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Qingyan Ma, Lai Sze Tso, Zachary C Rich, Brian J Hall, Rachel Beanland, Haochu Li, Mellanye Lackey, Fengyu Hu, Weiping Cai, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Qualitative research on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions can provide a deeper understanding of intervention facilitators and barriers. This systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence of interventions for improving ART adherence and to inform patient-centred policymaking. METHODS: We searched 19 databases to identify studies presenting primary qualitative data on the experiences, attitudes and acceptability of interventions to improve ART adherence among PLHIV and treatment providers...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Simone Reppermund, Rachael C Birch, John D Crawford, Jacqueline Wesson, Brian Draper, Nicole A Kochan, Julian N Trollor, Katharina Luttenberger, Henry Brodaty, Perminder S Sachdev
OBJECTIVES: The distinction between dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relies upon the evaluation of independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Self- and informant reports are prone to bias. Clinician-based performance tests are limited by long administration times, restricted access, or inadequate validation. To close this gap, we developed and validated a performance-based measure of IADL, the Sydney Test of Activities of Daily Living in Memory Disorders (STAM)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Kenechi Anderson Uwakwe, Uchenna Chidi Anyanwagu, Ntat Charles Ibiok, Benedict Ndubueze Azuogu, Ngozi Ekeke
BACKGROUND: In resource-poor settings with low doctor-population ratio, there is need for equitable distribution of healthcare workforce. The specialty preferences of medical students determine the future composition of physician workforce hence its relevance in career guidance, healthcare planning and policy formulation. This study was aimed at determining the specialty preferences of final year medical students in medical schools of southeast Nigeria, the gender differences in choice of specialty and the availability of career guidance to the students during the period of training...
October 4, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Emily M Bucholz, Neel M Butala, Shuangge Ma, Sharon-Lise T Normand, Harlan M Krumholz
Background Thirty-day risk-standardized mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction are commonly used to evaluate and compare hospital performance. However, it is not known whether differences among hospitals in the early survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction are associated with differences in long-term survival. Methods We analyzed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a study of Medicare beneficiaries who were hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction between 1994 and 1996 and who had 17 years of follow-up...
October 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Jishnu Das, Aakash Mohpal
To assess socioeconomic differences in access to high-quality health care services, we collected novel data on illnesses that required primary care from 23,275 households in 100 villages in Madhya Pradesh, India. We matched the primary care visits for those illnesses to characteristics of the health care providers that members of the households visited. People in the average village in our sample could access eleven providers, of whom 71 percent were in the private sector and 49 percent had no formal medical training...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Janet R Kahn, William Collinge, Robert Soltysik
BACKGROUND: Veterans with history of deployment in the Global War on Terror face significant and ongoing challenges with high prevalences of adverse psychological, physical, spiritual, and family impacts. Together, these challenges contribute to an emerging public health crisis likely to extend well into the future. Innovative approaches are needed that reach veterans and their family members with strategies they can employ over time in their daily lives to promote improved adjustment and well-being...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ankit B Shah, Neil Coplan
Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Simon von Stengel
OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity related to menopause and/or increased age will put healthcare systems in western nations under ever-greater strain. Effective strategies to prevent diseases are thus of high priority and should be started earlier in life. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term effect of exercise on different important health parameters in initially early postmenopausal women over a 16-year period. METHODS: In 1998, 137 early postmenopausal women with osteopenia living in Erlangen-Nürnberg were included in the study...
September 19, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Loni Loftus, Kelly Marks, Rosie Jones-McVey, Jose L Gonzales, Veronica L Fowler
Effective training of horses relies on the trainer's awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts' public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Leticia do Nascimento, Cristiane Cardoso de Paula, Tania Solange Bosi de Souza Magnago, Stela Maris de Mello Padoin, Erno Harzheim, Clarissa Bohrer da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the quality of health care for children and adolescents living with HIV, among the different types of Primary Health Care services of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. METHOD: cross-sectional study, developed with 118 Primary Health Care professionals. The Primary Care Evaluation Instrument, Professional version, was used. For verification of the variables associated with the high score, Poisson Regression was used. RESULTS: the professionals of the Family Health Strategy, when compared to those of the Primary Health Units, obtained a greater degree of orientation to primary care, both for the overall score and for the derived attributes score, as well as for the integrality and community orientation attributes...
