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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784928/statistical-machine-learning-of-sleep-and-physical-activity-phenotypes-from-sensor-data-in-96-220-uk-biobank-participants
#1
Matthew Willetts, Sven Hollowell, Louis Aslett, Chris Holmes, Aiden Doherty
Current public health guidelines on physical activity and sleep duration are limited by a reliance on subjective self-reported evidence. Using data from simple wrist-worn activity monitors, we developed a tailored machine learning model, using balanced random forests with Hidden Markov Models, to reliably detect a number of activity modes. We show that physical activity and sleep behaviours can be classified with 87% accuracy in 159,504 minutes of recorded free-living behaviours from 132 adults. These trained models can be used to infer fine resolution activity patterns at the population scale in 96,220 participants...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766328/implementing-a-standardized-social-networks-testing-strategy-in-a-low-hiv-prevalence-jurisdiction
#2
Casey Schumann, Danielle Kahn, Michelle Broaddus, Jacob Dougherty, Megan Elderbrook, James Vergeront, Ryan Westergaard
Alternative HIV testing strategies are needed to engage individuals not reached by traditional clinical or non-clinical testing programs. A social networks recruitment strategy, in which people at risk for or living with HIV are enlisted and trained by community-based agencies to recruit individuals from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks for HIV testing, demonstrates higher positivity rates compared to other non-clinical recruitment strategies in some jurisdictions. During 2013-2015, a social networks testing protocol was implemented in Wisconsin to standardize an existing social networks testing program...
May 15, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764171/compassionate-communities-design-and-preliminary-results-of-the-experience-of-vic-barcelona-spain-caring-city
#3
Xavier Gómez-Batiste, Silvia Mateu, Susagna Serra-Jofre, Magda Molas, Sarah Mir-Roca, Jordi Amblàs, Xavier Costa, Cristina Lasmarías, Marta Serrarols, Alvar Solà-Serrabou, Candela Calle, Allan Kellehear
BACKGROUND: A program of Compassionate City or Community (CC) has been designed and developed in the City of Vic (43,964 habitants, Barcelona, Spain), based on The Compassionate City Charter and other public health literature and experiments, with the joint leadership of the City Council and the Chair of Palliative Care at the University of Vic, and as an expansion of a comprehensive and integrated system of palliative care. METHODS: The program started with an assessment of needs of the city as identified by 48 social organizations with a foundational workshop and a semi-structured survey...
April 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749910/a-novel-low-cost-reusable-high-fidelity-neurosurgical-training-simulator-for-cerebrovascular-bypass-surgery
#4
Ulas Cikla, Balkan Sahin, Sahin Hanalioglu, Azam S Ahmed, David Niemann, Mustafa K Baskaya
OBJECTIVE Cerebrovascular bypass surgery is a challenging yet important neurosurgical procedure that is performed to restore circulation in the treatment of carotid occlusive diseases, giant/complex aneurysms, and skull base tumors. It requires advanced microsurgical skills and dedicated training in microsurgical techniques. Most available training tools, however, either lack the realism of the actual bypass surgery (e.g., artificial vessel, chicken wing models) or require special facilities and regulations (e...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744286/adolescent-pregnancy-and-challenges-in-kenyan-context-perspectives-from-multiple-community-stakeholders
#5
Manasi Kumar, Keng-Yen Huang, Caleb Othieno, Dalton Wamalwa, Beatrice Madeghe, Judith Osok, Simon Njuguna Kahonge, Joyce Nato, Mary McKernon McKay
Objective: The key objective of this paper is to provide a phenomenological account of the mental health challenges and experiences of adolescent new mothers. We explore the role of social support and the absence of empathy plays in depression among pregnant adolescents. The project also collected data on the adolescents' caregiving environment which includes the adolescents' mothers, their partners, the community, and health care workers, as well as feedback from staff nurses at the maternal and child health centers...
March 2018: Global Social Welfare: Research, Policy & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694941/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-towards-epilepsy-among-general-practitioners-in-rural-bolivia-results-before-and-after-a-training-program-on-epilepsy
#6
Loretta Giuliano, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Sandra Padilla, Mario Camargo, Vito Sofia, Mario Zappia, Alessandro Bartoloni, Elizabeth Blanca Crespo Gómez, Alessandra Nicoletti
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy represents a major health problem in low- and middle-income countries where treatment gap (TG) levels are high. The reduction of epilepsy TG in the rural area of the Chaco region, Plurinational State of Bolivia, has been the aim of many projects based on the reinforcement of the primary care setting. To plan educational campaigns directed to the healthcare professionals, it is necessary to establish their baseline knowledge level. The objective of our study was to assess the baseline level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards epilepsy among general practitioners (GPs) of the rural communities of the Chaco region...
