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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926520/cubosomes-the-next-generation-of-smart-lipid-nanoparticles
#1
Hanna Maria Gabriella Barriga, Margaret Nancy Holme, Molly M Stevens
Cubosomes are highly stable nanoparticles formed from the lipid cubic phase and stabilized by a polymer based outer corona. Lipid cubic phases consist of a single lipid bilayer which forms a continuous periodic membrane lattice structure with pores formed by two interwoven water channels. Cubosome composition can be tuned to engineer pore sizes or include bioactive lipids, the polymer outer corona can be used for targeting and they are highly stable under physiological conditions. The structure provides a significantly higher membrane surface area for loading of membrane proteins and small drug molecules than liposomes...
June 21, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920350/risk-prediction-of-cerebrovascular-events-with-carotid-plaque-magneitc-resonance-analysis-a-meta-analysis
#2
Binghu Jiang, Dongmei He, Liwen Zhang, Min Ye
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is not conclusive that magnetic resonance (MR)-based carotid atherosclerotic plaque assessment identifies high-risk features associated with cerebrovascular events. We aimed to systematically summarize the association of MR imaging (MRI)-determined intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC), and thinning/rupture of the fibrous cap (TRFC) with subsequent ischemic events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search evaluating the association of MRI-based carotid plaque composition with ischemic outcomes...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917002/available-oral-lipid-lowering-agents-could-bring-most-high-risk-patients-to-target-an-estimate-based-on-the-dyslipidemia-international-study-ii-italy
#3
Gaetano M De Ferrari, Gian P Perna, Antonino Nicosia, Luigina Guasti, Gavino Casu, Claudio Cuccia, Francesca Picco, Caterina Strazzella, Rossana Totaro, Stefania Cercone, Laura Canullo, Martin Horack, Dominik Lautsch, Anselm K Gitt, Matteo Di Biase
AIMS: The analysis evaluated the contemporary percentage of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) reaching the European guidelines recommended LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of less than 70 mg/dl and the threshold required for proprotein convertase subtlisin/kexin type 9 reimbursement in Italy (100 mg/dl). It also assessed how these percentages would change in case of diffuse use of ezetimibe. METHODS: The Dyslipidemia International Study II enrolled CHD patients aged at least 18 either on lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for at least 3 months or not on LLT at the time of the lipid profile...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903781/how-good-are-gps-at-adhering-to-a-pragmatic-trial-protocol-in-primary-care-results-from-the-addition-cambridge-cluster-randomised-pragmatic-trial
#4
Michael Laxy, Edward C F Wilson, Clare E Boothby, Simon J Griffin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the fidelity of general practitioners' (GPs) adherence to a long-term pragmatic trial protocol. DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of electronic primary care records of participants in the pragmatic cluster-randomised ADDITION (Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment In People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care)-Cambridge trial, comparing intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) versus routine care (RC). Data were collected from the date of diagnosis until December 2010...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902380/application-of-the-target-lipid-model-and-passive-samplers-to-characterize-the-toxicity-of-bioavailable-organics-in-oil-sands-process-affected-water
#5
Aaron D Redman, Thomas F Parkerton, Josh David Butler, Daniel J Letinski, Richard A Frank, L Mark Hewitt, Adrienne J Bartlett, Patricia Leigh Gillis, Julie R Marentette, Joanne L Parrott, Sarah A Hughes, Rodney Guest, Asfaw Bekele, Kun Zhang, Garrett Morandi, Steve B Wiseman, John P Giesy
Oil sand operations in Alberta, Canada will eventually include returning treated process-affected waters to the environment. Organic constituents in oil sand process-affected water (OSPW) represent complex mixtures of nonionic and ionic (e.g. naphthenic acids) compounds, and compositions can vary spatially and temporally, which has impeded development of water quality benchmarks. To address this challenge, it was hypothesized that solid phase microextraction fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) could be used as a biomimetic extraction (BE) to measure bioavailable organics in OSPW...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899295/impact-of-dietary-cholesterol-on-the-pathophysiology-of-infectious-and-autoimmune-disease
#6
REVIEW
Catherine J Andersen
Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898839/does-clinician-reported-lipid-guideline-adoption-translate-to-guideline-adherent-care-an-evaluation-of-the-patient-and-provider-assessment-of-lipid-management-palm-registry
#7
Angela Lowenstern, Shuang Li, Ann Marie Navar, Salim Virani, L Veronica Lee, Michael J Louie, Eric D Peterson, Tracy Y Wang
BACKGROUND: The 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol guideline recommends statin treatment based on patients' predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Whether clinician-reported guideline adoption translates to implementation into practice is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare clinician lipid management in hypothetical scenarios versus observed practice. METHODS: The PALM Registry asked 774 clinicians how they would treat 4 hypothetical scenarios of primary prevention patients with: (1) diabetes; (2) high 10-year ASCVD risk (≥7...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898219/association-of-patient-perceptions-of-cardiovascular-risk-and-beliefs-on-statin-drugs-with-racial-differences-in-statin-use-insights-from-the-patient-and-provider-assessment-of-lipid-management-registry
#8
Michael G Nanna, Ann Marie Navar, Pearl Zakroysky, Qun Xiang, Anne C Goldberg, Jennifer Robinson, Veronique L Roger, Salim S Virani, Peter W F Wilson, Joseph Elassal, L Veronica Lee, Tracy Y Wang, Eric D Peterson
