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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728064/ldl-subfractions-are-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-malm%C3%A3-prevention-project-study
#1
Dov Shiffman, Judy Z Louie, Michael P Caulfield, Peter M Nilsson, James J Devlin, Olle Melander
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: After assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on traditional risk factors, decisions concerning lipid lowering therapy might remain uncertain. To investigate whether lipoprotein subfraction levels could aid these decisions, we assessed the association between lipoprotein subfractions and CVD, after adjustment for traditional risk factors including standard lipids. METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, participants were randomly drawn from the Malmö Prevention Project (MPP), a population-based prospective study of 18,240 participants, and supplemented with additional incident CVD events (5764 participants, 1784 CVD events)...
July 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682864/characterization-of-lipid-profile-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-1h-nmr-of-metabolically-healthy-obese-women-after-weight-loss-with-mediterranean-diet-and-physical-exercise
#2
Enrique Rodriguez-Garcia, Josefina Ruiz-Nava, Sonia Santamaria-Fernandez, Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia, Antonio Vargas-Candela, Raquel Yahyaoui, Francisco J Tinahones, Maria Rosa Bernal-Lopez, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas
Obesity is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. No data exists on lipoprotein particle profiles in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals. Our aim is to characterize lipoprotein size, particle, and subclass concentrations in MHO women after 3 months of weight loss through dietary restriction and physical exercise.A total of 115 nondiabetic women (aged 35-55 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 to 40 kg/m and ≤1 of the following criteria: blood pressure ≤135/85 mm Hg, fasting plasma glucose ≤100 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol ≤50 mg/dL, and triglycerides ≤150 mg/dL were included...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671714/significant-differentiation-in-the-apolipoprotein-a-lipoprotein-a-trait-between-chimpanzees-from-western-and-central-africa
#3
Asma Noureen, Claudius Ronke, Mahmoud Khalifa, Michel Halbwax, Anne Fischer, Claudine André, Rebeca Atencia, Rosa Garriga, Lawrence Mugisha, Uta Ceglarek, Joachim Thiery, Gerd Utermann, Konrad Schmidt
Elevated Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) plasma concentrations are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans, largely controlled by the LPA gene encoding apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)). Lp(a) is composed of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apo(a) and restricted to Catarrhini. A variable number of kringle IV (KIV) domains in LPA lead to a size polymorphism of apo(a) that is inversely correlated with Lp(a) concentrations. Smaller apo(a) isoforms and higher Lp(a) levels in central chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes [PTT]) compared to humans from Europe had been reported...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587667/the-effects-of-basal-insulin-peglispro-vs-insulin-glargine-on-lipoprotein-particles-by-nmr-and-liver-fat-content-by-mri-in-patients-with-diabetes
#4
Trevor J Orchard, Bertrand Cariou, Margery A Connelly, James D Otvos, Shuyu Zhang, Caryl J Antalis, Tibor Ivanyi, Byron J Hoogwerf
BACKGROUND: In Phase 2/3 studies of basal insulin peglispro (BIL) compared to insulin glargine, patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes previously treated with insulin and randomized to BIL had an increase in serum triglycerides (TGs). To further understand lipoprotein changes, a lipid substudy which included liver fat content was designed to assess relationships among the measured variables for each diabetes cohort and compare the hepato-preferential insulin BIL to glargine. METHODS: In three cohorts of patients with diabetes (type 1, type 2 insulin naïve, and type 2 previously on insulin; n = 652), liver fat content (LFC) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood lipids were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at baseline, 26 and 52 weeks of treatment...
June 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554308/lipid-metabolism-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#5
Magdaléna Dušejovská, Barbora Staňková, Marek Vecka, Jana Rychlíková, Magdaléna Mokrejšová, Ivan Rychlík, Aleš Žák
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit high morbidity as well as mortality for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Therefore, we investigated differences in individual lipoprotein classes and subclasses in ESRD patients under chronic high volume hemodiafiltration (HV-HDF) in comparison with a control group. We also assessed the prognosis of these patients and analyzed these parameters after 5 years follow-up. METHODS: 57 patients and 50 controls were enrolled...
