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Nathan V Dang, Jacob C Chiang, Heather M Brown, Kelly K McDonald
This study explores the impacts of repeated curricular activities designed to promote metacognitive skills development and academic achievement on students in an introductory biology course. Prior to this study, the course curriculum was enhanced with pre-assignments containing comprehension monitoring and self-evaluation questions, exam review assignments with reflective questions related to study habits, and an optional opportunity for students to explore metacognition and deep versus surface learning. We used a mixed-methods study design and collected data over two semesters...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Jim McCambridge, Melissa Mialon
ISSUES: Alcohol companies have recently invested large sums of money in answering research questions to which they have clear vested interests in the outcomes. There have been extensive concerns about corporate influence on public health sciences, following the experience with the tobacco industry. APPROACH: This systematic review aims to investigate the perspectives of researchers on the activities of alcohol industry actors in relation to science, in order to guide future research...
June 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Mohamad J Halawi, David Brigati, William Messner, Peter J Brooks
Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is increasingly performed in younger patients. The purpose of this study is to report on the midterm outcomes of primary cementless THA in patients 55 years and younger; and specifically to examine the risk factors for aseptic failure, all-cause revision, and mortality in this patient population. Methods: Four hundred and twenty-six consecutive patients with minimum 5-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate analyses were conducted to control for potential confounding factors identified by univariate analyses...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Michelle Sophie Keller, Sasan Mosadeghi, Erica R Cohen, James Kwan, Brennan Mason Ross Spiegel
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects many individuals of reproductive age. Most IBD medications are safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding; however, observational studies find that women with IBD have higher rates of voluntary childlessness due to fears about medication use during pregnancy. Understanding why and how individuals with IBD make decisions about medication adherence during important reproductive periods can help clinicians address patient fears about medication use...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Yeong J Lau, Shashank Sarmah, Johan D Witt
INTRODUCTION: 3rd generation ceramic bearings were introduced in total hip arthroplasty (THA) with the potential to have better mechanical strength and wear properties than their predecessors. At present, there are few studies looking at the long-term results of this latest generation of ceramic bearings. The purpose of our study was to investigate the long-term clinical and radiographic results of 3rd generation ceramic-on-ceramic THA and the incidence of ceramic specific complications such as squeaking and bearing surface fracture...
March 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Anne Marie Lynge Pedersen, Christiane E Sørensen, Gordon B Proctor, Guy H Carpenter, Jörgen Ekström
Saliva is a complex fluid produced by three pairs of major salivary glands and by hundreds of minor salivary glands. It comprises a large variety of constituents and physicochemical properties, which are important for the maintenance of oral health. Saliva not only protects the teeth and the oropharyngeal mucosa, it also facilitates articulation of speech, and is imperative for mastication and swallowing. Furthermore, saliva plays an important role in maintaining a balanced microbiota. Thus, the multiple functions provided by saliva are essential for proper protection and functioning of the body as a whole and for the general health...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Kayoko Okada, William Matchin, Gregory Hickok
Models of speech production posit a role for the motor system, predominantly the posterior inferior frontal gyrus, in encoding complex phonological representations for speech production, at the phonemic, syllable, and word levels [Roelofs, A. A dorsal-pathway account of aphasic language production: The WEAVER++/ARC model. Cortex, 59(Suppl. C), 33-48, 2014; Hickok, G. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 135-145, 2012; Guenther, F. H. Cortical interactions underlying the production of speech sounds...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Renata R Almeida, Mohammad Mansouri, David K Tso, Anne H Johnson, Michael H Lev, Ajay K Singh, Efren J Flores
PURPOSE: Radiography has a low sensitivity for the detection of fractures related to the talonavicular and calcaneocuboid articulations, also known as Chopart fractures. The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity of radiographs for detecting additional foot and ankle fractures related to Chopart fracture using CT or MRI as the reference standard. METHOD: We performed an IRB-approved, retrospective review of radiology reports between 2010 and 2014...
June 6, 2018: Emergency Radiology
Giuseppe Marramà, Giorgio Carnevale, Andrea Engelbrecht, Kerin M Claeson, Roberto Zorzin, Mariagabriella Fornasiero, Jürgen Kriwet
Here, we review and discuss the records and taxonomy of the Ypresian (Eocene) chondrichthyans from the famous Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte in northeastern Italy. Despite the outstanding diversity and the numerous studies focusing on the actinopterygian faunas from Pesciara and Monte Postale, the current knowledge about the systematics, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the cartilaginous fishes from these Eocene sites remains elusive and largely inadequate. The celebrated Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte has yielded several exquisitely preserved articulated remains of chondrichthyan fishes in which delicate structures and soft tissues are preserved, as well as isolated teeth...
