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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229399/the-malleus-cap-anatomic-description-of-cartilage-of-the-lateral-process-of-the-malleus
#1
Elias Michaelides, Ankit Kansal, Sara Rutter, Christopher A Schutt
PURPOSE: To anatomically describe a cartilaginous cap attached to the lateral process of the malleus. STUDY DESIGN: Histologic and gross anatomic review. METHODS: Twenty temporal bones were histologically reviewed. The anatomical relationship between the tympanic membrane and malleus was then defined at the level of the lateral process of the malleus and the long process of the malleus. Separately, gross evaluation of these levels at the macroscopic level was undertaken through endoscopic imaging in five subjects...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226066/instrumental-variable-analyses-in-pharmacoepidemiology-what-target-trials-do-we-emulate
#2
REVIEW
Sonja A Swanson
Purpose of review: When leveraging observational data to estimate treatment effects, it is useful to explicitly specify the "target trial" the investigators aspire to emulate. One concern is whether a proposed analysis plan can address the realities of the differences between the available non-randomized observational study and the target trial. When large or unknown sources of unmeasured confounding are suspected, investigators might consider turning to instrumental variable (IV) methods...
2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225577/if-channel-as-an-emerging-therapeutic-target-for-cardiovascular-diseases-a-review-of-current-evidence-and-controversies
#3
REVIEW
Hayelom G Mengesha, Tadesse B Tafesse, Mohammed H Bule
In 2015, non-communicable diseases accounted for 39.5 million (70%) of the total 56.4 million deaths that occurred globally, of which 17.7 million (45%) were due to cardiovascular diseases. An elevated heart rate is considered to be one of the independent predictors and markers of future cardiovascular diseases. A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies have found that atherosclerosis, heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, and arrhythmia are linked to elevated heart rate. Although there are established drugs to reduce the heart rate, these drugs have undesirable side effects...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216740/new-concepts-of-radiologic-preoperative-evaluation-of-anterior-shoulder-instability-on-track-and-off-track-lesions
#4
Aishwarya Gulati, Riham Dessouky, Vibhor Wadhwa, Drew Sanders, Avneesh Chhabra
The shoulder is the most frequently dislocated joint in the body due to a larger range of motion and a small area of articulation between the humeral and glenoid surfaces. Traumatic shoulder dislocations, especially those associated with injury to the labroligamentous or bony stabilizers of the joint, lead to further reduction of articular surface contact with resultant glenohumeral instability and recurrent shoulder dislocations. Imaging plays an increasingly important role in the preoperative evaluation of patients with traumatic shoulder instability by evaluating glenohumeral bone loss (uni- or bipolar), assessing soft tissue injuries and identifying patients at risk of postoperative recurrence...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212914/distributed-force-feedback-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-regulation-of-limb-mechanics
#5
T Richard Nichols
This review is an update on the role of force feedback from Golgi tendon organs in the regulation of limb mechanics during voluntary movement. Some current ideas about the role of force feedback are based on circuit motifs linking idealized systems of agonists, synergists and antagonistic muscles. Force feedback is widely distributed across the muscles of a limb and cannot be understood based on these circuit motifs. Muscle architecture similarly cannot be understood in terms of idealized systems. It is hypothesized that distributed force feedback better represents the complex mechanical interactions of muscles, including viscoelastic coupling and inertial coupling across joints and axes of rotation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212438/the-intensity-and-timing-of-sex-offender-treatment
#6
Andrew Day, Stuart Ross, Sharon Casey, James Vess, Diana Johns, Gaynor Hobbs
Current evidence about the impact of specialized sex offender treatment on reoffending remains inconsistent, drawing attention to the need to focus more on those program characteristics that potentially moderate outcome. This review considers current professional perspectives and evidence on two defining aspects of treatment: its intensity and timing. It is concluded that insufficient evidence currently exists to articulate best practice in this area and there is a pressing need to collect empirical evidence about the effectiveness of different intensity treatments offered at different stages of sentence...
