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Andrea De Lorenzo, Juliana Duarte Lopes da Silva, Cinthia E James, Alexandre C Pereira, Annie Seixas Bello Moreira
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by a high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with the familiar hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype, with or without genetic confirmation of FH. METHODS: Forty-five patients with LDL-C > 190 mg/dl were genotyped for six FH-related genes: LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, LDLRAP1, LIPA and APOE...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Xianhua Liu, Ruiheng Yang, Bo Dai, Honghao Zhang, Jinxue Wang, Ning Ma
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that nicotinic acid and related compounds may decrease phosphorus concentrations effectively by reducing the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, the efficacy and safety of oral niacin treatments have only been investigated in a limited number of small-scale studies. METHODS: We performed this meta-analysis by pooling 12 qualified relevant preclinical and clinical trials to evaluate the association of nicotinic acid (and its related compounds) treatment and hyperphosphatemia among dialysis patients...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anthony S Wierzbicki, Timothy M Reynolds, Adie Viljoen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A number of novel trials have assessed the efficacy of new lipid-lowering therapies in cardiovascular disease (CVD). RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-9 inhibitors reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 50-55%. A CVD outcome trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes with evolocumab achieved a LDL-C of 0.8 mmol/l (31 mg/dl) and a 20% relative risk reduction in CVD events in 2.2 years. Cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and can lower LDL-C...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Javad Heshmati, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Nazli Namazi, Fatemeh Shokri, Mahsa Yavari, Siavash Fazelian, Masoud Khorshidi, Farzad Shidfar
Dyslipidemia is the main risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. There are discrepancies in the effects of calcium supplementation on modulation of lipid status. Therefore, we aimed to summarize the effects of dietary calcium supplement on circulating lipoprotein concentrations and atherogenic indices in overweight and obese individuals. We conducted a systematic literature search from 2000 until July 2016. PubMed, Scopus, Cochran Library, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials written in English...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Karen E Elkind-Hirsch, Martha S Paterson, Donna Shaler, Hanh C Gutowski
OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study examined the effectiveness of sitagliptin-metformin (SITA-MET), metformin (MET), and placebo (P) therapy on fasting and post-glucose challenge glucose levels in postpartum women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Prediabetic women (N = 36, age 18 to 42 years) with recent GDM were randomized to P (one pill twice a day), MET (1,000 mg twice a day), or SITA-MET (50 mg SITA, 1,000 mg MET twice a day) for 16 weeks in a single-blind fashion...
March 21, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Damir Klepac, Hana Kostková, Svetlana Petrova, Petr Chytil, Tomáš Etrych, Sami Kereïche, Ivan Raška, David A Weitz, Sergey K Filippov
In this paper, we revised the current understanding of the protein corona that is created on the surface of nanoparticles in blood plasma after an intravenous injection. We have focused on nanoparticles that have a proven therapeutic outcome. These nanoparticles are based on two types of biocompatible amphiphilic copolymers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA): a block copolymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-b-poly(HPMA), and a statistical HPMA copolymer bearing cholesterol moieties, which have been tested both in vitro and in vivo...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Ya-Ni Tang, Cheng-Fu Tan, Wei-Wei Liu, Jie Yan, Chao Wang, Mi Liu, Dong-Hai Lin, Cai-Hua Huang, Lin Du, Mei-Lin Chen, Jiao-Lan Li, Ding-Ming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: We have repeatedly demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan"(PC 6) can improve myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the metabolomic profile of peripheral blood se-rum and myocardium involving EA-induced improvement of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were equally randomized into blank control, model and EA groups...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
László Potor, Péter Nagy, Gábor Méhes, Zoltán Hendrik, Viktória Jeney, Dávid Pethő, Anita Vasas, Zoltán Pálinkás, Enikő Balogh, Ágnes Gyetvai, Matthew Whiteman, Roberta Torregrossa, Mark E Wood, Sándor Olvasztó, Péter Nagy, György Balla, József Balla
The infiltration of red blood cells into atheromatous plaques is implicated in atherogenesis. Inside the lesion, hemoglobin (Hb) is oxidized to ferri- and ferrylHb which exhibit prooxidant and proinflammatory activities. Cystathione gamma-lyase- (CSE-) derived H2 S has been suggested to possess various antiatherogenic actions. Expression of CSE was upregulated predominantly in macrophages, foam cells, and myofibroblasts of human atherosclerotic lesions derived from carotid artery specimens of patients. A similar pattern was observed in aortic lesions of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on high-fat diet...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shengjun Wang, Yang Mao, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Zilu Ye, Weihua Tian, Christoffer K Goth, Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Nis Borbye Pedersen, Asier Benito-Vicente, Cesar Martin, Kepa B Uribe, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero, Christina Christoffersen, Nabil G Seidah, Rikke Nielsen, Erik I Christensen, Lars Hansen, Eric P Bennett, Sergey Y Vakhrushev, Katrine T Schjoldager, Henrik Clausen
