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Martina Belli, Shunichi Shimasaki
Growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-secreted factors with a leading role in the control of ovarian function in female reproduction, modulating both the cell fate of the somatic granulosa cells and the quality and developmental competence of the egg. This short review aims to consolidate the molecular aspects of GDF9 and BMP15 and their integral actions in female fertility to understand particularly their effects on oocyte quality and fetal growth. The significant consequences of mutations in the GDF9 and BMP15 genes in women with dizygotic twins as well as the clinical relevance of these oocyte factors in the pathogenesis of primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovary syndrome are also addressed...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Laura Masala, Federica Ariu, Luisa Bogliolo, Emanuela Bellu, Sergio Ledda, Daniela Bebbere
Oocytes from prepubertal animals have a reduced ability to undergo embryo development and produce viable offspring. The present work used an ovine model consisting of oocytes derived from adult and prepubertal donors to assess the molecular status of oocytes and preimplantation embryos with different developmental competence. The lower potential of oocytes of young donors was confirmed in terms of in vitro developmental capabilities and kinetics. A panel of genes including maternal effect (DPPA3, GDF9, NMP2, ZAR1) and housekeeping genes (ACTB, RPL19, SDHA, YWHAZ, ATP1A1), genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B), genomic imprinting (IGF2R), pluripotency (NANOG, POU5F1) and cell cycle regulation (CCNB1, CDK1, MELK) was relatively quantified...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Pedro Henrique Nicolau Pinto, Mario Felipe Alvarez Balaro, Joanna Maria Gonçalves Souza-Fabjan, Lilian Dos Santos Ribeiro, Gláucia Mota Bragança, Ceci Ribeiro Leite, Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Kleibe de Moraes Silva, Jeferson Ferreira Da Fonseca, Felipe Zandonadi Brandão
This study aims to compare four different methods for selecting high responding sheep donors for in vivo embryo production. These methods include a pre-selection eCG test (eCG), antral follicle count (AFC), plasma anti-Müllerian hormone measurement (AMH) and genotyping for the presence of the FecGE mutation (a polymorphism in the GDF9 gene associated with increased ovulation rate). Santa Ines ewe lambs (n = 25) underwent superovulation (SOV) with 800 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and the corpus luteum (CL) count was recorded by laparoscopy after eight days...
February 23, 2018: Theriogenology
Zahra Rajabi, Hossein Yazdekhasti, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Noori Mugahi, Mehdi Abbasi, Somaieh Kazemnejad, Abolfazl Shirazi, Masoumeh Majidi, Amir-Hassan Zarnani
Follicle culture provides a condition which can help investigators to evaluate various aspects of ovarian follicle growth and development and impact of different components and supplementations as well as presumably application of follicle culture approach in fertility preservation procedures. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), particularly those isolated from menstrual blood has the potential to be used as a tool for improvement of fertility. In the current study, a 3D co-culture system with mice preantral follicles and human Menstrual Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MenSCs) using either collagen or alginate beads was designed to investigate whether this system allows better preantral follicles growth and development...
February 14, 2018: Reproductive Biology
Parul Mehta, Ramakant Kaushik, Karn Pratap Singh, Ankur Sharma, Manoj Kumar Singh, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Prabhat Palta, Suresh Kumar Singla, Radhey Sham Manik
The aim of the present study was to compare transgenic cells, containing human insulin gene kept under the control of mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter, and their counterparts, that is, nontransgenic cells, for examining their potential for the production of embryos following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The gene construct was delivered into buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) by nucleofection following which, the transfected cells were selected by culture in the presence of G418 for 3 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Seok Hee Lee, Hyun Ju Oh, Min Jung Kim, Erif Maha Nugraha Setyawan, Yoo Bin Choi, Byeong Chun Lee
Human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been applied to regenerative medicine for their roles in angiogenesis as well as neovascularization, and these angiogenetic functions have beneficial effects on maturation of ovarian follicles. However, little information is available on whether EPCs on culture systems affect oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EPC co-culture on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) and subsequent embryo development, and to examine gene expression in cumulus cells, oocytes and blastocysts...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jin Liu, Wenxiang Wang, Jianlin Zhu, Yuchen Li, Lingfeng Luo, Yuanyuan Huang, Wenchang Zhang
Although studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) can disrupt ovarian function, few reports have focused on follicular development in mice between the weaning period and maturity, especially with respect to microRNA (miRNA) expression. In this study, 21-day-old ICR mice were administered DEHP at doses of 0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg/(kg d) for 6 weeks by gavage. After DEHP administration, a significant decrease in the expression of follicle development-related factors (including c-kit, kitl, gdf9, and atm) was observed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), but no significant difference in the proteins encoded by these genes was observed by Western blot...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Seyedeh Zeynab Sadr, Roya Fatehi, Saman Maroufizadeh, Christiani Andrade Amorim, Bita Ebrahimi
In vitro culture of ovarian follicles is a new technique in reproductive technology, which helps in understanding the process of folliculogenesis. The in vitro culture of follicles could be carried out using three-dimensional (3D) natural scaffolds that mimic the ovarian tissue stroma. Selection of the right matrix and culture media in these scaffolds could increase the survival and maturation of the follicles. In this work, the applicability of matrigel-alginate (MA) and fibrin-alginate (FA) 3D scaffolds for folliculogenesis was assessed...
