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Daniel B Dranow, Kevin Hu, April M Bird, S Terese Lawry, Melissa T Adams, Angelica Sanchez, James F Amatruda, Bruce W Draper
Although the zebrafish is a major model organism, how they determine sex is not well understood. In domesticated zebrafish, sex determination appears to be polygenic, being influenced by multiple genetic factors that may vary from strain to strain, and additionally can be influenced by environmental factors. However, the requirement of germ cells for female sex determination is well documented: animals that lack germ cells, or oocytes in particular, develop exclusively as males. Recently, it has been determined that oocytes are also required throughout the adult life of the animal to maintain the differentiated female state...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Daniel Veraguas, Paula F Gallegos, Alejandra E Velasquez, Fidel O Castro, Lleretny Rodriguez-Alvarez
In the domestic cat, the efficiency of in vitro embryo production systems is negatively affected during the nonbreeding season. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of FSH stimulation in anestrous cats, on quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and in vitro developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation. To accomplish this purpose, anestrous cats were grouped into: (1) FSH treated (serial doses of 5 mg of porcine FSH each, every 24 hours, for 4 days) and (2) untreated control...
August 13, 2016: Theriogenology
Justine Bouilly, Isabelle Beau, Sara Barraud, Valérie Bernard, Kemal Azibi, Jérôme Fagart, Anne Fèvre, Anne Laure Todeschini, Reiner A Veitia, Chérif Beldjord, Brigitte Delemer, Catherine Dodé, Jacques Young, Nadine Binart
CONTEXT: Idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major cause of amenorrhea and infertility. POI affects 1% of women before age 40, and several genetic causes have been reported. To date, POI has been considered a monogenic disorder. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify novel gene variations and to investigate if individuals with POI harbor mutation in multiple loci. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred well-phenotyped POI patients were systematically screened for variants in 19 known POI loci (and potential candidate genes) using next-generation sequencing...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Zhichao Lyu, Ning Qin, Thobela Louis Tyasi, Hongyan Zhu, Dehui Liu, Shuguo Yuan, Rifu Xu
The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Sergio Romero, Flor Sánchez, Francesca Lolicato, Heidi Van Ranst, Johan Smitz
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor Natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) play a paramount role in the maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest in antral follicles via the regulation of the intra-oocyte levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. We investigated the potential of CNP 1) to maintain oocyte meiotic arrest during a prolonged prematuration culture, and 2) to sustain acquisition of developmental competence of immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Compact COCs were collected from small antral follicles of pre-pubertal unprimed mice and placed in prematuration culture under different CNP-supplemented media conditions...
August 3, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
R Khodabakhshzadeh, M R Mohammadabadi, A K Esmailizadeh, H Moradi Shahrebabak, F Bordbar, S Ansari Namin
Screening the fertile ewes from national herds to detect the major genes for prolificacy is an effective way to create the fertile flocks. Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9 is a member of the transforming growth factor β superfamily that is essential for folliculogenesis and female fertility. The aim of this study was to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in Kermani sheep breed using PCR-SSCP. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of collected samples using salting-out method...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Gianmaria Miolo, Lino Del Pup, Anthony Ash, Massimo Manno, Barbara Pivetta, Giovanni Tessitori, Giuseppe Corona
: The co-occurrence of gonadal agenesis alongside hypoplastic derivatives of the paramesonephric ducts has rarely been observed. PATIENT(S): 16-year-old dizygotic twin sisters were referred to our department because of primary amenorrhea. X-ray, bone densitometry, ultrasonography, pelvic MRI and measurement of pituitary, ovary, and thyroid hormones were performed. Both twins showed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, bilateral gonadal agenesis, fallopian tube, uterus, and vaginal hypoplasia but normal kidney and urinary tract structures and skeletal system...
July 5, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Jing Guo, Lanying Shi, Xuhong Gong, Mengjie Jiang, Yaoxue Yin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Hong Yin, Hui Li, Chihiro Emori, Koji Sugiura, John J Eppig, You-Qiang Su
Communication between oocytes and their companion somatic cells promotes the healthy development of ovarian follicles, which is crucial for producing oocytes that can be fertilized and are competent to support embryogenesis. However, how oocyte-derived signaling regulates these essential processes remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that oocyte-derived paracrine factors, particularly GDF9 and GDF9-BMP15 heterodimer, promote the development and survival of cumulus-cell-oocyte complexes (COCs), partly by suppressing the expression of Ddit4l, a negative regulator of MTOR, and enabling the activation of MTOR signaling in cumulus cells...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Jing Zhang, Wenwen Liu, Xinhui Sun, Feifei Kong, Ye Zhu, Yue Lei, Youqiang Su, Yiping Su, Jing Li
In mammalian ovaries, follicle assembly requires proper germ cell cyst breakdown and the invasion of somatic cells to encapsulate individual oocytes. Abnormalities in this process lead to a number of pathologies such as premature ovarian failure and infertility. As a conserved pathway regulating cell growth and metabolism in response to growth factors and nutrients, the roles of mTOR signaling in follicular development have been extensively studied in recent years. However, its functions during follicle formation remain unknown...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jin Zhao, Shaoqing Liu, Xiaobing Zhou, Rui Zhang, Yan Li, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Animal Genetics
So-Youn Kim, Katherine Ebbert, Marilia H Cordeiro, Megan M Romero, Kelly A Whelan, Adrian A Suarez, Teresa K Woodruff, Takeshi Kurita
Cell-cell interactions play crucial roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, a loss of which often leads to varying diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that uncontrolled PI3K activity within oocytes irreversibly transforms granulosa cells (GC), causing GC tumors (GCT) through perturbed local cell communication. Previously, we reported reproductive phenotypes of transgenic mice, in which expression of constitutively active mutant PI3K was induced in primordial oocytes by Gdf9-iCre. The transgenic mice (Cre(+)) demonstrated severe ovarian phenotypes, including the overgrowth of excess ovarian follicles and anovulation...