April 22, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689096/improving-temporal-accuracy-of-human-metabolic-chambers-for-dynamic-metabolic-studies
#7
Shanshan Chen, Erica Wohlers, Eric Ruud, Jon Moon, Bin Ni, Francesco S Celi
Metabolic chambers are powerful tools for assessing human energy expenditure, providing flexibility and comfort for the subjects in a near free-living environment. However, the flexibility offered by the large living room size creates challenges in the assessment of dynamic human metabolic signals-such as those generated during high-intensity interval training and short-term involuntary physical activities-with sufficient temporal accuracy. Therefore, this paper presents methods to improve the temporal accuracy of metabolic chambers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680117/changes-in-nutrition-policies-and-dietary-intake-in-child-care-homes-participating-in-healthy-eating-and-active-living-initiative
#8
Gail Woodward-Lopez, Janice Kao, Elena S Kuo, Paula James, Kitty Lenhart, Christina Becker, Kathryn Boyle, Dana Williamson, Suzanne Rauzon
INTRODUCTION: From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. STUDY DESIGN: Pre- and post-intervention without control group...
May 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671198/cancer-community-education-in-somali-refugees-in-nebraska
#9
Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway, Nada Alnaji, Brandon Grimm, Melissa Leypoldt
Nebraska has one of the highest numbers of refugees per capita in the U.S. A high number of Somalis have resettled in Nebraska due to job opportunities and the low cost of living. In this paper, we report the process and the results of a cervical and breast cancer education program for Somali women conducted through a collaboration among public health, academia, and community entities. The curriculum was built to be suitable for the literacy level and cultural values of this community. Topics include female reproductive anatomy; breast and cervical cancer knowledge and screening; hepatitis C and liver cancer; and preparing for a health screening visit...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664159/reading-aids-for-adults-with-low-vision
#10
REVIEW
Gianni Virgili, Ruthy Acosta, Sharon A Bentley, Giovanni Giacomelli, Claire Allcock, Jennifer R Evans
BACKGROUND: The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different visual reading aids for adults with low vision...
April 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649827/effects-of-driving-skill-training-on-safe-driving-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Driving cessation is strongly associated with adverse health outcomes in the older adults. Although there were numerous documentations of driving rehabilitation in disabled adults, the effects of interventions on safe driving were not clear in older adults with cognitive impairment who had low driving skills. OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial was designed to determine whether a safe driving skill program consisting of classroom and on-road training could enhance driving performance of older drivers with cognitive impairment in Japan...
April 12, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629527/an-8-week-low-intensity-progressive-cycling-training-improves-motor-functions-in-patients-with-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Hsiu Chen Chang, Chin Song Lu, Wei Da Chiou, Chiung Chu Chen, Yi Hsin Weng, Ya Ju Chang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of high-intensity cycling as an adjuvant therapy for early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) were highlighted recently. However, patients experience difficulties in maintaining these cycling training programs. The present study investigated the efficacy of cycling at a mild-to-moderate intensity in early-stage PD. METHODS: Thirteen PD patients were enrolled for 16 serial cycling sessions over a 2-month period. Motor function was assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS III) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test as primary outcomes...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623288/the-association-between-assisted-living-direct-care-worker-end-of-life-training-and-hospice-use-patterns
#13
Debra Dobbs, Sharon Kaufman, Hongdao Meng
As resident acuity levels increase for those who reside in assisted living (AL), states allow for hospice care provision in AL. End-of-life care training for staff can potentially increase the awareness of benefits of hospice care for AL residents. This study examined the association between AL staff trained in end-of-life care and hospice utilization in a sample of ALs ( n = 45) in Florida. The sample included ALs ( n = 21) with a low percentage (≤59%) and ALs ( n = 24) with a high percentage (≥60%) of staff trained in end-of-life care as reported by AL directors...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623096/drinking-water-supply-sanitation-and-hygiene-promotion-interventions-in-two-slum-communities-in-central-uganda
#14
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Simon Kasasa, John C Ssempebwa, David O Carpenter
Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) continue to contribute to the high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in low-income countries such as Uganda particularly in slums. We implemented a 3-year WASH project in two urban slums in Uganda with a focus on safe drinking water and improvement in sanitation. The project implemented community and school interventions in addition to capacity building initiatives. Community interventions included home improvement campaigns, clean-up exercises, water quality assessment, promotion of drinking safe water through household point-of-use chlorination, promotion of hand washing, and support towards solid waste management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620558/effect-of-low-intensity-versus-high-intensity-resistance-training-on-the-functioning-of-the-institutionalized-frail-elderly