May 29, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502513/relationship-between-noninvasive-scores-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-lipoprotein-abnormalities-a-focus-on-atherogenic-dyslipidemia
#6
Antonio J Amor, Montserrat Pinyol, Elsa Solà, Marta Catalan, Montserrat Cofán, Zoe Herreras, Nuria Amigó, Rosa Gilabert, Aleix Sala-Vila, Emilio Ros, Emilio Ortega
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging, highly prevalent, cardiovascular risk factor, and lipoprotein proatherogenic disturbances likely explain a large part of this risk. However, information regarding associations between detailed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein changes and noninvasive NAFLD scores is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the NMR-assessed atherogenic lipoprotein profile according to noninvasive NAFLD status...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460374/ldl-particle-number-and-size-and-cardiovascular-risk-anything-new-under-the-sun
#7
Janie Allaire, Cécile Vors, Patrick Couture, Benoît Lamarche
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide here an up-to-date perspective on the potential use of LDL particle number and size as complementary risk factors to predict and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the clinical realm. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies show that a significant proportion of the population has discordant LDL particle number and cholesterol indices [non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. Data also show that risk prediction may be improved when using information on LDL particle number in patients with discordant particle number and cholesterol data...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450350/cholesterol-efflux-capacity-high-density-lipoprotein-particle-number-and-incident-cardiovascular-events-an-analysis-from-the-jupiter-trial-justification-for-the-use-of-statins-in-prevention-an-intervention-trial-evaluating-rosuvastatin
#8
Amit V Khera, Olga V Demler, Steven J Adelman, Heidi L Collins, Robert J Glynn, Paul M Ridker, Daniel J Rader, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. METHODS: HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels...
June 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444290/low-density-lipoproteins-cause-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-1-evidence-from-genetic-epidemiologic-and-clinical-studies-a-consensus-statement-from-the-european-atherosclerosis-society-consensus-panel
#9
Brian A Ference, Henry N Ginsberg, Ian Graham, Kausik K Ray, Chris J Packard, Eric Bruckert, Robert A Hegele, Ronald M Krauss, Frederick J Raal, Heribert Schunkert, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Sergio Fazio, Jay D Horton, Luis Masana, Stephen J Nicholls, Børge G Nordestgaard, Bart van de Sluis, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Lale Tokgözoglu, Ulf Landmesser, Ulrich Laufs, Olov Wiklund, Jane K Stock, M John Chapman, Alberico L Catapano
Aims: To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results: We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C)...
April 24, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424373/statins-pcsk9-inhibitors-and-cholesterol-homeostasis-a-view-from-within-the-hepatocyte
#10
EDITORIAL
Allan D Sniderman, Robert Scott Kiss, Thomas Reid, George Thanassoulis, Gerald F Watts
Statins and PCSK9 inhibitors dramatically lower plasma LDL levels and dramatically increase LDL receptor number within hepatocyte cell membranes. It seems self-evident that total clearance of LDL particles from plasma and total delivery of cholesterol to the liver must increase in consequence. However, based on the results of stable isotope tracer studies, this analysis demonstrates the contrary to be the case. Statins do not change the production rate of LDL particles. Accordingly, at steady state, the clearance rate cannot change...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379036/inverse-association-of-lipoprotein-a-with-markers-of-insulin-resistance-in-dyslipidemic-subjects
#11
H Vaverková, D Karásek, M Halenka, L Cibíčková, V Kubíčková
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an LDL-like particle that contains an apolipoprotein B100 molecule covalently bound to a plasminogen-like glycoprotein, apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)]. Epidemiological evidence supports a direct and causal association between Lp(a) levels and coronary risk. On the contrary, a few prospective findings demonstrate inverse association of Lp(a) levels with risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of Lp(a) with indicators of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), which precede development of T2DM...
April 5, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342064/hdl-cholesterol-reappraisal-of-its-clinical-relevance
#12
REVIEW
Winfried März, Marcus E Kleber, Hubert Scharnagl, Timotheus Speer, Stephen Zewinger, Andreas Ritsch, Klaus G Parhofer, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ulf Landmesser, Ulrich Laufs
BACKGROUND: While several lines of evidence prove that elevated concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) causally contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences, high-density lipoproteins are still widely believed to exert atheroprotective effects. Hence, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is in general still considered as "good cholesterol". Recent research, however, suggests that this might not always be the case and that a fundamental reassessment of the clinical significance of HDL-C is warranted...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329241/lipoprotein-a-the-revenant
#13
Baris Gencer, Florian Kronenberg, Erik S Stroes, François Mach
In the mid-1990s, the days of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were numbered and many people would not have placed a bet on this lipid particle making it to the next century. However, genetic studies brought Lp(a) back to the front-stage after a Mendelian randomization approach used for the first time provided strong support for a causal role of high Lp(a) concentrations in cardiovascular disease and later also for aortic valve stenosis. This encouraged the use of therapeutic interventions to lower Lp(a) as well numerous drug developments, although these approaches mainly targeted LDL cholesterol, while the Lp(a)-lowering effect was only a 'side-effect'...
