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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792380/alirocumab-as-add-on-therapy-to-statins-current-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#1
Johann Auer, Robert Berent
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) are associated with a substantial mortality, physical morbidity, and mental disability. Elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels play a major role in the pathophysiology of ASCVDs. Statins have been shown to reduce ASCVD risk and associated events and are recommended as first-line therapy for treatment of hypercholesterolemia by current international guidelines. The key issue is to attain guideline-recommended LDL-C levels (below 70 mg/dl) for patients at very high cardiovascular risk...
May 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760220/quantifying-atherogenic-lipoproteins-current-and-future-challenges-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine-and-vldl-cholesterol-a-consensus-statement-from-eas-and-eflm
#2
Michel R Langlois, M John Chapman, Christa Cobbaert, Samia Mora, Alan T Remaley, Emilio Ros, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Hannsjörg Baum, Eric Bruckert, Alberico Catapano, Olivier S Descamps, Arnold von Eckardstein, Pia R Kamstrup, Genovefa Kolovou, Florian Kronenberg, Anne Langsted, Kari Pulkki, Nader Rifai, Grazyna Sypniewska, Olov Wiklund, B Rge G Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: The European Atherosclerosis Society-European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Consensus Panel aims to provide recommendations to optimize atherogenic lipoprotein quantification for cardiovascular risk management. CONTENT: We critically examined LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL particle number assays based on key criteria for medical application of biomarkers. ( a ) Analytical performance: Discordant LDL cholesterol quantification occurs when LDL cholesterol is measured or calculated with different assays, especially in patients with hypertriglyceridemia >175 mg/dL (2 mmol/L) and low LDL cholesterol concentrations <70 mg/dL (1...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756771/resolution-of-lipoprotein-subclasses-by-charge-detection-mass-spectrometry
#3
Corinne A Lutomski, Scott M Gordon, Alan T Remaley, Martin F Jarrold
Lipoproteins are micelle-like assemblies that are key players in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) are the three major classes present in fasting plasma. Within each class, there is a broad size distribution with wide variations in protein and lipid content. The development of better metrics for cardiovascular risk is thought to depend on better characterization of lipoprotein subclasses. Using charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), the mass distributions of HDL, LDL, and VLDL have been directly measured for the first time...
May 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677628/circulating-metabolomic-profile-can-predict-dyslipidemia-in-hiv-patients-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Pere Domingo, Sara Ferrando-Martínez, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Sergi Veloso, Miguel López-Dupla, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Verónica Alba, Montserrat Vargas, Alfonso J Castellano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda María Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Félix Gutiérrez, Francesc Vidal, Anna Rull
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes. METHODS: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months...
April 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628368/sebelipase-alfa-improves-atherogenic-biomarkers-in-adults-and-children-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency
#5
Don P Wilson, Mark Friedman, Sachin Marulkar, Tyler Hamby, Eric Bruckert
BACKGROUND: Measures of atherogenic cholesterol, with and without concomitant use of lipid-lowering medications (LLMs), are reported with up to 52 weeks of sebelipase alfa treatment in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) participating in the phase 3 Acid Lipase Replacement Investigating Safety and Efficacy study (NCT01757184). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of sebelipase alfa on levels of atherogenic biomarkers in the Acid Lipase Replacement Investigating Safety and Efficacy study...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596044/the-effects-of-high-protein-and-high-monounsaturated-fat-meals-on-postprandial-lipids-lipoprotein-particle-numbers-cytokines-and-leptin-responses-in-overweight-obese-subjects
#6
Meena Shah, Beverley Adams-Huet, Brian Franklin, Melody Phillips, Joel Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Obesity is linked to dyslipidemia, proinflammatory state, and hyperleptinemia. The influence of high-protein (HP) versus high-monounsaturated fat (HMF) meals on postprandial lipids, lipoprotein particle numbers, cytokines, and leptin responses in overweight/obese (OW/O) subjects is unknown. METHODS: Twenty-four OW/O participants consumed an HP (31.9% energy from protein) and HMF (35.2% fat and 20.7% monounsaturated fat) meal, of similar energy/carbohydrate content, in a random order...
