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ENDURANCE HYPOXIA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413958/anti-fatigue-effects-of-active-ingredients-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-a-review
#1
Si-Si Zhou, Jian-Guo Jiang
Fatigue, a phenomenon which is believed to be caused by body exercise, can lead to the failure of predetermined exercise intensity maintenance and sport ability declination. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of fatigue has long been practiced in clinical and showed significant effects. This article covers related literatures in recent years and sorts the effective ingredients from TCM for treating fatigue into a few categories including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, polyphenols, polypeptide, terpene, proteins and other active ingredients...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394459/ergogenic-properties-of-metformin-in-simulated-high-altitude
#2
Rebecca L Scalzo, Hunter L Paris, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Joseph W Beals, Christopher L Melby, Gary J Luckasen, Matthew S Hickey, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Christopher Bell
Metformin augments glucose/glycogen regulation and may acutely promote fatigue resistance during high-intensity exercise. In hypobaric environments, such as high altitude, the important contribution of carbohydrates to physiological function is accentuated as glucose/glycogen dependence is increased. Because hypoxia/hypobaria decreases insulin sensitivity, replenishing skeletal muscle glycogen in high altitude becomes challenging and subsequent physical performance may be compromised. We hypothesized that in conditions where glycogen repletion was critical to physical outcomes, metformin would attenuate hypoxia-mediated decrements in exercise performance...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368957/impact-of-endurance-exercise-in-hypoxia-on-muscle-damage-inflammatory-and-performance-responses
#3
Daichi Sumi, Chihiro Kojima, Kazushige Goto
This study evaluated muscle damage and inflammatory and performance responses following high-intensity endurance exercise in moderate hypoxia among endurance athletes. Nine trained endurance athletes completed two different trials on different days: exercise under moderate hypoxia (H trial, FiO2 = 14.5%) and normoxia (N trial, FiO2 = 20.9%). They performed interval exercises (10 × 3-min running at 95% of VO2max with 60-s of active rest at 60% of VO2max) followed by 30-min of continuous running at 85% of VO2max under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362866/thoraco-abdominal-coordination-and-performance-during-uphill-running-at-altitude
#4
Eva Bernardi, Lorenza Pratali, Gaia Mandolesi, Maria Spiridonova, Giulio Sergio Roi, Annalisa Cogo
INTRODUCTION: Running races on mountain trails at moderate-high altitude with large elevation changes throughout has become increasingly popular. During exercise at altitude, ventilatory demands increase due to the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia. AIM: To investigate the relationships between thoraco-abdominal coordination, ventilatory pattern, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and endurance performance in runners during high-intensity uphill exercise. METHODS: Fifteen participants (13 males, mean age 42±9 yrs) ran a "Vertical Kilometer," i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351494/perfusion-computed-tomography-imaging-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-may-be-of-value-for-patient-specific-rupture-risk-estimation
#5
Nikolaos Kontopodis, Nikolaos Galanakis, Dimitrios Tsetis, Christos V Ioannou
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to pose a significant cause of unexpected mortality in the developed countries with its incidence constantly rising. The indication of elective surgical repair is currently based on the maximum diameter and growth rate criteria which represent an oversimplification of the Law of Laplace stating that the stress exerted in a cylinder or sphere is proportional to its radius. These criteria fail to capture the complex pathophysiology of the aneurismal disease thus often leading to therapeutic inaccuracies (treating large AAAs with a very low actual rupture risk while observing smaller ones with a much greater risk)...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351441/-oxygen-therapy-not-required-for-all-copd-patients
#6
L E G W Vanfleteren
Long-term oxygen therapy in patients with pronounced hypoxia is an important and life-extending therapy. Many patients have only mild hypoxia, do not experience nocturnal desaturation, or experience desaturation only during exercise. While often applied in clinical practice, the clinical relevance of oxygen therapy was not clear in these patients. A recent randomized controlled trial has now revealed no additional value for long-term oxygen therapy in subjects with mild oxygen desaturation or exercise-induced oxygen desaturation only...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332025/endurance-aerobic-high-intensity-and-repeated-sprint-cycling-performance-is-unaffected-by-normobaric-live-high-train-low-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#7
Jacob Bejder, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Rie Buchardt, Tanja Hultengren Larsson, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia (LHTL) and normoxia (placebo) for 8 h/day. LHTL exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500 m, 2 weeks at 3000 m, and 2 weeks at 3500 m...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326844/oxidative-stress-in-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia
#8
Sebastián Irarrázaval, Claudio Allard, Juan Campodónico, Druso Pérez, Pablo Strobel, Luis Vásquez, Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, Federico Leighton
Irarrázaval, Sebastián, Claudio Allard, Juan Campodónico, Druso Pérez, Pablo Strobel, Luis Vásquez, Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, and Federico Leighton. Oxidative stress in acute hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.-The effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia endured by mountaineers were studied, specifically as evidenced by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and oxidative stress damage. Ten male volunteers were exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia, and AMS was evaluated through arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), cardiac rate, and the Lake Louise Score (LLS)...