January 24, 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Jun-Xue Jin, Sanghoon Lee, Erif Maha Nugraha Setyawan, Anukul Taweechaipaisankul, Geon A Kim, Ho Jae Han, Curie Ahn, Byeong Chun Lee
The use of supplements, such as porcine follicular fluid (pFF), fetal bovine serum and human serum albumin are widely used during in vitro maturation (IVM) in different species but these supplements contain undefined components that cause technical difficulties in standardization and influence the efficiency of IVM. Knockout serum replacement (KSR) is a synthetic protein source, without any undefined growth factors or differentiation-promoting factors. Therefore, it is feasible to use KSR as a defined component for avoiding effects of unknown molecules in an IVM system...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ramin Abdoli, Seyed Ziaeddin Mirhoseini, Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Pouya Zamani
Background: The presence of different missense mutations in sheep breeds have shown that the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) genes play a vital role in ovulation rate and prolificacy in ewes. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9 gene mutations in prolific ewes of Iranian fat-tailed Lori-Bakhtiari sheep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present experimental study, genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of 10 prolific Lori-Bakhtiari ewes with at least two twinning records in the first four parities to identify point mutations of the BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, using DNA sequencing...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
E V da Cunha, L R F Melo, G B Sousa, V R Araújo, G L Vasconcelos, A W B Silva, J R V Silva
This study evaluated the effect of bone morphogenetic proteins 2 (BMP2) and 4 (BMP2) on follicle development and mRNA expression for GDF9, Cyclin B1, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPRII, FSHR and SMAD1 in bovine secondary follicles cultured in vitro. Isolated secondary follicles were cultured for 18 days in TCM199+ medium alone or supplemented with BMP2 (10 ng/mL), BMP4 (100 ng/mL) or combination of both BMP2 and 4. Real-time PCR was used to analyze mRNA levels in fresh and cultured follicles. After 18 days of culture, follicles cultured with BMP2 alone or with BMP4 alone had larger diameters when compared to control (P < ...
December 27, 2017: Theriogenology
Tomomi Sato, Hannah Kim, Hanako Kakuta, Taisen Iguchi
BACKGROUND/AIM: Neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment induces polyovular follicles (PFs), which contain more than two oocytes in a follicle, through estrogen receptor (ER) β, not ERα. 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) is a specific ERβ agonist; the effects of neonatal DPN exposure on PF induction and gene expression in the mouse ovary were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Histological analysis and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed...
January 2018: In Vivo
Weimin Wang, Yongfu La, Xiang Zhou, Xiaoxue Zhang, Fadi Li, Bang Liu
Litter size, which is a complex economic trait in sheep, is affected by polygenes. Hu sheep are a prolific native breed in China and also an ideal resource for studying the genetic mechanism that controls litter size in sheep. In this study, we investigated the genetic effects of candidate genes on litter size in a large experimental population (n = 2021) of Hu sheep. A total of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including six reported major mutations (FecB, FecXI, FecXB, FecXH, FecGI, and FecGH) and 17 novel SNPs in 10 candidate genes involved in reproduction were genotyped using KASPar technology...
