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Hospitalization infections

Hendramoorthy Maheswaran, Stavros Petrou, Danielle Cohen, Peter MacPherson, Felistas Kumwenda, David G Lalloo, Elizabeth L Corbett, Aileen Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Although HIV infection and its associated co-morbidities remain the commonest reason for hospitalisation in Africa, their impact on economic costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are not well understood. This information is essential for decision-makers to make informed choices about how to best scale-up anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programmes. This study aimed to quantify the impact of HIV infection and ART on economic outcomes in a prospective cohort of hospitalised patients with high HIV prevalence...
2018: PloS One
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
Amy C Justice, Kirsha S Gordon, Melissa Skanderson, Eva Jennifer Edelman, Kathleen M Akgün, Cynthia L Gibert, Vincent Lo Re, David Rimland, Julie A Womack, Christina M Wyatt, Janet P Tate
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive individuals (HIV+) on antiretrovirals commonly take enough other medications to cross a threshold for polypharmacy but little is known about associated outcomes. We asked whether non-antiretroviral polypharmacy is associated with hospitalization and mortality and whether associations differ by HIV status. METHODS: Data on HIV+ and uninfected individuals in the US Veterans Affairs Healthcare System were analyzed. Eligible HIV+ were on antiretrovirals with suppressed HIV-1 RNA and uninfected individuals received at least one medication...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
Respati W Ranakusuma, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri, Sarah Thorning, Elaine M Beller, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Chris B Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common acute infection in children. Pain is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for AOM, although they have only a modest effect in reducing pain at two to three days. There is insufficient evidence for benefits of other treatment options, including systemic corticosteroids. However, systemic corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, and so theoretically could be effective, either alone or as an addition to antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sami M Aloush, Faris A Alsaraireh
OBJECTIVE:  To assess nurses' compliance with central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) prevention guidelines related to maintenance of the central line and the predictors of compliance. Method: This was an observational study that used a descriptive cross-sectional design. A sample of 171 intensive care unit (ICU) nurses were observed and their compliance was recorded on a structured observational sheet. The study was conducted in the ICUs of 15 hospitals located in 5 cities in Jordan...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Bei Jia, Weihua Wu, Rui Huang, Guiyang Wang, Peixin Song, Yang Li, Yong Liu, Yali Xiong, Xiaomin Yan, Yingying Hao, Juan Xia, Zhaoping Zhang, Yuxin Chen, Chao Wu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a life-threatening infectious disease identified in 2009. SFTS is mainly transmitted by contact with ticks or animals; however, sporadic reports suggested that SFTS could be transmitted among humans. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to comprehensively characterize clinical features and disease progression of SFTS acquired by human-to-human transmission. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 90 SFTS patients was performed in a tertiary hospital of Nanjing, China, from October 2010 to October 2016...
March 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Moataz M Hassan, Zied Gaifer, Ibrahim S Al-Zakwani
Background Colistin is used to treat gram-negative infections but it's highly associated with nephrotoxicity. Objectives To determine the incidence and risk factors as well as mortality in patients on colistin. Setting Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted and who received colistin for ≥ 48 h. The exclusion criteria included inhaled colistin therapy, cystic fibrosis, or pregnancy. The study period was from January 2010 to June 2016...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Yifei Lin, Deyi Luo, Banghua Liao, Tongxin Yang, Ye Tian, Tao Jin, Guiming Wang, Hongying Zhou, Hong Li, Kunjie Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative outcomes between the perineal inverted-U and the vertical midline incision approaches of the urethroplasty and clarify them via gross anatomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 461 male patients, from Jan. 2006 to Jun. 2014, who underwent the urethroplasty via perineal midline vertical or inverted-U incision approach were recruited retrospectively. By match pairing for etiology and stricture length, 410 patients from two groups (205 for each group) were selected...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
William Wynell-Mayow, Muhammad Zahid Saeed
