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ENDURANCE HYPOXIA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038420/effects-of-different-training-loads-on-emotional-state-and-mrna-and-protein-expressions-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subunits-postsynaptic-density-95-and-kinesin-family-member-17-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#1
Hefei Ren, Xinyi Yu, Liren Yu, Yinguo Zhang, Hong Xie, Na Shi, Lijun Chen
BACKGROUND Emotional state can be affected by different training loads. The aim of this study was to explore the changes of rat emotional state, as well as the mRNA and protein expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95), and kinesin family member 17 (KIF-17) in the hippocampus, by long-term moderate-intensity and high-intensity training models in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS The exercise model of SD rats was set up by treadmill running of moderate and high intensities for 4 weeks...
October 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929623/influence-of-combined-iron-supplementation-and-simulated-hypoxia-on-the-haematological-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#2
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, e.g. altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n=34) undertaking 3-weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d(-1) , 3000m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing two weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
September 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878622/ganaxolone-a-new-treatment-for-neonatal-seizures
#3
REVIEW
Tamara Yawno, Suzie L Miller, Laura Bennet, Flora Wong, Jonathan J Hirst, Michael Fahey, David W Walker
Neonatal seizures are amongst the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal care service. Seizures can exacerbate existing brain injury, induce "de novo" injury, and are associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities in post-neonatal life. In this mini-review, we present evidence in support of the use of ganaxolone, a GABA(A) agonist neurosteroid, as a novel neonatal therapy. We discuss evidence that ganaxolone can provide both seizure control and neuroprotection with a high safety profile when administered early following birth-related hypoxia, and show evidence that it is likely to prevent or reduce the incidence of the enduring disabilities associated with preterm birth, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819001/epigenomics-and-human-adaptation-to-high-altitude
#4
Colleen Glyde Julian
Over the past decade, major technological and analytical advancements have propelled efforts towards identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern human adaptation to high altitude. Despite remarkable progress with respect to the identification of adaptive genomic signals that are strongly associated with the 'hypoxia-tolerant' physiological characteristics of high-altitude populations, many questions regarding the fundamental biological processes underlying human adaptation remain unanswered. Vital to address these enduring questions will be to determine the role of epigenetic processes, or non-sequence based features of the genome, that are not only critical for the regulation of transcriptional responses to hypoxia but heritable across generations...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818999/short-term-arrival-strategies-for-endurance-exercise-performance-at-moderate-altitude
#5
Joshua L Foss, Keren Constantini, Timothy D Mickleborough, Robert F Chapman
For sea level-based endurance athletes who compete at moderate and high altitudes, many are not logistically able to arrive at altitude weeks prior to the event to fully acclimatize. For those who can only arrive at altitude the night before competition, we asked if there is a physiological and performance advantage in reducing altitude exposure time to two hours prior to competition. On three separate visits, ten cyclists completed overnight laboratory exposures of: 1) a 14-hour exposure to normobaric hypoxia (16...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797581/surviving-stress-modulation-of-atf4-mediated-stress-responses-in-normal-and-malignant-cells
#6
REVIEW
Inge M N Wortel, Laurens T van der Meer, Michael S Kilberg, Frank N van Leeuwen
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a stress-induced transcription factor that is frequently upregulated in cancer cells. ATF4 controls the expression of a wide range of adaptive genes that allow cells to endure periods of stress, such as hypoxia or amino acid limitation. However, under persistent stress conditions, ATF4 promotes the induction of apoptosis. Recent advances point to a role for post-translational modifications (PTMs) and epigenetic mechanisms in balancing these pro- and anti-survival effects of ATF4...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775065/effect-of-hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-on-exercise-performance-in-healthy-individuals-and-in-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-a-systematic-review
#7
Silvia Ulrich, Simon Raphael Schneider, Konrad E Bloch
Exercise performance is determined by oxygen supply to working muscles and vital organs. In healthy individuals, exercise performance is limited in the hypoxic environment at altitude, when oxygen delivery is diminished due to the reduced alveolar and arterial oxygen partial pressures. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, exercise performance is already reduced near sea level due to impairments of the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange and, presumably, these limitations are more pronounced at altitude...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715447/short-term-alteration-of-biotic-and-abiotic-components-of-the-pelagic-system-in-a-shallow-bay-produced-by-a-strong-natural-hypoxia-event
#8
Eduardo Hernández-Miranda, Rodrigo Veas, Valeria Anabalón, Renato A Quiñones
In January 2008 there was an intensive and extensive upwelling event in the southern Humboldt Current System. This event produced an intrusion of water with low dissolved oxygen into Coliumo Bay, which caused massive mortality and the beaching of pelagic and benthic organisms, including zooplankton. During this event, which lasted 3 to 5 days, we studied and evaluated the effect of the hypoxic water in the bay on the abundance of macrozooplankton, nanoplankton and microphytoplankton, the concentration of several nutrients and hydrographic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685860/exercise-mediated-modulation-of-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
REVIEW
Marcos Martin-Rincon, David Morales-Alamo, Jose A L Calbet
Although exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects, it may also damage cellular structures. Damaged elements are continuously degraded and its constituents recycled to produce renovated structures through a process called autophagy, which is essential for the adaptation to training. Autophagy is particularly active in skeletal muscle, where it can be evaluated by using specific molecular markers of activation (unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation) and specific proteins indicating increased autophagosome content (increased total LC3, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio)...