Importance: African American individuals face higher atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk than white individuals; reasons for these differences, including potential differences in patient beliefs regarding preventive care, remain unknown. Objective: To evaluate differences in statin use between white and African American patients and identify the potential causes for any observed differences. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using the 2015 Patient and Provider Assessment of Lipid Management (PALM) Registry data, we compared statin use and dosing between African American and white outpatient adults who were potentially eligible for primary or secondary prevention statins...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891593/human-aldose-reductase-expression-prevents-atherosclerosis-regression-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Chujun Yuan, Jiyuan Hu, Saj Parathath, Lisa Grauer, Courtney Blachford Cassella, Svetlana Bagdasarov, Ira J Goldberg, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Edward A Fisher
Guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes include aggressive LDL lowering, but benefits are attenuated compared to those in patients without diabetes. Consistent with this, we have reported in mice that hyperglycemia impaired atherosclerosis regression. Aldose reductase (AR) is thought to contribute to clinical complications of diabetes by directing glucose into pathways producing inflammatory metabolites. Mice have low levels of AR, thus, raising them to human levels would be a more clinically relevant model to study changes in diabetes under atherosclerosis regression conditions...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890598/increased-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-serum-one-year-after-a-great-weight-loss-in-humans-are-the-levels-exceeding-health-based-guideline-values
#10
Aina Jansen, Anuschka Polder, Mette H B Müller, Eystein Skjerve, Jan Aaseth, Jan L Lyche
BACKGROUND: With the growing prevalence of obesity, an increased number of bariatric surgeries are being performed. Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored in adipose tissue, and an increased release of lipophilic POPs into the blood circulation may occur following rapid weight loss such as after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare POP levels in serum before and after bariatric surgery, and to assess if the POP levels exceeded health based guideline values, with particular focus on women of childbearing age (WCBA)...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886481/growth-hormone-deficiency-in-the-transition-age
#11
Sandro Loche, Natascia Di Iorgi, Giuseppa Patti, Serena Noli, Marta Giaccardi, Irene Olivieri, Anastasia Ibba, Mohamad Maghnie
Growth hormone (GH) is essential not only for normal growth during childhood, but also for the acquisition of bone mass and muscle strength in both sexes. This process is completed after the achievement of adult height in the phase of transition from adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents with childhood onset GH deficiency (GHD) show reduction of bone mineral density, decrease in lean body mass, increase in fat mass, and deterioration of the lipid profile. For this reason, continuation of GH replacement therapy in the transition age is recommended in all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of GHD...
2018: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879685/cost-utility-analysis-of-searching-electronic-health-records-and-cascade-testing-to-identify-and-diagnose-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-england-and-wales
#12
Paul Crosland, Ross Maconachie, Sara Buckner, Hugh McGuire, Steve E Humphries, Nadeem Qureshi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The cost effectiveness of cascade testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is well recognised. Less clear is the cost effectiveness of FH screening when it includes case identification strategies that incorporate routinely available data from primary and secondary care electronic health records. METHODS: Nine strategies were compared, all using cascade testing in combination with different index case approaches (primary care identification, secondary care identification, and clinical assessment using the Simon Broome (SB) or Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria)...
May 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878904/towards-more-specific-treatment-for-diabetic-dyslipidemia
#13
Valentina Rodriguez, Jonathan D Newman, Arthur Z Schwartzbard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia is necessary because of its impact on cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes. In the past, standard treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia focused only on correcting lipids. Although this remains the mainstay of treatment, because new antihyperglycemic treatments reduce cardiovascular events with minimal effect on dyslipidemia, a new approach is both timely and relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: LDL-lowering remains the focus of treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia, especially in patients with both diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
June 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878554/controversies-in-the-use-of-lipid-injectable-emulsion-in-hospitalized-patients
#14
Jane Maria Gervasio
Soybean oil-based lipid injectable emulsion (SO-based ILE) is an 18-carbon, ω-6 macronutrient providing a concentrated source of calories, which can be administered in or with parenteral nutrition to patients unable to tolerate or consume adequate enteral nutrition. Beyond the provision of energy, SO-based ILE provides linoleic and linolenic acid, 2 essential fatty acids necessary for the prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. However, SO-based ILE with its high levels of ω-6 fatty acids, long-chain triglycerides, phospholipid emulsifiers, and glycerin has been associated with worsening clinical outcomes, including increase of infections, lengthier intensive care and hospital stay, and prolonged mechanical ventilation...