December 16, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
C C L Fernandes, L H Aguiar, C E M Calderón, A M Silva, J P M Alves, R Rossetto, L R Bertolini, M Bertolini, D Rondina
Changes in the nutritional plan have been shown to affect oocyte quality, crucial to oocyte donors animals used in cloning. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of diets with increasing nutritional levels (maintenance diet=M; 1.3M; 1.6M; 1.9M) fed to goats for four weeks on follicular fluid composition, gene expression and oocyte competence used to cloning in goats. Donor females were superovulated for the retrieval of matured oocytes and physical measurements reported. After four weeks, groups receiving diets above maintenance increased thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue and body weight, with higher values in 1...
October 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
Yang Gao, Xin Fang, David F Vincent, David W Threadgill, Laurent Bartholin, Qinglei Li
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily signaling is implicated in the development of sex cord-stromal tumors, a category of poorly defined gonadal tumors. The aim of this study was to determine potential effects of dysregulated TGFB signaling in the ovary using Cre recombinase driven by growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) promoter known to be expressed in oocytes. METHODS: A mouse model containing constitutively active TGFBR1 (TGFBR1CA ) using Gdf9-iCre (termed TGFBR1-CAG9Cre ) was generated...
December 8, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
M M R Chowdhury, Ayman Mesalam, Imran Khan, Myeong-Don Joo, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Lianguang Xu, Fahmida Afrin, Il-Keun Kong
In vitro embryo development remains suboptimal compared to in vivo development due to the challenge from various stressors associated with in vitro culturing of oocytes. When 0.2 μM lycopene was added to oocyte in vitro maturation and embryo culture media, to assess its antioxidant effects on embryo development, we observed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cleavage and blastocyst development rates compared to the corresponding controls (84.3 ± 0.6% vs. 73.1 ± 1.9% and 41.0 ± 1.4% vs...
January 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Shishay Girmay Edallew, Teketay Wassie, Birhanu Tesema, Yu Yun, Liu Pan, Chenhui Liu, Yuqing Chong, Zhao Jia Yu, Han Jilong
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and the growth factors (GDFs) play an important role in ovarian folliculogenesis and essential regulator of processes of numerous granulosa cells. BMP15 gene variations linked to various ovarian phenotypic consequences subject to the species, from infertility to improved prolificacy in sheep, primary ovarian insufficiency in women or associated with minor subfertility in mouse. To study the evolving role of BMP15 and GDF9, a phylogenetic analysis was performed. To find out the candidate gene associated with prolificacy in mammals, the nucleotide sequence of BMP15 and GDF9 genes was recognized under positive selection in various mammalian species...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Yongfang Jia, Fang Wang, Ruihua Zhang, Tingting Liang, WanWan Zhang, Xiaolin Ji, Qiyan Du, Zhongjie Chang
The suh gene is crucial in Notch pathway and regulates mammalian gonad development. In this study, the sequences of suh1 and suh2 genes in Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) were verified. The partial 5'-flanking regions of suh1 and suh2 were analyzed and several potential transcription factor-binding sites were identified. Phylogenetic, gene structure, and chromosome synteny analyses revealed that carp suh1 and suh2 were orthologs and homologous to vertebrate suh. Investigation of the expression profiles of suh1 and suh2 with qPCR showed that these genes were abundant in the brain and gonad of carp, with suh1 exhibiting sexual dimorphism expression pattern in gonad...
November 21, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Marten Michaelis, Alexander Sobczak, Dirk Koczan, Martina Langhammer, Norbert Reinsch, Jennifer Schoen, Joachim M Weitzel
BACKGROUND: Many genes important for reproductive performance are shared by both sexes. However, fecundity indices are primarily based on female parameters such as litter size. We examined a fertility mouse line (FL2), which has a considerably increased number of offspring and a total litter weight of 180% compared to a randomly bred control line (Ctrl) after more than 170 generations of breeding. In the present study, we investigated whether there might be a parallel evolution in males after more than 40 years of breeding in this outbred mouse model...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
Zohar Gavish, Itay Spector, Gil Peer, Stefan Schlatt, Joachim Wistuba, Hadassa Roness, Dror Meirow
PURPOSE: Extensive follicle loss has been demonstrated in ovarian grafts post transplantation, reducing their productivity and lifespan. Several mechanisms for this loss have been proposed, and this study aims to clarify when and how the massive follicle loss associated with transplantation of ovarian tissue graft occurs. An understanding of the mechanisms of follicle loss will pinpoint potential new targets for optimization and improvement of this important fertility preservation technique...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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