July 7, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665150/association-between-plasma-n-acylethanolamides-and-high-hemoglobin-concentration-in-southern-peruvian-highlanders
#10
Dulce E Alarcón-Yaquetto, Lidia Caballero, Gustavo F Gonzales
Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E., Lidia Caballero, and Gustavo F. Gonzales. Association between plasma N-acylethanolamides and high hemoglobin concentration in Southern Peruvian highlanders. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-High-altitude (HA) hypoxia is a stressful condition endured by organisms through different mechanisms. Failing to adapt to chronic HA exposure leads to a disease called chronic mountain sickness (CMS) characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin [Hb] ≥19 g/dL for women and ≥21 g/dL for men)...
June 30, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648907/sulfated-dehydropolymer-of-caffeic-acid-in%C3%A2-vitro-anti-lung-cell-death-activity-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-intervention-in-emphysema-induced-by-vegf-receptor-blockade
#11
Tien M Truong, Hua Li, Sneha Dhapare, Umesh R Desai, Nobert F Voelkel, Masahiro Sakagami
Induced lung cell death and impaired hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling are proposed as a pathobiologic mechanism for alveolar structural destruction and loss in emphysema. We hypothesized that our sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid, CDSO3, exerts anti-cell death activities and therapeutic interventions in emphysema by virtue of Fe(2+) chelation-based HIF-1α/VEGF stabilization and elevation. The Fe(2+) chelating activity was determined in the chromogenic ferrozine-Fe(2+) chelation inhibitory assay...
August 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626339/effects-of-2-week-intermittent-training-in-hypobaric-hypoxia-on-the-aerobic-energy-metabolism-and-performance-of-cycling-athletes-with-disabilities
#12
Sang-Hoon Kim, Ho-Jung An, Jung-Hyun Choi, Yong-Youn Kim
[Purpose] The present study aimed at examining changes in aerobic energy metabolism and performance in cycling athletes after 2 weeks of intermittent training in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment. [Subjects and Methods] We also aimed at using the findings to propose an efficient training program in hypobaric hypoxia for endurance athletes with disabilities. The study participants were three cycling athletes with physical disabilities from the Korean national team (A, B, and C athletes). They underwent complex (repetition, interval, and continued) training with a roller-type cycle in a multistep hypobaric hypoxia environment (simulated altitude, 4,000 m above sea level)...
June 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575921/endurance-exercise-in-hypoxia-hyperoxia-and-normoxia-mitochondrial-and-global-adaptations
#13
Axel Przyklenk, Boris Gutmann, Thorsten Schiffer, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K Strueder, Wilhelm Bloch, Andreas Mierau, Sebastian Gehlert
We hypothesized short-term endurance exercise (EN) in hypoxia (HY) to exert decreased mitochondrial adaptation, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and peak power output (PPO) compared to EN in normoxia (NOR) and hyperoxia (PER). 11 male subjects performed repeated unipedal cycling EN in HY, PER, and NOR over 4 weeks in a cross-over design. VO2peak, PPO, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate (Bla) were determined pre- and post-intervention to assess physiological demands and adaptation. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected to determine molecular mitochondrial signaling and adaptation...
