal tubular cells, glomerular mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, monocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and myocytes...
December 16, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896453/management-of-phosphorus-load-in-ckd-patients
#4
REVIEW
Yutaka Taketani, Fumihiko Koiwa, Keitaro Yokoyama
Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800197/a-swelling-in-the-mouth-in-a-chronic-hemodialysis-patient
#5
Arnaud Devresse, Alexandros Raptis, Anne-Sophie Claes, Laura Labriola
Oral manifestations of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism include maxillary and mandibular deformities, brown tumors, dental abnormalities, and metastatic calcification of soft tissues. We report on a chronic hemodialysis (HD) woman with severe, uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism and a painful, nontender mass in the floor of her mouth. The most likely clinical diagnosis was a bone tumoral lesion of the oral cavity, secondary to renal osteodystrophy. Unexpectedly, pathological examination showed characteristic features of ossifying fibroma (OF) of the jaw, a rare, benign fibroosseous lesion characterized by the replacement of normal bone by collagen and fibroblasts containing varying amounts of mineralized substance...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771603/atraumatic-diplaced-bilateral-femoral-neck-fracture-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemic-rickets-in-postpartum-period-a-missed-diagnosis
#6
Erdal Uzun, Ali Eray Günay, Turan Bilge Kızkapan, Mahmut Mutlu
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fracture is an uncommon condition. There are very few cases reported in the literature and most of these cases have underlying bone pathologies such as renal osteodystrophy and osteomalacia. In some cases bilateral femoral neck fractures occur due to generalized seizures or high-energy trauma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report "atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fracture in a 26year old woman in postpartum period with hypophosphatemic rickets disease" is presented...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728490/study-of-renal-osteodystrophy-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Patel Ar, Mane Rr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726750/imaging-findings-of-metabolic-bone-disease
#8
Connie Y Chang, Daniel I Rosenthal, Deborah M Mitchell, Atsuhiko Handa, Susan V Kattapuram, Ambrose J Huang
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of diseases that result in abnormalities of (a) bone mass, (b) structure mineral homeostasis, (c) bone turnover, or (d) growth. Osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease, results in generalized loss of bone mass and deterioration in the bone microarchitecture. Impaired chondrocyte development and failure to mineralize growth plate cartilage in rickets lead to widened growth plates and frayed metaphyses at sites of greatest growth. Osteomalacia is the result of impaired mineralization of newly formed osteoid, which leads to characteristic Looser zones...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668003/from-kidneys-govern-bones-to-chronic-kidney-disease-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-bone-disorder-a-crosstalk-between-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-modern-science
#9
REVIEW
Xiao-Qin Wang, Xin-Rong Zou, Yuan Clare Zhang
Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have evolved on distinct philosophical foundations and reasoning methods, an increasing body of scientific data has begun to reveal commonalities. Emerging scientific evidence has confirmed the validity and identified the molecular mechanisms of many ancient TCM theories. One example is the concept of "Kidneys Govern Bones." Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms supporting this theory and its potential significance in treating complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666759/ligand-trap-of-the-activin-receptor-type-iia-inhibits-osteoclast-stimulation-of-bone-remodeling-in-diabetic-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Toshifumi Sugatani, Olga A Agapova, Yifu Fang, Alycia G Berman, Joseph M Wallace, Hartmut H Malluche, Marie-Claude Faugere, William Smith, Victoria Sung, Keith A Hruska
Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr-/- high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes...
January 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640197/brown-tumor-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-surgical-approach-and-clinical-outcome
#11
Isaac Vieira Queiroz, Samara Pereira Queiroz, Rui Medeiros, Rodolfo Bonfim Ribeiro, Iêda Margarida Crusoé-Rebello, Jair Carneiro Leão
BACKGROUND: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a frequent complication of chronic renal failure. The brown tumor is an unusual presentation of fibrous osteitis that represents a serious complication of renal osteodystrophy, affecting predominantly the hands, feet, skull, and facial bones. CASE REPORT: The aim of this paper is to describe the case of a 53-year-old female patient, with renal failure who has been on dialysis for 6 years and developed severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and brown tumor of the maxilla and mandible, confirmed by incisional biopsy...
December 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561340/-bone-turnover-and-mineralization-in-patients-with-kidney-failure
#12
REVIEW
Junichiro James
Bone remodeling is a device to accomplish "the buffering of the extracellular fluid mineral", which is one of the two major physiological functions of bone. Bone turnover is a term to express the frequency of bone remodeling, and its last step is calcification. When remodeling is induced, at first a large amount of mineral is released from bone to extracellular fluid transiently, and thereafter mineral is slowly and steadily drawn into bone. The extracellular minerals, especially calcium, are maintained by this repetition...
