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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#1
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453812/cognitive-outcomes-in-children-and-adolescents-born-very-preterm-a-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Christopher R Brydges, Jasmin K Landes, Corinne L Reid, Catherine Campbell, Noel French, Mike Anderson
AIM: To estimate the association between very preterm birth (<32wks' gestation) and intelligence, executive functioning, and processing speed throughout childhood and adolescence, and to examine the effects of gestational age, birthweight, and age at assessment. METHOD: Studies were included if children were born at earlier than 32 weeks' gestation, aged 4 to 17 years, had an age-matched term control group, and if the studies used standardized measures, were published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal, and placed no restrictions on participants based on task performance...
February 17, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453738/friends-in-activities-school-related-affect-and-academic-outcomes-in-diverse-middle-schools
#3
Casey A Knifsend, Daisy E Camacho-Thompson, Jaana Juvonen, Sandra Graham
Participating in school-based activities is linked to positive academic engagement and achievement, but less is known about how peer relationships within activities affect these outcomes. The current study examined friends in extracurricular activities as a predictor of academic outcomes in multiethnic middle schools in California. Specifically, the mediating role of school belonging, and interactions by ethnicity and type of activity, were examined in a sample including African American or Black, East or Southeast Asian, White, and Latino youth in extracurricular activities (N = 2268; M age = 13...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453708/exploring-the-effectiveness-of-a-peer-mediated-model-of-the-peers-curriculum-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#4
Nicole L Matthews, Beatriz C Orr, Katrina Warriner, Mary DeCarlo, Mia Sorensen, Jessica Laflin, Christopher J Smith
This study compared immediate and 4-month outcomes among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder randomly assigned to the PEERS curriculum (n = 10), a peer mediated PEERS curriculum (n = 12), or a delayed treatment control group (n = 12). Findings suggest a modest advantage in social skills knowledge and social functioning for participants in the peer-mediated PEERS curriculum relative to Traditional PEERS, and gains in social skills knowledge, social functioning, and reductions in loneliness were maintained in one or both treatment groups at a 4-month follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453707/brief-report-when-large-becomes-slow-zooming-out-visual-attention-is-associated-to-orienting-deficits-in-autism
#5
Luca Ronconi, Maria Devita, Massimo Molteni, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Previous studies independently demonstrated impairments in rapid orienting/disengagement and zooming-out of spatial attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These attentional mechanisms, however, are not completely independent. Aiming at a more complete picture of spatial attention deficits in ASD, we examined the relationship between orienting and zooming in participants with ASD and typically developing peers. We modified a classical spatial cuing task, presenting two small or large cues in the two visual hemifields and subsequently cueing attention to one of them...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453705/using-peer-mediated-lego%C3%A2-play-intervention-to-improve-social-interactions-for-chinese-children-with-autism-in-an-inclusive-setting
#6
Xiaoyi Hu, Qunshan Zheng, Gabrielle T Lee
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer-mediated LEGO® play intervention on improving social skills for children with ASD in an inclusive preschool in China. Three boys with ASD and 13 typically developing children participated in this study. A multiple-probe across participants design was used. The intervention consisted of LEGO® construction activities incorporated with peer-mediated strategies for one child with ASD and two typically developing peers. The intervention sessions were conducted two sessions per week with a total of 28-31 sessions for each participant...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453491/does-hearing-aid-use-affect-audiovisual-integration-in-mild-hearing-impairment
#7
Anja Gieseler, Maike A S Tahden, Christiane M Thiel, Hans Colonius
There is converging evidence for altered audiovisual integration abilities in hearing-impaired individuals and those with profound hearing loss who are provided with cochlear implants, compared to normal-hearing adults. Still, little is known on the effects of hearing aid use on audiovisual integration in mild hearing loss, although this constitutes one of the most prevalent conditions in the elderly and, yet, often remains untreated in its early stages. This study investigated differences in the strength of audiovisual integration between elderly hearing aid users and those with the same degree of mild hearing loss who were not using hearing aids, the non-users, by measuring their susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453476/postoperative-outcome-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-undergoing-elective-non-cardiac-surgery
#8
Vikas Pathak, Kriti Suwal
INTRODUCTION: The impact of pulmonary artery hypertension on post-operative outcome in elective, non-cardiac surgery is incompletely understood. This study was designed to evaluate the post-operative outcome of patients undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery with and without pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: The study was conducted in an inner-city hospital in Bronx, New York. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients who underwent elective, non- cardiac surgery from January 2000 to December 2010 and had echocardiogram within 30 days of surgery...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453304/protocol-investigating-the-clinical-utility-of-an-objective-measure-of-attention-impulsivity-and-activity-qbtest-for-optimising-medication-management-in-children-and-young-people-with-adhd-qbtest-utility-for-optimising-treatment-in-adhd-quota-a-feasibility
#9
Charlotte L Hall, Marilyn James, Sue Brown, Jennifer L Martin, Nikki Brown, Kim Selby, Julie Clarke, Hena Vijayan, Boliang Guo, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis, Madeleine J Groom
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. To improve outcomes, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ADHD guidelines recommend regular monitoring of symptoms when children commence medication. However, research suggests that routine monitoring rarely happens, and clinicians often rely on subjective information such as reports from parents and teachers to ascertain improvement...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453301/role-of-the-family-doctor-in-the-management-of-adults-with-obesity-a-scoping-review
#10
Elizabeth A Sturgiss, Nicholas Elmitt, Emily Haelser, Chris van Weel, Kirsty A Douglas
OBJECTIVES: Obesity management is an important issue for the international primary care community. This scoping review examines the literature describing the role of the family doctor in managing adults with obesity. The methods were prospectively published and followed Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. SETTING: Primary care. Adult patients. INCLUDED PAPERS: Peer-reviewed and grey literature with the keywords obesity, primary care and family doctors...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453300/school-based-lifestyle-education-involving-parents-for-reducing-subjective-psychosomatic-symptoms-in-japanese-adolescents-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Junko Watanabe, Mariko Watanabe, Kazue Yamaoka, Misa Adachi, Asuka Nemoto, Toshiro Tango