April 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574075/relationship-between-ldl-c-estimated-true-ldl-c-apolipoprotein-b-100-and-pcsk9-levels-following-lipoprotein-a-lowering-with-an-antisense-oligonucleotide
#7
Nicholas J Viney, Calvin Yeang, Xiaohong Yang, Shuting Xia, Joseph L Witztum, Sotirios Tsimikas
BACKGROUND: The laboratory measurement of "low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)" includes the cholesterol content of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)-C). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the "true" LDL-C in relation to changes in apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) and assess changes in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) levels in patients with elevated Lp(a) treated with IONIS-APO(a)Rx. METHODS: A pooled placebo group (n = 29), and cohort A (n = 24, baseline Lp(a) 50-175 mg/dL) and cohort B (n = 8, baseline Lp(a) > 175 mg/dL) treated with IONIS-APO(a)Rx were studied...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546278/comprehensive-metabolic-profiling-reveals-a-lipid-rich-fingerprint-of-free-thyroxine-far-beyond-classic-parameters
#8
Thomas Lange, Kathrin Budde, Georg Homuth, Gabi Kastenmüller, Anna Artati, Jan Krumsiek, Henry Völzke, Jerzy Adamski, Astrid Petersmann, Uwe Völker, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Maik Pietzner
Objective: Thyroid hormones are ubiquitously involved in human metabolism. However, the precise molecular patterns associated with alterations in thyroid hormones levels remain to be explored in detail. A number of recent studies took great advantage of metabolomics profiling to outline the metabolic actions of thyroid hormones in humans. Methods: Among 952 participants in the Study of Health in Pomerania, data on serum free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin and comprehensive nontargeted metabolomics data from plasma and urine samples were available...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516504/increased-serum-pcsk9-a-potential-biomarker-to-screen-for-periodontitis-and-decreased-total-bilirubin-associated-with-probing-depth-in-a-japanese-community-survey
#9
K Tabeta, M Hosojima, M Nakajima, S Miyauchi, H Miyazawa, N Takahashi, Y Matsuda, N Sugita, Y Komatsu, K Sato, T Ishikawa, K Akiishi, K Yamazaki, K Kato, A Saito, H Yoshie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous reports suggest that several serum biomarkers play roles in the pathogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in periodontitis caused by bacterial infections, linking chronic periodontitis to atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate, in a Japanese cross-sectional community survey, potential serum biomarkers of periodontitis that are associated with ASVD and chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study cohort included a total of 108 male subjects who underwent annual health examinations...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515051/circulating-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-levels-independently-predict-10-year-progression-of-subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-a-community-based-cohort-study
#10
Shen Gao, Dong Zhao, Yue Qi, Wei Wang, Miao Wang, Jiayi Sun, Jun Liu, Yan Li, Jing Liu
AIMS: To investigate the association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and to examine whether this link is independent of other low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related parameters. METHODS: Totally, 804 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline completed risk factor surveys and carotid ultrasound measurements in 2002 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was performed to examine the association between baseline serum ox-LDL levels and the 10-year risk of progression of carotid atherosclerosis which was defined as the development of at least one new plaque in a previously plaque-free carotid segment at re-examination...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493553/postprandial-remnant-lipoproteins-as-targets-for-the-prevention-of-atherosclerosis
#11
Katsuyuki Nakajima, Akira Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and chylomicron remnants were previously proposed as the most atherogenic lipoproteins for the causal lipoproteins of atherosclerosis. However, there are still controversies on these hypothesizes. Therefore, we have proposed a new hypothesis based on our recent findings of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) in postprandial plasma. RECENT FINDINGS: Plasma RLP-C and RLP-TG increased significantly after fat load...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463520/lipid-profile-and-effect-of-statin-treatment-in-pooled-phase-ii-and-phase-iii-baricitinib-studies
#12
Peter C Taylor, Joel M Kremer, Paul Emery, Steven H Zuckerman, Giacomo Ruotolo, Jinglin Zhong, Lei Chen, Sarah Witt, Chadi Saifan, Monika Kurzawa, James D Otvos, Margery A Connelly, William L Macias, Douglas E Schlichting, Terence P Rooney, Stephanie de Bono, Iain B McInnes
OBJECTIVES: Lipid profiles are altered by active disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may be further modified by treatment with Janus kinase inhibitors and other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS: Lipid data were analysed from phase II and III studies of 4 mg (n=997) and 2 mg (n=479) oral baricitinib administered once daily in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA. Lipoprotein particle size and number and GlycA were evaluated with nuclear magnetic resonance in one phase III study...