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and related proteins are important for the transport of diverse biomolecules across cell membranes and barriers. Their functions are especially relevant for cholesterol homeostasis and diseases, including neurodegenerative and kidney disorders. Members of the LDLR-related protein family share LDLR class A (LA) repeats providing binding properties for lipoproteins and other biomolecules. We previously demonstrated that short linker regions between these LA repeats contain conserved O-glycan-sites...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Romeo Papazyan, Xueqing Liu, Jingwen Liu, Bin Dong, Emily M Plummer, Ronald D Lewis, Jonathan D Roth, Mark A Young
Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist that regulates bile acid and lipid metabolism. FXR activation induces distinct changes in circulating cholesterol among animal models and humans. The mechanistic basis of these effects has been elusive because of difficulties in studying lipoprotein homeostasis in mice, which predominantly package circulating cholesterol in high-density lipoproteins. Here, we tested the effects of OCA in chimeric mice whose livers are mostly composed (≥80%) of human hepatocytes...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Asokan Devarajan
The prevalence of kidney stones and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing throughout the world. Both diseases are chronic and characterized by accumulation of oxidized proteins and lipids in the renal tissue and arterial wall, respectively. Emerging studies have revealed a positive association between nephrolithiasis and CVDs. Based on preclinical and clinical evidences, this review discusses: (i) stone forming risk factors, crystal nucleation, aggregation, injury-induced crystal retention, and stone formation, (ii) CVD risk factors such as dyslipidemia, perturbation of gut microbiome, obesity, free radical-induced lipoprotein oxidation, and retention in the arterial wall, subsequent foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis, (iii) mechanism by which stone forming risk factors such as oxalate, calcium, uric acid, and infection contribute toward CVDs, and (iv) how CVD risk factors, such as cholesterol, phospholipids, and uric acid, contribute to kidney stone formation are described...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
T N Anand, Linju M Joseph, A V Geetha, Joyita Chowdhury, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Panniyammakal Jeemon
BACKGROUND: One of the potential strategies to improve health care delivery in understaffed low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is task sharing, where specific tasks are transferred from more qualified health care cadre to a lesser trained cadre. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease but often it is not managed appropriately. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review with the objective to identify and evaluate the effect of task sharing interventions on dyslipidemia in LMICs...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Nabab Khan, Gaurav Datta, Jonathan D Geiger, Xuesong Chen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major carrier protein that mediates the transport and delivery of cholesterol and other lipids in the brain. Three isoforms of ApoE (ApoE2, ApoE3, ApoE4) exist in humans, and their relative expression levels impact HIV-1 infection, HIV-1/AIDS disease progression, and cognitive decline associated with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder. Because HIV-1 Tat, a viral protein essential for HIV-1 replication, can bind to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) that controls ApoE uptake in the brain, we determined the extent to which different isoforms of ApoE affected Tat-mediated HIV-1 LTR transactivation...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Rasha Babiker, Khalifa Elmusharaf, Michael B Keogh, Amal M Saeed
BACKGROUND: There is a strong association between cardiometabolic risk and adipose tissue dysfunction with great consequences on type 2 diabetic patients. Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is an indirect clinical marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Gum Arabic (GA) is a safe dietary fiber, an exudate of Acacia Senegal. Gum Arabic had shown lipid lowering effect in both humans and animals. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of GA supplementation on anthropometric obesity marker, Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
March 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Stefano Grazioli, Maurizio Paciaroni, Giancarlo Agnelli, Monica Acciarresi, Andrea Alberti, Cataldo D'Amore, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Luigina Guasti, Walter Ageno, Alessandro Squizzato
BACKGROUND: The association between stroke and cancer is well-known but insufficiently investigated. Aim of this multicentre retrospective cohort study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-associated ischemic stroke, describe clinical outcomes in patients with cancer-associated ischemic stroke and investigate independent factors associated with active cancer. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke were included. Included patients were admitted in the Stroke Unit of the Hospital of Perugia, Italy, from March 2005 to March 2015, and in a medical unit of the Hospital of Varese, Italy, from January 2010 till December 2011...
