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Liang Li, Wan-Jun Zhou, Ping Fang, Ze-Yan Zhong, Jian-Sheng Xie, Ti-Zhen Yan, Jian Zeng, Xu-Hui Tan, Xiang-Min Xu
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is mainly caused by deletions in SMA-related genes. The objective of this study was to develop gene-dosage assays for diagnosing SMA. METHODS: A multiplex, quantitative PCR assay and a CNVplex assay were developed for determining the copy number of SMN1, SMN2, and NAIP. Reproducibility and specificity of the two assays were compared to a multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay. To evaluate reproducibility, 30 samples were analyzed three times using the three assays...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Eun Ji Ahn, Mi Sun Yum, Eun Hee Kim, Han Wook Yoo, Beom Hee Lee, Gu Hwan Kim, Tae Sung Ko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Most SMA patients have a homozygous deletion in survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered a phenotype modifier. We investigated the genotype-phenotype correlation of SMN1 and NAIP deletions in Korean SMA patients. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (12 males and 21 females) treated at the Asan Medical Center between 1999 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Eva Szunyogova, Haiyan Zhou, Gillian K Maxwell, Rachael A Powis, Muntoni Francesco, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. Decreased levels of, cell-ubiquitous, SMN protein is associated with a range of systemic pathologies reported in severe patients. Despite high levels of SMN protein in normal liver, there is no comprehensive study of liver pathology in SMA. We describe failed liver development in response to reduced SMN levels, in a mouse model of severe SMA. The SMA liver is dark red, small and has: iron deposition; immature sinusoids congested with blood; persistent erythropoietic elements and increased immature red blood cells; increased and persistent megakaryocytes which release high levels of platelets found as clot-like accumulations in the heart...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicole Armbruster, Annalisa Lattanzi, Matthieu Jeavons, Laetitia Van Wittenberghe, Bernard Gjata, Thibaut Marais, Samia Martin, Alban Vignaud, Thomas Voit, Fulvio Mavilio, Martine Barkats, Ana Buj-Bello
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease of variable severity caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene. Deficiency of the ubiquitous SMN function results in spinal cord α-motor neuron degeneration and proximal muscle weakness. Gene replacement therapy with recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors showed therapeutic efficacy in several animal models of SMA. Here, we report a study aimed at analyzing the efficacy and biodistribution of a serotype-9, self-complementary AAV vector expressing a codon-optimized human SMN1 coding sequence (coSMN1) under the control of the constitutive phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter in neonatal SMNΔ7 mice, a severe animal model of the disease...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Raquel M Fernández, Ana Peciña, Beatriz Muñoz-Cabello, Guillermo Antiñolo, Salud Borrego
Despite co-segregation of two different genetic neurological disorders within a family is rare, clinicians should take into consideration this possibility in patients presenting with unusual complex phenotypes or with unexpected electrophysiological findings. Here, we report a Spanish 11-month-old patient with spinal muscular atrophy type 2 and Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A.
September 2016: Clinical Case Reports
Suzan M Hammond, Gareth Hazell, Fazel Shabanpoor, Amer F Saleh, Melissa Bowerman, James N Sleigh, Katharina E Meijboom, Haiyan Zhou, Francesco Muntoni, Kevin Talbot, Michael J Gait, Matthew J A Wood
The development of antisense oligonucleotide therapy is an important advance in the identification of corrective therapy for neuromuscular diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of difficulties of delivering single-stranded oligonucleotides to the CNS, current approaches have been restricted to using invasive intrathecal single-stranded oligonucleotide delivery. Here, we report an advanced peptide-oligonucleotide, Pip6a-morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (PMO), which demonstrates potent efficacy in both the CNS and peripheral tissues in severe SMA mice following systemic administration...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rocío Tejero, Mario Lopez-Manzaneda, Saravanan Arumugam, Lucía Tabares
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most frequent genetic cause of infant mortality. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and paralysis of axial and proximal limb muscles. It is caused by homozygous loss or mutation of the SMN1 gene, which codes for the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. In mouse models of the disease, neurotransmitter release is greatly impaired, but the molecular mechanisms of the synaptic dysfunction and the basis of the selective muscle vulnerability are unknown...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Yang Zou, Peiwen Xu, Jie Li, Sexin Huang, Ming Gao, Ranran Kang, Xuan Gao, Yuan Gao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical application of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with deletion of SMN1 gene exon 7. METHODS: A total of 138 clinical samples, including 121 peripheral blood, 13 amniotic fluid, 2 umbilical cord blood and 2 chorionic villi from 56 SMA families, were tested by both ddPCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Results of the two approaches were analyzed with commercial software QuantaSoft (ddPCR) and Coffalyser (MLPA), respectively...