March 22, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261888/endurance-performance-in-well-trained-mice-is-enhanced-by-short-duration-intermittent-hypoxia-via-improved-muscle-fatty-acid-metabolism
#9
Junichi Suzuki
The author previously reported that short-duration intermittent hypoxia had additive effects on improvements in endurance capacity by enhancing fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of short-duration intermittent hypoxia on endurance capacity in well-trained mice. Mice in the training group were housed in a cage with a wheel activity device for 7 weeks from 5 weeks old. Voluntary running markedly increased maximal exercise capacity (by 5.9-fold). Trained mice were then subjected to either normoxic treadmill training (Tr) or training with short-duration intermittent hypoxia (12% O2 for 15 min, 20...
March 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223938/hypoxic-repeat-sprint-training-improves-rugby-player-s-repeated-sprint-but-not-endurance-performance
#10
Michael J Hamlin, Peter D Olsen, Helen C Marshall, Catherine A Lizamore, Catherine A Elliot
This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209739/myocardial-ischemic-tolerance-in-rats-subjected-to-endurance-exercise-training-during-adaptation-to-chronic-hypoxia
#11
Petra Alánová, Anna Chytilová, Jan Neckář, Jaroslav Hrdlička, Petra Míčová, Kristýna Holzerová, Markéta Hlaváčková, Kristýna Macháčková, František Papoušek, Jana Vašinová, Daniel Benák, Olga Nováková, František Kolář
Chronic hypoxia and exercise are natural stimuli that confer sustainable cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury but it is unknown whether they can act in synergy to enhance ischemic resistance. Inflammatory response mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a role in the infarct size-limitation by continuous normobaric hypoxia (CNH) whereas exercise is associated with anti-inflammatory effects. This study was conducted to determine whether exercise training performed under conditions of CNH (12% O2) affects myocardial ischemic resistance with respect to inflammatory and redox status...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149350/the-influence-of-high-altitude-acclimatization-on-ventilatory-and-blood-oxygen-saturation-responses-during-normoxic-and-hypoxic-testing
#12
Anton Ušaj, Stojan Burnik
We investigated how acclimatization effects achieved during a high-altitude alpinist expedition influence endurance performance, ventilation ([Formula: see text]) and blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) in normoxic (NOR) and hypoxic conditions (HYP). An incremental testing protocol on a cycle ergometer was used to determine the power output corresponding to the Lactate (PLT) and Ventilatory Threshold (PVT) in NOR and HYP (FiO2=0.13) as indirect characteristics of endurance performance in both conditions. Furthermore, changes in [Formula: see text], SaO2, blood pH and Pco2 were measured at a similar absolute exercise intensity of 180 W in NOR and HYP conditions...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135217/short-term-hypoxic-exposure-and-training-improve-maximal-anaerobic-running-test-performance
#13
Marie Oriishi, Takeo Matsubayashi, Takashi Kawahara, Yasuhiro Suzuki
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of short-term hypoxic exposure and training in the performance of competitive 400 m or 800 m runners. Fifteen female competitive 400 m and 800 m runners volunteered to participate and were assigned to either the hypoxic (n = 7) or normoxic (n = 8) group. The subjects completed 6 days of training. The hypoxic group trained and slept in normobaric hypoxia, with oxygen concentrations of 14.4% and 16.5% for training and sleep, respectively. The normoxic group trained and slept at sea level...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124127/acute-low-intensity-cycling-with-blood-flow-restriction-has-no-effect-on-metabolic-signaling-in-human-skeletal-muscle-compared-to-traditional-exercise
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
William J Smiles, Miguel S Conceição, Guilherme D Telles, Mara P T Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Felipe C Vechin, Cleiton A Libardi, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
PURPOSE: Autophagy is an intracellular degradative system sensitive to hypoxia and exercise-induced perturbations to cellular bioenergetics. We determined the effects of low-intensity endurance-based exercise performed with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on cell signaling adaptive responses regulating autophagy and substrate metabolism in human skeletal muscle. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, nine young, healthy but physically inactive males completed three experimental trials separated by 1 week of recovery consisting of either a resistance exercise bout (REX: 4 × 10 leg press repetitions, 70% 1-RM), endurance exercise (END: 30 min cycling, 70% VO2peak), or low-intensity cycling with BFR (15 min, 40% VO2peak)...