February 20, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459241/the-atherogenic-dyslipidemia-complex-and-novel-approaches-to-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Robert A Hegele, Gary F Lewis
Despite the effectiveness of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering strategies for the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia, significant residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains. Residual risk might in part be explained by lipid abnormalities that go beyond LDL cholesterol elevation, collectively termed the "atherogenic dyslipidemia complex (ADC)," consisting of hypertriglyceridemia, elevated small dense LDL particles, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein particle numbers, increased remnant lipoproteins, and postprandial hyperlipidemia...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436756/alirocumab-vs-usual-lipid-lowering-care-as-add-on-to-statin-therapy-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-and-mixed-dyslipidaemia-the-odyssey-dm-dyslipidemia-randomized-trial
#14
Kausik K Ray, Lawrence A Leiter, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Bertrand Cariou, Helen M Colhoun, Robert R Henry, Francisco J Tinahones, Maja Bujas-Bobanovic, Catherine Domenger, Alexia Letierce, Rita Samuel, Stefano Del Prato
AIM: To compare alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor, with usual care (UC) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and mixed dyslipidaemia not optimally managed by maximally tolerated statins in the ODYSSEY DM-DYSLIPIDEMIA trial (NCT02642159). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The UC options (no additional lipid-lowering therapy; fenofibrate; ezetimibe; omega-3 fatty acid; nicotinic acid) were selected prior to stratified randomization to open-label alirocumab 75 mg every 2 weeks (with increase to 150 mg every 2 weeks at week 12 if week 8 non-HDL cholesterol concentration was ≥2...
June 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407879/lipoprotein-profile-assessed-by-2d-1h-nmr-and-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-children-with-familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#15
Cèlia Rodríguez-Borjabad, Daiana Ibarretxe, Josefa Girona, Raimon Ferré, Albert Feliu, Núria Amigó, Eugenio Guijarro, Luis Masana, Núria Plana
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is underdiagnosed in children. In addition to lipid concentrations, lipoprotein particle quantity and quality could influence cardiovascular risk. We aimed to perform a comprehensive plasma lipid study, including lipoprotein particle number and size assessment by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-1H-NMR), in children with FH compared to non-affected children and to evaluate the clinical value of these factors as subclinical atherosclerosis biomarkers...
March 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382504/balanced-high-fat-diet-reduces-cardiovascular-risk-in-obese-women-although-changes-in-adipose-tissue-lipoproteins-and-insulin-resistance-differ-by-race
#16
K D Niswender, S Fazio, B A Gower, H J Silver
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that consuming a balanced high fat diet (BHFD) wherein total saturated fat was reduced and total unsaturated fat increased by proportionately balancing the type of fat (1/3 saturated, 1/3 monounsaturated, 1/3 polyunsaturated) led to significant improvements in inflammatory burden, blood pressure, and vascular function in obese premenopausal European American (EA) and African American (AA) women. OBJECTIVE: Here we compared changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk between EA and AA women...
January 27, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381796/substitution-of-dietary-%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-saturated-fatty-acids-decreases-ldl-apolipoprotein-b-100-production-rate-in-men-with-dyslipidemia-associated-with-insulin-resistance-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, André J Tremblay, Marie-Claude Lépine, Valéry Lemelin, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture
Background: The substitution of omega (ω)-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) is advocated in cardiovascular disease prevention. The impact of this substitution on lipoprotein metabolism in subjects with dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance (IR) remains unknown. Objective: In men with dyslipidemia and IR, we evaluated the impact of substituting ω-6 PUFAs for SFAs on the in vivo kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins and on the intestinal expression of key genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359673/non-traditional-cardiovascular-risk-markers-in-the-era-of-established-major-risk-factors-and-multiple-guidelines
#18
Thomas F Whayne
The non-traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that appear to be of most clinical interest include: apolipoprotein A (ApoA), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), high-sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 (IL1), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], the density of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, the LDL particle number, tissue/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and uric acid. These non-traditional risk factors may be of value in adding further confirmation and attention to suspected significant CV risk...
January 22, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336935/update-on-the-laboratory-investigation-of-dyslipidemias
#19
REVIEW
I Ramasamy
The role of the clinical laboratory is evolving to provide more information to clinicians to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and target therapy more effectively. Current routine methods to measure LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald calculation, ultracentrifugation, electrophoresis and homogeneous direct methods have established limitations. Studies suggest that LDL and HDL size or particle concentration are alternative methods to predict future CVD risk. At this time there is no consensus role for lipoprotein particle or subclasses in CVD risk assessment...
April 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324459/discordance-between-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-cholesterol-content-an-update
#20
Eric P Cantey, John T Wilkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cholesterol content within atherogenic apolipoprotein-B (apoB) containing lipid particles is the center of consensus guidelines and clinicians' focus whenever evaluating a patient's risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis requires the retention of lipoprotein particles within the vascular intima over time followed by maladaptive inflammation resulting in plaque formation and rupture in some. The cholesterol content is widely variable within each particle creating either cholesterol-deplete or cholesterol-enriched particles...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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