October 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Mehdi Eshraghi, Emily McFall, Sabrina Gibeault, Rashmi Kothary
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutations or deletions in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene in humans. Modifiers of the SMA symptoms have been identified and genetic background has a substantial effect in the phenotype and survival of the severe mouse model of SMA. Previously, we generated the less severe Smn(2B/-) mice on a mixed genetic background. To assess the phenotype of Smn deficiency on a pure genetic background, we produced Smn(2B/2B) congenic mice on either the C57BL/6 (BL6) or FVB strain background and characterized them at the 6(th) generation by breeding to Smn(+/-) mice...
August 18, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Sofía Medrano, Soledad Monges, Luis Pablo Gravina, Laura Alías, Julieta Mozzoni, Hilda Verónica Aráoz, Sara Bernal, Angélica Moresco, Lilien Chertkoff, Eduardo Tizzano
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, considered one of the leading causes of infant mortality. It is caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene. A highly homologous copy of this gene named SMN2 and other neighbouring genes, SERF1A and NAIP, are considered phenotypic modifiers of the disease. In recent years, notable advances have been made in SMA research regarding evaluation, prognosis, and therapeutic options. Thus, genotype-phenotype studies in SMA are important to stratify patients for motor function tests and for envisaged clinical trials...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Seyyedmohsen Hosseinibarkooie, Miriam Peters, Laura Torres-Benito, Raphael H Rastetter, Kristina Hupperich, Andrea Hoffmann, Natalia Mendoza-Ferreira, Anna Kaczmarek, Eva Janzen, Janine Milbradt, Tobias Lamkemeyer, Frank Rigo, C Frank Bennett, Christoph Guschlbauer, Ansgar Büschges, Matthias Hammerschmidt, Markus Riessland, Min Jeong Kye, Christoph S Clemen, Brunhilde Wirth
Homozygous loss of SMN1 causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common and devastating childhood genetic motor-neuron disease. The copy gene SMN2 produces only ∼10% functional SMN protein, insufficient to counteract development of SMA. In contrast, the human genetic modifier plastin 3 (PLS3), an actin-binding and -bundling protein, fully protects against SMA in SMN1-deleted individuals carrying 3-4 SMN2 copies. Here, we demonstrate that the combinatorial effect of suboptimal SMN antisense oligonucleotide treatment and PLS3 overexpression-a situation resembling the human condition in asymptomatic SMN1-deleted individuals-rescues survival (from 14 to >250 days) and motoric abilities in a severe SMA mouse model...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Joseph K Burns, Rashmi Kothary, Robin J Parks
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease that leads to infant mortality worldwide. SMA is caused by genetic deletion or mutation in the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which results in a deficiency in SMN protein. For reasons that are still unclear, SMN protein deficiency predominantly affects α-motor neurons, resulting in their degeneration and subsequent paralysis of limb and trunk muscles, progressing to death in severe cases. Emerging evidence suggests that SMN protein deficiency also affects the heart, autonomic nervous system, skeletal muscle, liver, pancreas and perhaps many other organs...
September 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Philipp Odermatt, Judith Trüb, Lavinia Furrer, Roger Fricker, Andreas Marti, Daniel Schümperli
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is due to the loss of SMN1 gene function. The duplicate gene SMN2 produces some, but not enough, SMN protein because most transcripts lack exon 7. Thus, promoting the inclusion of this exon is a therapeutic option. We show that a somatic gene therapy using the gene for a modified U7 RNA which stimulates this splicing has a profound and persistent therapeutic effect on the phenotype of a severe SMA mouse model. To this end, the U7 gene and vector and the production of pure, highly concentrated self-complementary (sc) AAV9 vector particles were optimized...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Yu-Jin Qu, Jin-Li Bai, Yan-Yan Cao, Hong Wang, Yu-Wei Jin, Juan Du, Xiu-Shan Ge, Wen-Hui Zhang, Yan Li, Sheng-Xi He, Fang Song
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common fatal autosomal recessive disorder caused by deletion or mutation of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1). Here, we studied SMA molecular pathology in 653 Chinese patients and found approximately 88.2% with homozygous SMN1 exon 7 deletion and 6.3% with heterozygous exon 7 loss using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. SMN1 variants were detected in 34 patients with heterozygous SMN1 loss by clone sequencing. In 27 of them, 15 variants were identified: five were unreported novel variants [c...