July 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Jun-Ichi Sumitomo, Chihiro Emori, Yuta Matsuno, Mizuki Ueno, Kurenai Kawasaki, Takaho A Endo, Katsuyuki Shiroguchi, Wataru Fujii, Kunihiko Naito, Koji Sugiura
This study tested the hypothesis that oocyte-derived paracrine factors (ODPFs) regulate miRNA expression in mouse granulosa cells. Expression of mmu-miR-322-5p (miR-322) was higher in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) than in cumulus cells of the Graafian follicles. The expression levels of miR-322 decreased when cumulus cells or MGCs were co-cultured with oocytes denuded of their cumulus cells. Inhibition of SMAD2/3 signaling by SB431542 increased miR-322 expression by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Moreover, the cumulus cells but not the MGCs in Bmp15(-/-)/Gdf9(+/-) (double-mutant) mice exhibited higher miR-322 expression than those of wild-type mice...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Heidi Cook-Andersen, Kirsten J Curnow, H Irene Su, R Jeffrey Chang, Shunichi Shimasaki
PURPOSE: Factors that differentially regulate oocyte and granulosa cell growth within the early preantral follicle and how these factors differ at each stage of follicle growth remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to isolate and evaluate the effect of recombinant growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) on oocyte and granulosa cell growth at the primary and early secondary stages of preantral follicle growth during in vitro culture. METHODS: Primary stage follicles (diameters of 50-89 μm) and early secondary stage follicles (diameters of 90-120 μm) were isolated from immature mice, and individual, intact follicles were cultured in vitro in the presence and absence of recombinant GDF9...
August 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Sonika Ahlawat, Rekha Sharma, Manoranjan Roy, Sanjay Mandakmale, Ved Prakash, M S Tantia
Goats form the backbone of rural livelihood and financial security systems in India but their population is showing decreasing trend. Improvement of reproductive traits such as prolificacy offers a solution to stabilize the decreasing goat population and to meet the nutritional needs of growing human population. In the present study, six novel SNPs in three candidate genes for prolificacy (BMPR1B, BMP15, and GDF9) were genotyped in seven breeds of Indian goats to evaluate their association with litter size...
2016: Animal Biotechnology
S Bravo, G Larama, E Paz, K Inostroza, H H Montaldo, N Sepúlveda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Animal Genetics
Alice Pierre, Anthony Estienne, Chrystèle Racine, Jean-Yves Picard, Renato Fanchin, Belén Lahoz, José Luis Alabart, José Folch, Peggy Jarrier, Stéphane Fabre, Danielle Monniaux, Nathalie di Clemente
CONTEXT: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced by the granulosa cells (GCs) of growing follicles and inhibits follicular development. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the regulation of the AMH-specific type 2 receptor (AMHR2) gene expression in GCs by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)15, BMP4 and growth differentiation factor (GDF)9. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Their effects on AMHR2 and AMH mRNAs were studied in luteinized human GCs and in ovine GCs (oGCs) from small antral follicles...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Syed M Shah, Neha Saini, Manoj K Singh, Radheysham Manik, Suresh K Singla, Prabhat Palta, Manmohan S Chauhan
Testicular cells are believed to secrete various growth factors that activate signaling pathways finally leading to gametogenesis. In vitro gametogenesis is an obscure but paramountly important task primarily because of paucity of the precursor cells and first trimester gonadal tissues. To overcome these limitations for development of in vitro gametes, the present study was designed to induce differentiation of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ lineage cells on stimulation by testicular cell-conditioned medium (TCM), on the basis of the assumption that ES cells have the intrinsic property to differentiate into any cell type and TCM would provide the necessary growth factors for differentiation toward germ cell lineage...
August 2016: Theriogenology
Lihua Zhao, Xinhua Du, Kun Huang, Tuo Zhang, Zhen Teng, Wanbao Niu, Chao Wang, Guoliang Xia
The size of the primordial follicle pool determines the reproductive potential of mammalian females, and establishment of the pool is highly dependent on specific genes expression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the essential genes are regulated coordinately to ensure primordial follicle assembly remain a mystery. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rac1 plays an indispensable role in controlling the formation of primordial follicles in mouse ovary. Employing fetal mouse ovary organ culture system, we demonstrate that disruption of Rac1 retarded the breakdown of germline cell cysts while Rac1 overexpression accelerated the formation of primordial follicles...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michael W Tsoulis, Pauline E Chang, Caroline J Moore, Kaitlyn A Chan, Wajiha Gohir, James J Petrik, Mark H Vickers, Kristin L Connor, Deborah M Sloboda
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. We have shown previously that female rat offspring born to mothers fed a high-fat (HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and display aberrant reproductive cyclicity. The mechanisms driving this reproductive phenotype are currently unknown thus we investigated whether changes in ovarian function were involved. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to: dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF)...
April 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Amar Nath, Bilal Ahmad Hakim, Singh Rajender, Kavita Singh, Monika Sachdev, Rituraj Konwar
This study was aimed to determine the impact of insulin concentrations on in vitro pre-antral follicle growth, survival, antrum formation rate, and retrieval of mature oocytes in mice. Mice pre-antral follicle growth were recorded on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 in α-modified essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with insulin concentrations of 6, 8, and 10 μg/ml along with 10% FBS, 100 mIU/ml follicle stimulating hormone, 10 mIU/ml luteinizing hormone, 100 μg/ml penicillin, and 50 μg/ml streptomycin...
May 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
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