#15
Ulku K Sahin, Nuray Kirdi, Ergun Bozoglu, Aydin Meric, Galip Buyukturan, Ahmet Ozturk, Huseyin Doruk
Frailty has emerged as an important risk factor for disability. Age-related declines in physical and physiological function lead to increased risk of loss of independence and poor quality of life. Recent evidence has shown the effectiveness of physical exercise programmes in preventing or reversing frailty. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the functioning of frail elderly individuals after undergoing resistance training for 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The effectiveness of exercise training was investigated in 48 frail elderly individuals who were randomly assigned to the following intervention groups: high-intensity (HI; n=16; age: 69-96 years) or low-intensity (LI; n=16; age: 77-93 years) strength training groups or a control group (n=16; age: 76-93 years) with no specific exercise programme...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601530/metstabon-online-platform-for-metabolic-stability-predictions
#16
Sabina Podlewska, Rafał Kafel
Metabolic stability is an important parameter to be optimized during the complex process of designing new active compounds. Tuning this parameter with the simultaneous maintenance of a desired compound's activity is not an easy task due to the extreme complexity of metabolic pathways in living organisms. In this study, the platform for in silico qualitative evaluation of metabolic stability, expressed as half-lifetime and clearance was developed. The platform is based on the application of machine learning methods and separate models for human, rat and mouse data were constructed...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601224/physical-therapists-perception-of-workplace-ethics-in-an-evolving-health-care-delivery-environment-a-cross-sectional-survey
#17
Roberto Cantu
Physical therapists are trained and obligated to deliver optimal health care and put patients first above all else. In the changing health-care environment, health-care organizations are grappling with controlling cost and increasing revenues. Moral distress may be created when physical therapists' desire to provide optimal care conflicts with their organization's goals to remain financially viable or profitable. Moral distress has been associated with low perception of ethical environment, professional burnout, and high turnover in organizations...
March 30, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589149/-emigration-an-option-for-african-resident-physicians-opinions-from-tanzania-and-ethiopia
#18
K M Knoll, H Philippin, W Makupa, M M Nentwich
BACKGROUND: Globally, the majority of visually impaired persons live in low- and middle-income countries. One of the reasons is a lack of ophthalmologists in the respective countries. Migration of qualified personnel would be an additional strain on ophthalmological patient care. OBJECTIVE: This analysis aimed at evaluating the attitude of African residents in ophthalmology towards working in their home country or migrating abroad and comparing these findings with existing data also with respect to possible interventions...
March 27, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588094/exploiting-interfacial-phenomena-in-organic-bioelectronics-conformable-devices-for-bidirectional-communication-with-living-systems
#19
Michele Di Lauro, Simone Benaglia, Marcello Berto, Carlo A Bortolotti, Michele Zoli, Fabio Biscarini
A novel fully organic bioelectronic device is presented and validated as electronic transducer and current stimulator for brain implants. The device integrates polymeric electrodes made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on paper thin foils, resulting in a high surface-to-volume ratio architecture that exhibits high sensitivity to interfacial ionic transport phenomena. The prototyping technique herein presented yields devices for the bidirectional communication with biological systems whose dimensionality can be controlled according to the desired application...
March 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581107/transplant-center-patient-navigator-and-access-to-transplantation-among-high-risk-population-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Mohua Basu, Lisa Petgrave-Nelson, Kayla D Smith, Jennie P Perryman, Kevin Clark, Stephen O Pastan, Thomas C Pearson, Christian P Larsen, Sudeshna Paul, Rachel E Patzer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Barriers exist in access to kidney transplantation, where minority and patients with low socioeconomic status are less likely to complete transplant evaluation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a transplant center-based patient navigator in helping patients at high risk of dropping out of the transplant evaluation process access the kidney transplant waiting list. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of 401 patients ( n =196 intervention and n =205 control) referred for kidney transplant evaluation (January 2013 to August 2014; followed through May 2016) at a single center...
March 26, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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