March 15, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Hossein Babaei, Fahimeh Forouzandeh, Leila Maghsoumi-Norouzabad, Hojat Allah Yousefimanesh, Maryam Ravanbakhsh, Ahmad Zare Javid
AIM: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of chicory leaf extract on serum oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, and periodontal status in patients with chronic periodontitis. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial 40 patients with chronic periodontitis were allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received a 1-gram chicory leaf methanolic extract capsule twice daily for 8 weeks. In the control group, participants received a placebo capsule (containing 1 gram wheat flour) twice daily for 8 weeks...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Carine Beysen, Marcie Ruddy, Aubrey Stoch, Lori A Mixson, Kim Rosko, Tim Riiff, Scott M Turner, Marc K Hellerstein, Elizabeth J Murphy
Fructose feeding increases hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Little is known, however, about individual variation in susceptibility to fructose stimulation of DNL. In this three-period, cross-over study, seventeen healthy male subjects were enrolled to evaluate the within and between subject variability of acute fructose feeding on hepatic fractional DNL. During each assessment, [1-13 C1 ]-acetate was infused to measure DNL in the fasting state and during fructose feeding...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andreas Weber, Mareike Barth, Jessica Isabel Selig, Silja Raschke, Konstantinos Dakaras, Alexander Hof, Julia Hesse, Jürgen Schrader, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
Calcific aortic valve disease is an active disease process with lipoprotein deposition, chronic inflammation, and progressive leaflet degeneration. Expression of ectonucleotidases, a group of membrane-bound enzymes that regulate the metabolism of ATP and its metabolites, may coregulate the degeneration process of valvular interstitial cells (VICs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the enzymes of the purinergic system in the degeneration process of VICs. Ovine VICs were cultivated in vitro under different prodegenerative conditions and treated with inhibitors of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39)/ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), and 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), as well as with adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ozlem Kurnaz-Gomleksiz, Ozlem Kucukhuseyin, Elif Ozkok, Zehra Bugra, Oguz Ozturk, Hulya Yilmaz-Aydogan
BACKGROUND: The OLR1 gene has been identified as a candidate gene for coronary artery disease (CAD). Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OLR1 gene located within intron 4 (IVS4-27G>C, IVS4-73C>T, IVS4-14A>G), intron 5 (IVS5-70A>G, IVS5-27G>T) and 3'UTR (188C>T) comprise a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block, which is strongly associated with the elevated risk of CAD. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of the OLR1 IVS4-14A>G and -73C>T SNPs on metabolic parameters in Turkish CAD patients, and the linkage between these 2 genetic variants...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Zbyszko Chowaniec, Anna Skoczyńska
Cardiovascular diseases are still the main cause of death in Poland and throughout the world. Independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease, in addition to elevated LDL cholesterol, are both low HDL levels and high levels of non-HDL cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid-transfer protein (PLTP) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) both play a major role in the metabolism of those lipoproteins. A lack of these proteins increases HDL and lowers LDL levels. In the light of current knowledge, it seems reasonable to search for compounds that may decrease the activity of CETP, and thus reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease...
March 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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