December 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201370/salvage-of-mangled-upper-extremity-using-the-masquelet-technique-in-a-child-a-case-report
#7
Nabil Alassaf, Amro Alhoukail, Abdullah Alsahli, Ghazi Althubaiti
Aim: To report our experience with the Masquelet concept in a pediatric upper extremity following an open injury to the elbow. Methods: A case report and literature review. Results: An 11-year-old boy was transferred to our institution after a motor vehicle collision. There was a primary loss of the ulnohumeral articulation and the surrounding soft tissues as well as the ulnar nerve. Reconstruction used the Masquelet-induced membrane technique and a soft tissue flap...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193513/formalizing-the-precepting-process-a-concept-analysis-of-preceptorship
#8
Amanda E Ward, Sara McComb
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aims of this concept analysis are to elucidate the terminology associated with preceptorships, articulate an operational description of preceptorship that may be useful in formalizing the precepting process, and provide guidance for constructing a clinical environment where precepting can thrive. BACKGROUND: Precepting facilitates the transition of nurses into new roles. Precepting may improve patient outcomes and safety, as well as enhance nursing satisfaction...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187081/medical-directors-perspectives-on-strengthening-hospital-quality-and-safety
#9
Rachel Canaway, Marie Bismark, David Dunt, Margaret Kelaher
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the concerns and factors that impact on hospital quality and safety, particularly related to use of performance data, within a setting of devolved governance. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used thematic analysis of interviews with public hospital medical directors. For additional context, findings were framed by themes from a review of hospital safety and quality in the same jurisdiction. Findings Varying approaches and levels of complexity were described about what and how performance data are reviewed, prioritised, and quality improvements implemented...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175693/influence-of-valproate-on-language-functions-in-children-with-epilepsy
#10
Jin Woong Doo, Soon Chul Kim, Sun Jun Kim
The aim of the current study was to assess the influences of valproate (VPA) on the language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric patients with epilepsy. We reviewed medical records of 53 newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy, who were being treated with VPA monotherapy (n=53; 22 male patients and 31 female patients). The subjects underwent standardized language tests, at least twice, before and after the initiation of VPA. The standardized language tests used were The Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of The Expressive/Receptive Language Function Test, and the Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173721/an-interprofessional-team-approach-to-the-differential-diagnosis-of-children-with-language-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Xueman Lucy Liu, Dawn M Zahrt, Mark D Simms
The ability to communicate effectively with others is central to children's development. Delays or disruptions due to isolated expressive language delay, articulation errors, multiple sound production errors with motor planning deficits, or mixed expressive and receptive language delay, often bring widespread consequences. Physical anomalies, neurologic and genetic disorder, cognitive and intellectual disabilities, and emotional disturbances may affect speech and language development. Communication disorders may be misdiagnosed as intellectual impairment or autism...
February 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167886/payment-reform-to-enhance-collaboration-of-primary-care-and-cardiology-a-review
#12
Steven A Farmer, Paul N Casale, Linda D Gillam, John S Rumsfeld, Shari Erickson, Neil M Kirschner, Kevin de Regnier, Bruce R Williams, R Shawn Martin, Mark B McClellan
Importance: The US health care system faces an unsustainable trajectory of high costs and inconsistent outcomes. The fee-for-service payment model has contributed to inefficiency, and new payment methods are a promising approach to improving value. Health reforms are needed to increase patient access, reduce costs, and improve health care quality, and the landmark Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act presents a roadmap for reform. The product of a collaboration between primary care and cardiology clinicians, this review describes a conceptual approach to delivery and payment reforms that aim to better support primary care-cardiology comanagement of chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166310/universal-applicability-of-the-furlow-palatoplasty-resident-as-primary-surgeon-in-a-consecutive-nonselective-series
#13
Mitchell A Stotland, Thanapoom Boonipat, Cheryl M Lundgren, Esperanza Garcia Gonzalo
BACKGROUND: Questions persist regarding the general applicability of the Furlow palatoplasty technique, and thus, widespread adoption of its use has been uneven. This study describes a consecutive, nonselective series of primary Furlow palatoplasties. Highlighted is the unique fact that plastic surgical residents functioned as the primary surgeon for all steps of all procedures throughout the series. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of all primary palatoplasties performed under the direction of the senior surgeon between December 2005 and April 2012...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166126/nutrient-sensing-biology-in-mammals-and-birds
#14
Eugeni Roura, Simon R Foster
Nutrient sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. In addition, the expression of nutrient sensing genes outside the oral cavity seems to mediate the required decision-making dialogue between the gut and the brain by translating exogenous chemical stimuli into neuronal inputs, and vice versa, to translate the endogenous signals relevant to the nutritional status into specific appetites and the control of feed intake...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152909/history-of-the-worldwide-emergence-of-kawasaki-disease
#15
Jane C Burns
Dr. Kawasaki saw his first case of the disease that would come to bear his name in 1961. His meticulous description of the clinical syndrome persists as the case definition to the present day. This review chronicles the emergence and recognition of Kawasaki disease in Asia and Western countries and articulates the old disease/new disease controversy.