June 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877609/a-structured-tool-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Shamala Ayadurai, V Bruce Sunderland, Lisa Bg Tee, Siti Norlina Md Said, H Laetitia Hattingh
BACKGROUND: A review of pharmacist diabetes intervention studies revealed lack of structured process in providing diabetes care which consequently produced varied results from increased to minimal improvements. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a structured clinical guidelines tool, the Simpler™ tool, in the delivery of diabetes care. The primary outcome was significant improvement in HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin). Secondary outcomes were improved lipid profiles and blood pressure (BP)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877295/guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-2017
#16
Mariko Harada-Shiba, Hidenori Arai, Yasushi Ishigaki, Shun Ishibashi, Tomonori Okamura, Masatsune Ogura, Kazushige Dobashi, Atsushi Nohara, Hideaki Bujo, Katsumi Miyauchi, Shizuya Yamashita, Koutaro Yokote
Statement1. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal hereditary disease with the 3 major clinical features of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, premature coronary artery disease and tendon and skin xanthomas. As there is a considerably high risk of coronary artery disease, in addition to early diagnosis and intensive treatment, family screening (cascade screening) is required (Recommendation level A)2.For a diagnosis of FH, at least 2 of the following criteria should be satisfied:① LDL-C ≥180 mg/dL, ② Tendon/skin xanthomas, ③ History of FH or premature coronary artery disease (CAD) within 2nd degree blood relatives (Recommendation level A)3...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873275/hepatic-artery-resistive-index-as-surrogate-marker-for-fibrosis-progression-in-nafld-patients-a-clinical-perspective
#17
Claudio Tana, Cosima Schiavone, Andrea Ticinesi, Fulvio Lauretani, Antonio Nouvenne, Christoph Frank Dietrich, Tiziana Meschi
Ultrasound (US) can reveal the presence of steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but its diagnostic accuracy to reveal signs of fibrosis is low except in advanced stages of disease (e.g. cirrhosis). Current guidelines suggest the use of clinical algorithms, such as the NAFLD fibrosis score, and elastography to predict the progression of fibrosis, and the integration of elastography improves the detection accuracy of liver stiffness. However, there is a lack of evidence about the correlation between clinical algorithms and conventional US, and elastography is limited by the relative low diffusion, necessity of training, and loss of diagnostic accuracy in patients with high body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, or increased thickness of parietal walls, with consequent significant rates of failure of measurement of liver stiffness...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870942/what-is-the-relationship-between-the-bioaccumulation-of-chemical-contaminants-in-the-variegated-scallop-mimachlamys-varia-and-its-health-status-a-study-carried-out-on-the-french-atlantic-coast-using-the-path-comdim-model
#18
Marine Breitwieser, Evelyne Vigneau, Amélia Viricel, Vanessa Becquet, Camille Lacroix, Marina Erb, Valérie Huet, Carine Churlaud, Stéphane Le Floch, Benoit Guillot, Marianne Graber, Hélène Thomas
Increasing activity along the French Atlantic coast has led to chronic pollution with, in particular, mixtures of contaminants such as hydrocarbons, phytosanitary products, PCBs and heavy metals. Based on previous research, pollution biomarkers were used in this study as they can indicate health status when monitoring the impact of pollutants on coastal species such as the marine bivalve Mimachlamys varia. Mollusc bivalves were sampled in March 2016, in open and semi-open areas (a harbour zone), from thirteen sites which differed in terms of their level of pollution, and were located along the Atlantic coast from Brittany down to the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region...
June 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860845/indentation-of-graphene-covered-afm-probe-across-a-lipid-bilayer-membrane-effect-of-tip-shape-size-and-surface-hydrophobicity
#19
Kang Lv, Yinfeng Li
Understanding the interaction of graphene with cell membranes is crucial to the development of graphene-based biological applications and the management of graphene safety issues. To help reveal the key factors controlling the interaction of between graphene and cell membrane, here we adopt the dissipative particle dynamics method to analyze the evolution of interaction force and free energy as the graphene covered AFM probe indents across a lipid bilayer. The simulation results show that graphene covered on the AFM probe can cause severe deformation of cell membrane which drives the lipid molecule to adsorb and diffuse at the surface of graphene...
June 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860802/-association-between-total-cholesterol-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-incidence-in-men-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Z Y Lyu, N Li, G Wang, K Su, F Li, L W Guo, X S Feng, L P Wei, H D Chen, Y H Chen, F W Tan, W J Yang, S H Chen, J S Ren, J F Shi, H Cui, M Dai, S L Wu, J He
Objective: To assess the association and intensity of baseline TC level with the incidence of lung cancer in men in China. Methods: Since May 2006, all the male workers, including the employees and the retirees in Kailuan Group were recruited in the Kailuan male dynamic cohort study. Information about demographics, medical history, anthropometry and TC level were collected at the baseline interview, as well as the information of newly-diagnosed lung cancer cases during the follow-up period. According to guidelines for blood lipids in Chinese adults and the distribution in the population, TC level was classified into five groups as followed: <160, 160-, 180-, 200- and ≥240 mg/dl, with the second quintile group (160- mg/dl) serving as the referent category...
May 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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