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Lipid Recommendations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#1
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437058/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-antipsychotic-drugs
#2
Sarah D Holder, Alaina L Edmunds, Sherri Morgan
Antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and are used to manage psychosis as well as other mental illnesses that may or may not have psychotic features, such as bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder. First-generation antipsychotic drugs are more likely to cause adverse effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia. Adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotic drugs typically are related to metabolic abnormalities such as weight gain, abnormal blood glucose levels, and elevated lipid levels...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434482/how-to-implement-clinical-guidelines-to-optimise-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Michel Farnier, Fernando Civeira, Olivier Descamps
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder associated with significantly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Optimal management of FH relies on early identification and treatment with statins alone or in combination with other lipid-lowering therapies. A lack of awareness of FH and its manifestations among primary care physicians and specialists has led to many individuals being misdiagnosed in the early stages of the disease, further increasing the risk of CHD and requiring much more intensive lipid-lowering strategies...
April 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434480/how-to-assess-and-manage-cardiovascular-risk-associated-with-lipid-alterations-beyond-ldl
#4
Maurizio Averna, Erik Stroes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The maintenance of clinically recommended levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) through a statin therapy is a gold standard in the management of patients with dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even when LDL-C levels are at or below clinically recommended target levels, residual cardiovascular (CV) risk still remains. Therefore, assessing lipoproteins beyond LDL-C in managing CV risk is imperative. METHODS: A working group of clinical experts have assessed the role of lipoproteins other than LDL-C in identifying the CV risk in patients with dyslipidaemia and CVD and in the management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia associated with a number of other diseases...
April 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433209/practical-recommendations-for-the-management-of-cardiovascular-risk-associated-with-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-with-special-attention-to-residual-risk-spanish-adaptation-of-a-european-consensus-of-experts
#5
Juan F Ascaso, Roberto Ferrari
This document has discussed clinical approaches to managing cardiovascular risk in clinical practice, with special focus on residual cardiovascular risk associated with lipid abnormalities, especially atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD). A simplified definition of AD was proposed to enhance understanding of this condition, its prevalence and its impact on cardiovascular risk. AD can be defined by high fasting triglyceride levels (≥2.3mmol/L / ≥200mg/dL) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (≤1,0 / 40 and ≤1,3mmol/L / 50mg/dL in men and women, respectively) in statin-treated patients at high cardiovascular risk...
April 19, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431557/the-effect-of-vitamin-b12-supplementation-in-nepalese-infants-on-growth-and-development-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Tor A Strand, Manjeswori Ulak, Ram K Chandyo, Ingrid Kvestad, Mari Hysing, Merina Shrestha, Sudha Basnet, Suman Ranjitkar, Laxman Shrestha, Prakash S Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies and is associated with poor cognitive development and growth. Vitamin B12 is crucial for normal cell division and differentiation, and it is necessary for the development and myelination of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study is to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 on the neurodevelopment and growth of young children in Nepal. METHODS/DESIGN: We are conducting an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 600 marginally stunted children 6-11 months old (length for age less than -1 z-score)...
April 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429651/time-to-improve-statin-prescription-guidelines-in-low-risk-patients
#7
Jan W Balder, Jeroen K de Vries, Douwe J Mulder, Pieter W Kamphuisen
Background The challenge of the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to identify patients who would benefit from treatment with statins. Statins are currently prescribed to many patients, even those at a low 10-year risk of CVD. These latter patients may not be eligible for statins according to current guidelines. Design This study investigated the prescription of guideline-consistent (according to guidelines) and guideline-inconsistent (not according to guidelines) lipid-lowering treatment in primary prevention in a large contemporary Dutch cohort study (Lifelines)...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423063/vitamin-d-status-and-its-association-with-insulin-resistance-among-type-2-diabetics-a-case-control-study-in-ghana
#8
Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, William K B A Owiredu, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Edwin Ferguson Laing, Michael Acquaye Adotey-Kwofie, Enoch Odame Antoh, Eric Detoh
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D plays a major role in physiological processes that modulate mineral metabolism and immune function with probable link to several chronic and infectious conditions. Emerging data suggests a possible influence of vitamin D on glucose homeostasis. This study sought to provide preliminary information on vitamin D status among Ghanaian type 2 diabetics and assessed its association with glucose homeostasis. METHODS: In a case control study, 118 clinically diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients attending Diabetic Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital were enrolled between October and December 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421422/hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-update-on-current-and-emergent-therapeutic-interventions
#9
REVIEW
Steven W Johnson, Dorothea K Thompson, Brianne Raccor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the prognosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-genotype 3 (GT3), a highly prevalent infection worldwide. However, in patients with hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), GT3 infection presents a treatment challenge compared with other genotypes. The dependence of the HCV life cycle on host lipid metabolism suggests the possible utility of targeting host cellular factors for combination anti-HCV therapy...