September 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Xianda Wei, Hu Tan, Pu Yang, Rui Zhang, Bo Tan, Yue Zhang, Libin Mei, Desheng Liang, Lingqian Wu
Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease mainly caused by homozygous deletion of SMN1. The 2-copy SMN1 allele may present in the families of SMA patients with homozygous deletion of SMN1, one of whose parents has two SMN1 copies. In such families, individuals having two SMN1 copies still have a chance to be "2 + 0" carriers. In this study, the risks for the parents, fetuses and other siblings having two SMN1 copies to be "2 + 0" carriers were estimated based on Chinese meta-analysis data and turned out to be rather striking...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Erkan Y Osman, Charles W Washington, Kevin A Kaifer, Chiara Mazzasette, Teresa N Patitucci, Kyra M Florea, Madeline E Simon, Chien-Ping Ko, Allison D Ebert, Christian L Lorson
Loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1) causes Spinal Muscular Atrophy, a devastating neurodegenerative disease. SMN2 is a nearly identical copy gene; however SMN2 cannot prevent disease development in the absence of SMN1 since the majority of SMN2-derived transcripts are alternatively spliced, encoding a truncated, unstable protein lacking exon 7. Nevertheless, SMN2 retains the ability to produce low levels of functional protein. Previously we have described a splice-switching Morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) sequence that targets a potent intronic repressor, Element1 (E1), located upstream of SMN2 exon 7...
September 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Heema Hewitson, Victoria Wood, Neli Kadeva, Glenda Cornwell, Stefano Codognotto, Emma Stephenson, Dusko Ilic
The KCL026 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the SMN1 gene encoding survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (exons 7 and 8 deletion). Mutations in this gene are associated with spinal muscular atrophy. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays...
March 2016: Stem Cell Research
Chung-Wei Yang, Chien-Lin Chen, Wei-Chun Chou, Ho-Chen Lin, Yuh-Jyh Jong, Li-Kai Tsai, Chun-Yu Chuang
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disease resulting from a recessive mutation in the SMN1 gene. This disease affects multiple organ systems with varying degrees of severity. Exploration of the molecular pathological changes occurring in different cell types in SMA is crucial for developing new therapies. This study collected 39 human microarray datasets from ArrayExpress and GEO databases to build an integrative transcriptomic analysis for recognizing novel SMA targets. The transcriptomic analysis was conducted through combining weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) for gene module detection, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) for functional categorization and filtration, and Cytoscape (visual interaction gene network analysis) for target gene identification...
2016: PloS One
Hasane Ratni, Gary M Karp, Marla Weetall, Nikolai A Naryshkin, Sergey V Paushkin, Karen S Chen, Kathleen D McCarthy, Hongyan Qi, Anthony Turpoff, Matthew G Woll, Xiaoyan Zhang, Nanjing Zhang, Tianle Yang, Amal Dakka, Priya Vazirani, Xin Zhao, Emmanuel Pinard, Luke Green, Pascale David-Pierson, Dietrich Tuerck, Agnes Poirier, Wolfgang Muster, Stephan Kirchner, Lutz Mueller, Irene Gerlach, Friedrich Metzger
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of infant and toddler mortality, and there is currently no approved therapy available. SMA is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. These mutations or deletions result in low levels of functional SMN protein. SMN2, a paralogous gene to SMN1, undergoes alternative splicing and exclusion of exon 7, producing an unstable, truncated SMNΔ7 protein. Herein, we report the identification of a pyridopyrimidinone series of small molecules that modify the alternative splicing of SMN2, increasing the production of full-length SMN2 mRNA...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yoriko Noguchi, Akira Onishi, Yuji Nakamachi, Nobuhide Hayashi, Nur Imma Fatimah Harahap, Mawaddah Ar Rochmah, Ai Shima, Shinichiro Yanagisawa, Naoya Morisada, Taku Nakagawa, Kazumoto Iijima, Shimpei Kasagi, Jun Saegusa, Seiji Kawano, Masakazu Shinohara, Shinya Tairaku, Toshio Saito, Yuji Kubo, Kayoko Saito, Hisahide Nishio
BACKGROUND: Most patients with spinal muscular atrophy lack the survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) in the telomeric region of the spinal muscular atrophy locus on chromosome 5q13. On the other hand, the copy number of SMN2, a centromeric homolog of SMN1, is increased in many of these patients. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying these structural variations. METHODS: We determined the copy numbers of telomeric and centromeric genes in the spinal muscular atrophy locus of 86 patients and 22 control subjects using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis...
May 2016: Pediatric Neurology
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