INTRODUCTION: Severe subjective psychosomatic symptoms (SPS) in adolescents are a major public health concern, and lifestyle modification interventions for reducing SPS are important topics. Recently, we developed a school-based lifestyle education involving parents for reducing SPS of adolescents (SPRAT), an improved version of the programme from our previous study Programme for adolescent of lifestyle education in Kumamoto (PADOK). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of SPRAT in reducing SPS among adolescents...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453298/urban-green-spaces-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-scoping-review
#12
Marion Porcherie, Mathilde Lejeune, Marion Gaudel, Jeanine Pommier, Emmanuelle Faure, Zoé Heritage, Stéphane Rican, Jean Simos, Nicola Luca Cantoreggi, Anne Roué Le Gall, Linda Cambon, Jean-Philippe Regnaux
INTRODUCTION: Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452905/voiding-school-as-a-treatment-for-daytime-incontinence-or-enuresis-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-intervention-by-measuring-changes-in-wetting-episodes
#13
A Saarikoski, R Koppeli, S Taskinen, A Axelin
BACKGROUND: Most urotherapy interventions are planned for children with daytime incontinence or symptoms, and are based on individual education. This study conducted a voiding school (VS) program with groups of 4-6 children with daytime incontinence or enuresis with or without daytime symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this quasi-experimental study with a one-group pretest-posttest design was to assess the effectiveness of the VS intervention for treating children's daytime incontinence or enuresis...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452750/-consequences-of-chronic-pain-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#14
Rocío Cáceres-Matos, Eugenia Gil-García, Sergio Barrientos-Trigo, Esther Molina, Ana María Porcel-Gálvez
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine and map the consequences of chronic pain in children and adolescents. METHOD: A scoping review was carried out in the international databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, WOS and CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and gray literature. We included documents that addressed psychosocial aspects that influence chronic pain, published in English between 2010 and 2016. We excluded the documents that dealt with pharmacological treatments, chronic pain derived from surgical interventions or where there was no access to full text...
February 13, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452628/an-integrative-review-of-peer-support-for-patients-undergoing-major-limb-amputation
#15
James P Reichmann, Kimberly R Bartman
Medical literature is replete with evidence regarding physical rehabilitation of the amputee; however, scant attention has been paid to psychological rehabilitation. The objective was to perform an integrative review of the published medical evidence regarding amputee peer support in the civilian population and provide an evidence-based clinical practice recommendation. This study was based on an exhaustive examination of the civilian amputee peer support medical evidence, bibliographic search, and on the experience of the authors when performing this integrative review...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452560/health-care-efficiencies-consolidation-and-alternative-models-vs-health-care-and-antitrust-regulation-irreconcilable-differences
#16
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452059/new-zealand-adolescents-concerns-about-their-alcohol-use-and-access-to-services-associations-with-ethnicity-and-other-factors
#17
Shanthi Ameratunga, Nicki Jackson, Roshini Peiris-John, Janie Sheridan, Emma Moselen, Terryann Clark
Using a national survey of 8,500 New Zealand high school students, we investigated adolescents' concerns about their drinking, associated factors including help-seeking preferences and access to health care services, and how these varied by ethnicity and level of socioeconomic deprivation. Approximately 23.9% of the 3,704 current drinkers reported concerns (i.e., being worried about their drinking and/or having tried to cut down). Regression analyses revealed that Māori and Pacific youth were more likely than their New Zealand European peers to be concerned about their drinking...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452051/using-the-ecological-model-to-understand-influences-on-college-student-vaping
#18
Marshall Cheney, Mary Gowin, Ashley H Clawson
Objective The Ecological Model was used to examine the social and environmental influences of the college environment on e-cigarette use (vaping) among college students. Participants Undergraduate college student e-cigarette users (vapers) across three large college campuses in the southwest US from Jan 2015- Aug 2016. Methods Thirty-three interviews were conducted. Transcribed interviews were coded then analyzed for themes. Results College student vapers report multiple levels of influence on their vaping beyond personal beliefs and peer influences, including parents, explicit campus and community messaging, community member requests, and respect for others...
February 16, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452050/pathways-linking-intergenerational-cultural-dissonance-and-alcohol-use-among-asian-american-youth-the-role-of-family-conflict-parental-involvement-and-peer-behavior
#19
Jeremy C Kane, Renee M Johnson, Derek K Iwamoto, David H Jernigan, Tracy W Harachi, Judith K Bass
A difference in degree of acculturation between immigrant parents and children, known as intergenerational cultural dissonance (ICD), is a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. We used path analysis with 292 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents from immigrant families in the United States to measure potential mediators (family conflict, parental involvement/monitoring, association with deviant peers) of the ICD-alcohol use relationship. The hypothesized model was an adequate data fit among both groups. Among Cambodian adolescents, higher ICD levels significantly predicted increased family conflict, which in turn was associated with reduced parental involvement/monitoring, increased association with deviant peers, and a subsequently higher risk of alcohol use (p < ...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452000/optimal-items-for-assessing-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-across-mother-father-and-teacher-ratings
#20
Belén Sáez, Mateu Servera, Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns
A recent meta-analysis identified optimal items for assessing sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) as distinct from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), and a preliminary study with teacher ratings of children in the United States found strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of 15 SCT items. The current study evaluated whether the same 15 SCT items demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity from ADHD-IN in a large, community-based sample of children in Spain, and whether validity results were replicated across mother, father, and teacher ratings...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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