2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Cecilia Ostman, Daniel Jewiss, Neil A Smart
OBJECTIVES: To establish if exercise training intensity produces different effect sizes for quality of life in heart failure. BACKGROUND: Exercise intensity is the primary stimulus for physical and mental adaptation. METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to February 2016) for exercise-based rehabilitation trials in heart failure using the search terms 'exercise training', 'left ventricular dysfunction', 'peak VO2', 'cardiomyopathy', and 'systolic heart dysfunction'...
August 27, 2016: Cardiology
Charles Mock
IATSIC is the foremost professional society addressing trauma care globally. How is it doing in meeting the needs of most injured patients? The vast majority (65 %) of trauma deaths occur in the poorer half of the world (low-income and lower-middle-income countries), where injury rates are the highest. IATSIC has accomplished a tremendous amount and has much to be proud of. However, most of its work thus far has been concentrated in the wealthier half of the world (upper-middle-income and high-income countries)...
August 23, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Victor Olufolahan Lasebikan, Bolanle Adeyemi Ola
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment can reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in rural and semi-rural settings. METHOD: HASH(0x489c540) DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A non-randomized clinical trial with assessments at baseline and post-intervention assessments at 3 and 6 months was conducted in a rural and semi-rural district in South-West of Nigeria. A representative sample of 1203 persons consented to the study and had alcohol, smoking, and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) administered to them by trained community health-care extension workers between October 2010 and April 2011...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Charlene J Treanor, Una C McMenamin, Roisin F O'Neill, Chris R Cardwell, Mike J Clarke, Marie Cantwell, Michael Donnelly
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that up to 75% of cancer survivors may experience cognitive impairment as a result of cancer treatment and given the increasing size of the cancer survivor population, the number of affected people is set to rise considerably in coming years. There is a need, therefore, to identify effective, non-pharmacological interventions for maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment among people with a previous cancer diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cognitive effects, non-cognitive effects, duration and safety of non-pharmacological interventions among cancer patients targeted at maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment as a result of cancer or receipt of systemic cancer treatment (i...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Miguel A Cruz, Muni Rubens, Stephanie J Garcia, Josephine Malilay, Karen L Levin, O Dale Williams
OBJECTIVE: Environmental health assessments of disaster shelters are critical for monitoring the living conditions of the occupants. However, knowledge and levels of utilization of these assessments have never been estimated in the United States or its territories. We aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey to ascertain knowledge and Utilization of environmental health disaster shelter assessments. METHODS: The State and Territorial Use of Shelter Assessments Survey (STUSA) of environmental health department directors (N=56) was carried out in 2013...
August 11, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
D Lemogoum, Y Hako, C Bika Lele, C Okalla, J Dissongo, J M'buyamba-Kabangu, J Degaute, M Leeman, P van de Borne
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between 24 hours urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure (BP) in rural and urban pygmies and Bantus of southern Cameroon. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this cross-sectional survey, we compared 100 traditional pygmies (TP) living in equatorial forest (Lolodorf) and their 100 neighbors traditional Bantus (TB) living in Bidjouka village, to 100 contemporary pygmies (CP) and 100 contemporary Bantus (CB) both living in urban environment in Kribi city...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Belén Rubio Ballester, Martina Maier, Rosa María San Segundo Mozo, Victoria Castañeda, Armin Duff, Paul F M J Verschure
BACKGROUND: After stroke, patients who suffer from hemiparesis tend to suppress the use of the affected extremity, a condition called learned non-use. Consequently, the lack of training may lead to the progressive deterioration of motor function. Although Constraint-Induced Movement Therapies (CIMT) have shown to be effective in treating this condition, the method presents several limitations, and the high intensity of its protocols severely compromises its adherence. We propose a novel rehabilitation approach called Reinforcement-Induced Movement Therapy (RIMT), which proposes to restore motor function through maximizing arm use...
2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Laureen M Lopez, Thomas W Grey, Mario Chen, Julie Denison, Gretchen Stuart
BACKGROUND: Contraception services can help meet the family planning goals of women living with HIV as well as prevent mother-to-child transmission. Due to antiretroviral therapy, survival has improved for people living with HIV, and more HIV-positive women may desire to have a child or another child. Behavioral interventions, involving counseling or education, can help women choose and use an appropriate contraceptive method. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed studies of behavioral interventions for HIV-positive women intended to inform contraceptive choice, encourage contraceptive use, or promote adherence to a contraceptive regimen...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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