July 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#14
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522767/individual-hemoglobin-mass-response-to-normobaric-and-hypobaric-live-high-train-low-a-one-year-crossover-study
#15
Anna Hauser, Severin Troesch, Jonas J Saugy, Laurent Schmitt, Roberto Cejuela-Anta, Raphael Faiss, Thomas Steiner, Neil Robinson, Grégoire P Millet, Jon Peter Wehrlin
PURPOSE: To compare individual hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) changes following a live high-train low (LHTL) altitude training camp under either normobaric hypoxia (NH) or hypobaric hypoxia (HH) conditions in endurance athletes. METHODS: In a crossover design with a one-year washout, 15 male triathletes randomly performed two 18-d LHTL training camps in either HH or NH. All athletes slept at 2250 m and trained at altitudes < 1200 m. Hbmass was measured in duplicate with the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method before (pre-) and immediately after (post-) each 18 d training camp...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467859/the-novel-combination-of-theophylline-and-bambuterol-as-a-potential-treatment-of-hypoxemia-in-humans
#16
Trond-Eirik Strand, Hasse Z Khiabani, Alina Boico, Daniel Radiloff, Yulin Zhao, Karyn L Hamilton, Uwe Christians, Jelena Klawitter, Robert J Noveck, Claude A Piantadosi, Christopher Bell, David Irwin, Thies Schroeder
Hypoxemia can be life-threatening, both acutely and chronically. Because hypoxemia causes vascular dysregulation that further restricts oxygen availability to tissue, it can be pharmacologically addressed. We hypothesized that theophylline can be safely combined with the β2-adrenergic vasodilator bambuterol to improve oxygen availability in hypoxemic patients. Ergogenicity and hemodynamic effects of bambuterol and theophylline were measured in rats under hypobaric and normobaric hypoxia (12% O2). Feasibility in humans was assessed using randomized, double-blind testing of the influence of combined slow-release theophylline (300 mg) and bambuterol (20 mg) on adverse events (AEs), plasma K(+), pulse, blood pressure, and drug interaction...
May 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413958/anti-fatigue-effects-of-active-ingredients-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-a-review
#17
Si-Si Zhou, Jian-Guo Jiang
Fatigue, a phenomenon which is believed to be caused by body exercise, can lead to the failure of predetermined exercise intensity maintenance and sport ability declination. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of fatigue has long been practiced in clinical and showed significant effects. This article covers related literatures in recent years and sorts the effective ingredients from TCM for treating fatigue into a few categories including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, polyphenols, polypeptide, terpene, proteins and other active ingredients...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394459/ergogenic-properties-of-metformin-in-simulated-high-altitude
#18
Rebecca L Scalzo, Hunter L Paris, Scott E Binns, Janelle L Davis, Joseph W Beals, Christopher L Melby, Gary J Luckasen, Matthew S Hickey, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Christopher Bell
Metformin augments glucose/glycogen regulation and may acutely promote fatigue resistance during high-intensity exercise. In hypobaric environments, such as high altitude, the important contribution of carbohydrates to physiological function is accentuated as glucose/glycogen dependence is increased. Because hypoxia/hypobaria decreases insulin sensitivity, replenishing skeletal muscle glycogen in high altitude becomes challenging and subsequent physical performance may be compromised. We hypothesized that in conditions where glycogen repletion was critical to physical outcomes, metformin would attenuate hypoxia-mediated decrements in exercise performance...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368957/impact-of-endurance-exercise-in-hypoxia-on-muscle-damage-inflammatory-and-performance-responses
#19
Daichi Sumi, Chihiro Kojima, Kazushige Goto
This study evaluated muscle damage and inflammatory and performance responses following high-intensity endurance exercise in moderate hypoxia among endurance athletes. Nine trained endurance athletes completed two different trials on different days: exercise under moderate hypoxia (H trial, FiO2 = 14.5%) and normoxia (N trial, FiO2 = 20.9%). They performed interval exercises (10 × 3-min running at 95% of VO2max with 60-s of active rest at 60% of VO2max) followed by 30-min of continuous running at 85% of VO2max under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362866/thoraco-abdominal-coordination-and-performance-during-uphill-running-at-altitude
#20
Eva Bernardi, Lorenza Pratali, Gaia Mandolesi, Maria Spiridonova, Giulio Sergio Roi, Annalisa Cogo
INTRODUCTION: Running races on mountain trails at moderate-high altitude with large elevation changes throughout has become increasingly popular. During exercise at altitude, ventilatory demands increase due to the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia. AIM: To investigate the relationships between thoraco-abdominal coordination, ventilatory pattern, oxygen saturation (SpO2), and endurance performance in runners during high-intensity uphill exercise. METHODS: Fifteen participants (13 males, mean age 42±9 yrs) ran a "Vertical Kilometer," i...
2017: PloS One
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