May 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260912/association-of-uremic-pruritus-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-the-number-of-days-of-high-mean-24-hour-particulate-matter-with-a-diameter-of-2-5-%C3%AE-m
#14
Ming-Hui Liu, Ming-Jen Chan, Ching-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hao Weng, Tzung-Hai Yen, Wen-Hung Huang
Uremic pruritus (UP) is a common and incapacitating symptom in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). The pathogenesis of UP is multifactorial and complex. Particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant, is a mixture of particles with various chemical compositions. PM is associated with several allergic diseases, including dermatitis. To assess the role of PM (PM with a diameter of <10 μm [PM10] and PM with a diameter of <2.5 μm [PM2.5]) and other clinical variables in UP in patients on HD, we recruited 866 patients on maintenance HD (MHD)...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137217/anti-pcsk9-antibodies-a-new-era-in-the-treatment-of-dyslipidemia
#15
Joel Schmitz, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
The serine protease proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and directs it to lysosomal degradation. This results in decreased numbers of LDLR available on the cell surface to bind LDL particles and remove them from the circulation which in turn leads to an increase in circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Since the role PCSK9 plays in LDLC metabolism has been discovered in 2003 there have been major efforts in finding efficient and safe methods to inhibit it...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125987/method-for-estimating-high-sdldl-c-by-measuring-triglyceride-and-apolipoprotein-b-levels
#16
Toshiyuki Hayashi, Shinji Koba, Yasuki Ito, Tsutomu Hirano
BACKGROUND: We previously developed an assay to directly measure small dense (sd) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which is not widely used in general clinical practice. Therefore, we propose a simpler method, "LDL window," that uses conventional methods for estimating high sdLDL-C levels. METHODS: We analyzed our previous studies (2006-2008) on healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). The sdLDL-C level was measured using the precipitation method, and LDL size was determined using gradient gel electrophoresis...
January 26, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108216/the-phenomenon-of-atherosclerosis-reversal-and-regression-lessons-from-animal-models
#17
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Studies in non-rodent and murine models showed that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Atherosclerosis progression induced by high-fat or cholesterol-rich diet can be reduced and reversed to plaque regression after switching to a normal diet or through administration of lipid-lowering agents. The similar process should exist in humans after implementation of lipid-lowering therapy and as a result of targeting of small rupture-prone plaques that are major contributors for acute atherosclerotic complications. Lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the activation of reverse cholesterol transport lead to a decline in foam cell content, to the depletion of plaque lipid reservoirs, a decrease in lesional macrophage numbers through the activation of macrophage emigration and, probably, apoptosis, dampening plaque inflammation, and the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in clearance of the necrotic core and plaque healing...
February 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078862/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-proprietary-lipid-lowering-nutraceutical-supplement-in-the-management-of-dyslipidemia
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M Houston, R Rountree, J Lamb, S Phipps, S Meng, B Zhang
There is an ever growing emergence in the popularity of patient-driven care. As this health and wellness model grows, inquiries into diet, lifestyle, and supplemental approaches will continue to become a focal point for the healthcare consumer. Because of this, the aim of this study is to determine the tolerability, and overall effectiveness of a proprietary multi-ingredient lipid-lowering supplement in subjects with dyslipidemia. Forty participants were recruited for a single-center, double-blind randomized, placebocontrolled trial...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062489/lipoprotein-a-mass-levels-increase-significantly-according-to-apoe-genotype-an-analysis-of-431%C3%A2-239-patients
#19
Patrick M Moriarty, Stephen A Varvel, Philip L S M Gordts, Joseph P McConnell, Sotirios Tsimikas
OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are genetically determined by hepatocyte apolipoprotein(a) synthesis, but catabolic pathways also influence circulating levels. APOE genotypes have different affinities for the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and LDL-related protein-1, with ε2 having the weakest binding to LDL receptor at <2% relative to ε3 and ε4. APPROACH AND RESULTS: APOE genotypes (ε2/ε2, ε2/ε3, ε2/ε4, ε3/ε3, ε3/ε4, and ε4/ε4), Lp(a) mass, directly measured Lp(a)-cholesterol levels, and a variety of apoB-related lipoproteins were measured in 431 239 patients...
March 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053201/evidence-that-supports-the-prescription-of-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diets-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Timothy David Noakes, Johann Windt
Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are a highly contentious current topic in nutrition. This narrative review aims to provide clinicians with a broad overview of the effects of LCHF diets on body weight, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors while addressing some common concerns and misconceptions. Blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations show a variable, highly individual response to LCHF diets, and should be monitored in patients adhering to this diet. In contrast, available evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that LCHF diets consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk-lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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