September 2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561339/-the-expanding-concept-of-ckd-mbd
#13
REVIEW
Hirotaka Komaba
Almost seven years have passed since the publication of the KDIGO clinical practice guideline on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder(CKD-MBD). During this period, several new medications for osteoporosis that may be applicable to patients with CKD have become available. Clinical studies have also shown the utility of bone mineral density to assess fracture risk in CKD. These new data charges us with the task of reconciling the concept of renal osteodystrophy(ROD)and osteoporosis in CKD. This review summarize the recent advances in the management of bone disease in CKD and the key points raised during the discussion for the KDIGO guideline revision, and address the problems to be solved in future...
September 2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528549/only-minor-differences-in-renal-osteodystrophy-features-between-wild-type-and-sclerostin-knockout-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Daniel Cejka, Diego Parada-Rodriguez, Stefanie Pichler, Rodrig Marculescu, Ina Kramer, Michaela Kneissel, Thomas Gross, Andreas Reisinger, Dieter Pahr, Marie-Claude Monier-Faugere, Martin Haas, Hartmut H Malluche
Renal osteodystrophy affects the majority of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is characterized by progressive bone loss. This study evaluated the effects of sclerostin knockout on bone in a murine model of severe, surgically induced CKD in both sclerostin knockout and wild-type mice. Mice of both genotypes with normal kidney function served as controls. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography, and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by histomorphometry. Results were tested for statistical significance by 2-way ANOVA to investigate whether bone of the knockout mice reacted differently to CKD compared with bone of wild-type mice...
October 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473148/the-role-of-bone-biopsy-for-the-diagnosis-of-renal-osteodystrophy-a-short-overview-and-future-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Catarina Carvalho, Catarina Moniz Alves, João Miguel Frazão
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present specific bone and mineral metabolism disturbances, which account for important morbidity and mortality. The term renal osteodystrophy, classically used for the nomination of CKD-associated bone disorder, has been limited to the histologic description of bone lesions, requiring the use of bone biopsy. Biochemical markers and imaging tools do not adequately predict the complex bone changes that are observed in renal osteodystrophy. Parathyroid hormone, which is a universally used biomarker of bone turnover in clinical practice, lacks specificity and sensitivity...
October 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352200/a-societal-cost-of-illness-study-of-hemodialysis-in-lebanon
#16
Rana Rizk, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Mirey Karavetian, Pascale Salameh, Silvia M A A Evers
AIM: Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. METHODS: This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338644/macrosomia-obesity-and-macrocephaly-as-first-clinical-presentation-of-php1b-caused-by-stx16-deletion
#17
Iris M de Lange, Annemarie A Verrijn Stuart, Rob B van der Luijt, Hans Kristian Ploos van Amstel, Mieke M van Haelst
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a genetic disorder with resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) as most important feature. Main subtypes of the disease are pseudohypoparathyroidism 1b (PHP1b) and pseudohypoparathyroidism 1a (PHP1a). PHP1b is characterized by PTH resistance of the renal cortex due to reduced activity of the stimulatory G protein α subunit (Gsα) of the PTH receptor. In addition to resistance to PTH, PHP1a patients also lack sensitivity for other hormones that signal their actions through G protein-coupled receptors and display physical features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), which is not classically seen in PHP1b patients...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330380/hyperphosphatemia-management-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ahmed M Shaman, Stefan R Kowalski
Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is a potentially life altering condition that can lead to cardiovascular calcification, metabolic bone disease (renal osteodystrophy) and the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). It is also associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and mortality rates. To effectively manage hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients it is important to not only consider pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment options but also to understand the underlying physiologic pathways involved in phosphorus homoeostasis...
July 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323177/association-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-with-end-stage-renal-disease-and-the-development-of-high-turnover-renal-osteodystrophy-in-a-chinese-population
#19
L Y Wang, P Zhang, H F Wang, Z W Qin, K B Wei, X A Lv
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; TaqI and ApaI) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been identified as risk factors for the progression of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The purpose of our study was to confirm the reported association of these two SNPs with ESRD risk and progression of renal osteodystrophy in a Chinese Han population. A total of 452 ESRD patients and 904 matched-pair controls (based on age, gender, and body mass index) were included. Identification of VDR gene polymorphisms was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method with TaqI and ApaI restriction enzymes...
June 15, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312441/turning-over-renal-osteodystrophy-dogma-direct-actions-of-fgf23-on-osteoblast-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#20
Susan C Schiavi, Rosa M A Moysés
Although recognized as a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the pathophysiology of the CKD-related mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is not completely understood. Recently, the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteocytes by sclerostin has been shown to play a role in CKD-MBD. The study by Carrilo-Lopez et al. confirms this inhibition in an experimental model of CKD. Moreover, they describe direct actions of FGF23-Klotho on osteoblasts, increasing the expression of DKK1, another Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor...
July 2016: Kidney International
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