June 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420720/a-phase-i-study-of-abc294640-a-first-in-class-sphingosine-kinase-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#10
Carolyn D Britten, Melanie B Thomas, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Steven H Chin, Keisuke Shirai, Besim Ogretmen, Tricia A Bentz, Alan Brisendine, Kate Anderton, Susan L Cusack, Lynn W Maines, Yan Zhuang, Charles D Smith
Purpose:  Sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) regulate tumor growth by generating the mitogenic and pro-inflammatory lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). This phase I study investigated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and anti-tumor activity of ABC294640, a first-in-class orally-available inhibitor of SK2.  <p>Experimental Design:  Escalating doses of ABC294640 were administered orally to patients with advanced solid tumors in sequential cohorts at the following dose levels: 250 mg qd, 250 mg bid, 500 mg bid and 750 mg bid, continuously in cycles of 28 days...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419334/effect-of-a-low-crude-protein-diet-supplemented-with-different-levels-of-threonine-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-blood-parameters-and-immune-responses-of-growing-broilers
#11
Samantha Sigolo, Zahra Zohrabi, Antonio Gallo, Alireza Seidavi, Aldo Prandini
A study was conducted to evaluate growth performance, carcass traits, blood serum parameters, and immune responses of Ross 308 male broilers fed diets containing 2 different crude protein (CP) levels (97.5 and 100%) and 4 threonine (Thr) levels (100, 110, 120, and 130% of Ross recommendations for starter and grower periods). A completely randomized block design was adopted and main effects (CP and Thr) were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial approach. Optimum growth performance was achieved when broiler requirements for CP and Thr were 100% satisfied...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418481/comparison-of-recommended-eligibility-for-primary-prevention-statin-therapy-based-on-the-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendations-vs-the-acc-aha-guidelines
#12
Neha J Pagidipati, Ann Marie Navar, Hillary Mulder, Allan D Sniderman, Eric D Peterson, Michael J Pencina
Importance: There are important differences among guideline recommendations for using statin therapy in primary prevention. New recommendations from the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) emphasize therapy based on the presence of 1 or more cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and a 10-year global CVD risk of 10% or greater. Objective: To determine the difference in eligibility for primary prevention statin treatment among US adults, assuming full application of USPSTF recommendations compared with the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines...
April 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416004/clinical-study-of-children-with-takayasu-arteritis-a-retrospective-study-from-a-single-center-in-china
#13
Ye Feng, Xuemei Tang, Mingyue Liu, Juan Zhou, Xiaodong Zhao, Qiu Li
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of childhood Takayasu arteritis (TA) is common due to its atypical symptoms. The objective of the present study was to summarize the clinical features of childhood TA to raise awareness and improve management. METHODS: Eleven children diagnosed with TA at our hospital were enrolled. Clinical information, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were then examined retrospectively. The Pediatric Vasculitis Activity Score (PVAS) and the Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score (ITAS2010) were used to assess disease activity...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410617/treatment-with-high-dose-n-3-pufas-has-no-effect-on-platelet-function-coagulation-metabolic-status-or-inflammation-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
Malgorzata Poreba, Magdalena Mostowik, Aleksander Siniarski, Renata Golebiowska-Wiatrak, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Maciej Haberka, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Anetta Undas, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), there is limited evidence for n-3 PUFA-mediated effects, especially at its higher dose, on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and established atherosclerosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily treatment with a higher dose (2 g) of n-3 PUFAs on platelet function, coagulation parameters, fibrin clot properties, markers of systemic inflammation and metabolic status, in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and DM2 who receive optimal medical therapy...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410598/prevalence-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-police-officers-in-riyadh-city-and-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Abdullah S Alghamdi, Mohammed A Yahya, Ghedeir M Alshammari, Magdi A Osman
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. METHOD: The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
April 14, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#16
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402131/can-imaging-predict-subclinical-cortisol-secretion-in-patients-with-adrenal-adenomas-a-ct-predictive-score
#17
Cristina Mosconi, Valentina Vicennati, Dimitris Papadopoulos, Guido Di Dalmazi, Antonio M Morselli-Labate, Rita Golfieri, Renato Pasquali
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine whether any correlation between CT findings and functional parameters exists to predict subclinical glucocorticoid secretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective database study of 55 patients with incidentally discovered adenomas, investigated through CT with an adrenal protocol, assessing diameters and attenuation values on the unenhanced and contrast-enhanced phases. Patients underwent blood cortisol and corticotropin evaluation and overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in accordance with clinical recommendations...
April 12, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400931/evaluation-of-cardiac-functions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#18
Faten M Abd-El Aziz, Shereen Abdelghaffar, Eman M Hussien, Aya M Fattouh
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) represents one of the serious complications. To evaluate the cardiac function in children with T1D by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). METHODS: The study included 40 T1D patients (age between 6 and 16 years) with > 5 years duration of diabetes and 42 healthy control children. The patients were subjected to clinical evaluation and laboratory investigations [glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum lipids and lipoproteins]...
March 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399800/tst-positivity-in-household-contacts-of-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-contact-study-in-malawi
#19
Jonas Hector, Suzanne T Anderson, Gertrude Banda, Mercy Kamdolozi, Laura F Jefferys, Doris Shani, Natalie J Garton, Agnes Mwale, Annie Jobe, Geraint R Davies, Derek J Sloan
BACKGROUND: Screening household contacts of active tuberculosis (TB) patients is recommended for TB control. Due to resource constraints this rarely occurs in lower income countries. Demographic and clinical features of index cases may influence the likelihood of onwards TB transmission. It has also been proposed that accumulation of intracellular lipid bodies within M. tuberculosis cells may also enhance bacterial transmissibility. This study explored whether clinical and bacteriological observations recorded at baseline in TB cases in Malawi could help identify those with the highest risk of onwards transmission, to prioritise contact tracing...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395555/alirocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolaemia
#20
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Albarosa Rivellese
Prescription of statins for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction is the standard of care in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease; nevertheless, a large number of patients treated with statins are unable to reach the recommended LDL-C targets. Therefore, there is need for safe and effective novel therapies for the pharmacological management of hypercholesterolaemia, in addition or as alternative to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) currently in use. Areas covered: In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved alirocumab (Praluent®; Sanofi), a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemic patients unable to meet LDL-C targets, as an adjunct to diet in addition/alternative to LLT...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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