BACKGROUND: The WHO includes osteoarthritis as a disease of priority, owing to its significant impact on quality of life, and globally increasing prevalence. Hospital budgets are under pressure to ration knee replacements and shorten inpatient stays. Prolonged tourniquet application has been hypothesised to extend recovery through pain and reduced mobility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 123 elective total knee replacements meeting inclusion criteria took place from July 2015 to October 2017 at the Royal Free Hospital...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Eleuza Rodrigues Machado, Núbia Oliveira Matos, Sinione Morais Rezende, Daniela Carlos, Thauana Cristina Silva, Leônia Rodrigues, Maria Jarlene Rodrigues Almeida, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2) were analyzed using two parasitological methods...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Anna Therese Bjerkreim, Andrej Netland Khanevski, Solveig Bergliot Glad, Lars Thomassen, Halvor Naess, Nicola Logallo
Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe form of stroke, but data on readmission after ICH are sparse. We aimed to determine frequency, causes, and predictors of 30-day readmission after ICH. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study includes all spontaneous ICH survivors admitted to the stroke unit at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen in Norway from July 2007 to December 2013. Patients were followed by review of electronic medical charts, and the first unplanned readmission within 30 days after discharge was used as final outcome...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Azeem Ullah, Yuxiang Zhang, Zafar Iqbal, Yaxin Zhang, Dong Wang, Jincan Chen, Ping Hu, Zhuo Chen, Mingdong Huang
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is considered a promising alternative to conventional antibiotic approach. We have previously developed a novel PS containing five lysine amino acids, pentalysine-β-carbonylphthalocyanine Zinc (ZnPc(Lys)5 ), which in the presence of light, is highly toxic against a range of bacterial strains, including hospital isolated, drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we study the effect of light fluence of the two light sources on the PACT potency of ZnPc(Lys)5 ...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Nicholas Agyepong, Usha Govinden, Alex Owusu-Ofori, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Background: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as major clinical and therapeutic dilemma in hospitals in Ghana.To describe the prevalence and profile of infections attributable to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods: Bacterial cultures were randomly selected from the microbiology laboratory from February to August, 2015. Bacterial identification and minimum inhibitory concentrations were conducted using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek-2 automated system...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Swee Siang Wong, Cheng Hua Huang, Chiu Chu Yang, Yi Pei Hsieh, Chen Ni Kuo, Yi Ru Chen, Li Ching Chen
Background: Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. Methods: We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mohammad Vafaee Shahi, Samileh Noorbakhsh, Vida Zarrabi, Banafsheh Nourozi, Leila Tahernia
Background: Any mismatch between the production and absorption of CSF results in hydrocephalus. In most cases, the selected choice of treatment is the ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Although, the surgery could have complications such as infection, shunt malfunction, subdural hematoma, seizure and Shunt immigration; so, the early and proper detection of these complications could result in better prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of CT scan, CSF analysis and X-ray radiography in detection of shunt complications and problems in shunt placement and further follow-up in hospitalized children...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
Arshad Khan, Rahmat Ali Khan, Mushtaq Ahmed, Muhammad Sadiq Khan
This was a cross-sectional descriptive study for determining the effect of vaccination in children suffering from measles in district Bannu and FR regions. It was conducted at the Paediatric Unit of Women and Children Teaching Hospital, Bannu Medical College Bannu, from July 2015 to June 2016.A total of 7,200 children were examined both from indoor and OPD. Among these, 3,210 (44.58%), were males and 3990 (55.42) were females. Children upto 15 years, suffering from measles were included both from indoor and outdoor departments...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Monique J T Crobach, Jonathan J Vernon, Vivian G Loo, Ling Yuan Kong, Séverine Péchiné, Mark H Wilcox, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile -colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Charlene Eliza Thornton, Hannah Grace Dahlen
OBJECTIVES: To determine incidence, associated factors, outcomes and geographical occurrence of born before arrival (BBA) in New South Wales, Australia. DESIGN: A linked population data study involving population-based surveillance systems was undertaken for the years 2000-2011. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: All women who underwent BBA compared with women who birthed in hospital/birth centre settings...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
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