2018: Paläontologische Zeitschrift
Robert Hromas, Robert Leverence, Lazarus K Mramba, J Larry Jameson, Caryn Lerman, Thomas L Schwenk, Ellen M Zimmermann, Michael L Good
Economic pressure has led the evolution of the role of the medical school dean from a clinician educator to a health care system executive. In addition, other dynamic requirements also have likely led to changes in their leadership characteristics. The most important relationship a dean has is with the chairs, yet in the context of the dean's changing role, little attention has been paid to this relationship. To frame this discussion, we asked medical school chairs what characteristics of a dean's leadership were most beneficial...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Leadership
Anders Persson, Thomas Eisler, Henrik Bodén, Ferid Krupic, Olof Sköldenberg, Olav Muren
BACKGROUND: Pseudotumor formation following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a well-known complication mainly associated with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and taper corrosion on modular-neck femoral stems. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of revision surgery for symptomatic pseudotumors in a large cohort of patients treated with primary THA with a standard stem and a non-MoM articulation. METHODS: We included 2,102 patients treated with a total of 2,446 THAs from 1999 until May 2016 in a prospective, observational cohort study...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Alan R Harvey
Over tens of thousands of years of human genetic and cultural evolution, many types and varieties of music and language have emerged; however, the fundamental components of each of these modes of communication seem to be common to all human cultures and social groups. In this brief review, rather than focusing on the development of different musical techniques and practices over time, the main issues addressed here concern: (i) when, and speculations as to why, modern Homo sapiens evolved musical behaviors, (ii) the evolutionary relationship between music and language, and (iii) why humans, perhaps unique among all living species, universally continue to possess two complementary but distinct communication streams...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
M Marieswaran, Ishita Jain, Bhavuk Garg, Vijay Sharma, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the six ligaments in the human knee joint that provides stability during articulations. It is relatively prone to acute and chronic injuries as compared to other ligaments. Repair and self-healing of an injured anterior cruciate ligament are time-consuming processes. For personnel resuming an active sports life, surgical repair or replacement is essential. Untreated anterior cruciate ligament tear results frequently in osteoarthritis. Therefore, understanding of the biomechanics of injury and properties of the native ligament is crucial...
2018: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Jeffrey Rakofsky, Mark Rapaport
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the prevalence of the major mood disorders (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) in the community and within neurologic settings, articulates the steps taken to make a diagnosis of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, and reviews old and newer treatment options with proven efficacy for the treatment of these two conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: New medications are available as treatment options for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, such as intranasal and IV ketamine, and somatic treatments, such as deep brain stimulation and vagal nerve stimulators, are being used to target treatment-resistant depression...
June 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Renee Havey, Cassandra Aebersold, Jason Terrasi
Nelson and Baptiste noted that a standard approach to safe patient handling and mobility (SPHM) cannot be generalized to all patient care areas because the unique, high-risk tasks of each area require specific intervention. Matching the SPHM program to the setting, tasks, and roles is important in developing a program that will prevent harm. However, there is little evidence related to the use of SPHM programs in nontraditional care environments, such as emergency departments (EDs). A such, there is no standardized method for training ED nurses in safe patient handling...
July 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Bojan Zagrovic, Lukas Bartonek, Anton A Polyansky
Despite their importance, our understanding of non-covalent RNA/protein interactions is incomplete. This especially concerns the binding between RNA and unstructured protein regions, a widespread class of such interactions. Here, we review the recent experimental and computational work on RNA/protein interactions in an unstructured context with a particular focus on how such interactions may be shaped by the intrinsic interaction affinities between individual nucleobases and protein sidechains. Specifically, we articulate the claim that the universal genetic code, in part, reflects the binding specificity between nucleobases and amino acids and that, in turn, the code may be seen as the Rosetta stone for understanding RNA-protein interactions in general...
May 31, 2018: FEBS Letters
Owen J Diamond, Sujith Konan, Nelson V Greidanus, Donald S Garbuz, Clive P Duncan, Bassam S Masri
BACKGROUND: Instability remains one of the main problems after revision hip surgery. The aim of this study was to review the clinical, radiological, and patient-reported outcomes with the use of modular dual-mobility articulation for revision acetabular reconstruction and investigate the risk of fretting corrosion by measuring serum trace metal ion levels. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients with a minimum of 24-month follow-up after the insertion of a modular dual-mobility (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ) cup at the time of revision hip surgery were identified...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Kalpa Kharicha, Jill Manthorpe, Steve Iliffe, Nathan Davies, Kate Walters
ABSTRACTObjectives:To (i) systematically identify and review strategies employed by community dwelling lonely older people to manage their loneliness and (ii) develop a model for managing loneliness. METHODS: A narrative synthesis review of English-language qualitative evidence, following Economic and Social Research Council guidance. Seven electronic databases were searched (1990-January 2017). The narrative synthesis included tabulation, thematic analysis, and conceptual model development...
May 25, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Alexandra Bucknor, Parisa Kamali, Nicole Phillips, Irene Mathijssen, Hinne Rakhorst, Samuel J Lin, Heather Furnas
BACKGROUND: Previous research has highlighted the gender-based disparities present throughout the field of surgery. This study aims to evaluate the breadth of the issues facing women in plastic surgery, worldwide. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was undertaken from October of 2016 to January of 2017, with no restrictions on date or language. A narrative synthesis of the literature according to themed issues was developed, together with a summary of relevant numeric data...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Jian Chen, Paul J Oh, Nathan Cheng, Ankeet Shah, Jeremy Montez, Anthony Jarc, Liheng Guo, Inderbir S Gill, Andrew J Hung
PURPOSE: To develop and validate automated performance metrics (APMs) to measure surgeon performance of vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RRP). Furthermore, we seek to methodically develop a standardized training tutorial for the robotic VUA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: APMs (motion tracking and system events data) and synchronized surgical video were captured during the RRP. Non-automated performance metrics (NAPMs) were manually annotated by video review...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Urology
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