February 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067808/effects-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-cardiorespiratory-endurance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Raúl Domínguez, Eduardo Cuenca, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Noemí Serra-Paya, María Carmen Lozano Estevan, Pablo Veiga Herreros, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance...
January 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039190/endurance-training-attenuates-the-increase-in-peripheral-chemoreflex-sensitivity-with-intermittent-hypoxia
#16
Amanda J Miller, Charity L Sauder, Aimee E Cauffman, Cheryl A Blaha, Urs A Leuenberger
Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 yr) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent 8 wk of endurance training that included running four times/wk at 80% predicted maximum heart rate and interval training, and four control subjects did not change activity...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018235/modulation-of-muscle-fiber-compositions-in-response-to-hypoxia-via-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-1
#17
Daniel D Nguyen, Gyuyoup Kim, Eung-Kwon Pae
Muscle fiber-type changes in hypoxic conditions in accordance with pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (Pdk)-1 and hypoxia inducible factor (Hif)-1α were investigated in rats. Hif-1α and its down-stream molecule Pdk-1 are well known for readily response to hypoxia. We questioned their roles in relation to changes in myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition in skeletal muscles. We hypothesize that the level of Pdk-1 with respect to the level of Hif-1α determines MyHC composition of the muscle in rats in hypoxia. Young male rats were housed in a chamber maintained at 11...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721912/effect-of-high-intensity-training-in-normobaric-hypoxia-on-thoroughbred-skeletal-muscle
#18
Hiroshi Nagahisa, Kazutaka Mukai, Hajime Ohmura, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hirofumi Miyata
Hypoxic training is believed to increase endurance capacity in association with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a modulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and to influence activation of satellite cells (SCs). However, the effect of hypoxic training on SC activation and its relation to angiogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated. Eight Thoroughbred horses were subjected to normoxic (FIO2 = 21%) or hypoxic (FIO2 = 15%) training for 3 days/week (100%  [Formula: see text]) for 4 weeks...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710149/heightened-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-at-simulated-moderate-level-altitude-vs-sea-level-in-trained-cyclists
#19
Alex J Wadley, Ida S Svendsen, Michael Gleeson
Altitude exposure can exaggerate the transient increase in markers of oxidative stress observed following acute exercise. However, these responses have not been monitored in endurance-trained cyclists at altitudes typically experienced whilst training. Endurance trained males (n=12; mean (±SD) age: 28 ± 4 years, V̇O2max 63.7 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min) undertook two 75-min exercise trials at 70% relative V̇O2max; once in normoxia and once in hypobaric hypoxia, equivalent to 2000m above sea level (hypoxia). Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 2 h post-exercise to assess plasma parameters of oxidative stress (protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase activity (CAT))...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660299/generation-of-active-expiration-by-serotoninergic-mechanisms-of-the-ventral-medulla-of-rats
#20
Eduardo V Lemes, Eduardo Colombari, Daniel B Zoccal
Abdominal expiratory activity is absent at rest and is evoked during metabolic challenges, such as hypercapnia and hypoxia, or after the exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH). The mechanisms engaged during this process are not completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT), acting in the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG), is able to generate active expiration. In anesthetized (urethane, ip), tracheostomized, spontaneously-breathing adult male Holtzman rats we microinjected a serotoninergic agonist and antagonist bilaterally in the RTN/pFRG and recorded diaphragm and abdominal muscle activities...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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