November 19, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151851/participation-in-mental-healthcare-a-qualitative-meta-synthesis
#16
REVIEW
Norman J Stomski, Paul Morrison
Background: Facilitation of service user participation in the co-production of mental healthcare planning and service delivery is an integral component of contemporary mental health policy and clinical guidelines. However, many service users continue to experience exclusion from the planning of their care. This review synthesizes qualitative research about participation in mental healthcare and articulates essential processes that enable service user participation in mental health care...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143679/all-things-to-all-people-trade-offs-in-pursuit-of-an-ideal-modeling-tool-for-maternal-and-child-health
#17
Timothy Roberton, Kate Litvin, Andrew Self, Angela R Stegmuller
BACKGROUND: Modeling tools have potential to aid decision making for program planning and evaluation at all levels, but are still largely the domain of technical experts, consultants, and global-level staff. One model that can improve decision making for maternal and child health is the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). We examined respondents' perceptions of LiST's strengths and weaknesses, to identify ways in which LiST - and similar modeling tools - can adapt to be more accessible and helpful to policy makers...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142862/three-dimensional-printing-for-craniomaxillofacial-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
Laura Gaviria, Joseph J Pearson, Sergio A Montelongo, Teja Guda, Joo L Ong
Craniomaxillofacial injuries produce complex wound environments involving various tissue types and treatment strategies. In a clinical setting, care is taken to properly irrigate and stabilize the injury, while grafts are molded in an attempt to maintain physiological functionality and cosmesis. This often requires multiple surgeries and grafts leading to added discomfort, pain and financial burden. Many of these injuries can lead to disfigurement and resultant loss of system function including mastication, respiration, and articulation, and these can lead to acute and long-term psychological impact on the patient...
October 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130059/inter-and-intra-individual-variation-in-emotional-complexity-methodological-considerations-and-theoretical-implications
#19
Anthony D Ong, Alex J Zautra, Patrick H Finan
The degree of relationship between positive and negative emotional states or emotional complexity is a topic of ongoing methodological and theoretical debate. At issue is whether positive and negative emotions are opposite ends of a bipolar continuum or independent dimensions in a bivariate distribution with little degree of overlap. In this review, we summarize a body of work suggesting that the distinction between positive and negative emotions varies both between and within individuals over time as a function of cognition and changes in informational demands, a perspective called the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129182/integrated-one-stop-shop-youth-health-care-best-available-evidence-and-future-directions
#20
Sarah E Hetrick, Alan P Bailey, Kirsten E Smith, Ashok Malla, Steve Mathias, Swaran P Singh, Aileen O'Reilly, Swapna K Verma, Laelia Benoit, Theresa M Fleming, Marie Rose Moro, Debra J Rickwood, Joseph Duffy, Trissel Eriksen, Robert Illback, Caroline A Fisher, Patrick D McGorry
Although mental health problems represent the largest burden of disease in young people, access to mental health care has been poor for this group. Integrated youth health care services have been proposed as an innovative solution. Integrated care joins up physical health, mental health and social care services, ideally in one location, so that a young person receives holistic care in a coordinated way. It can be implemented in a range of ways. A review of the available literature identified a range of studies reporting the results of evaluation research into integrated care services...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
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