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Gastroparesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105529/upper-gi-disorders-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#1
Henry P Parkman
Symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract are associated with abnormalities of upper gastric neuromuscular function including abnormalities of motility, sensation, and absorption. Of the upper digestive tract, the stomach is of particular importance in its role in symptom generation, and is highlighted in this chapter. Gastric symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical activity and contractility...
January 20, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075092/diabetes-mellitus-management-of-gastrointestinal-complications
#2
Beth Careyva, Brian Stello
Gastrointestinal disorders are common complications of diabetes mellitus and include gastroparesis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic diarrhea. Symptoms of gastroparesis include early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting of undigested food, bloating, and abdominal pain. Gastroparesis is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Gastric emptying scintigraphy is the preferred diagnostic test...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071866/exploration-of-the-psychosocial-issues-associated-with-gastroparesis-a-qualitative-investigation
#3
Sally Woodhouse, Geoff Hebbard, Simon R Knowles
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To build on the understanding of how individuals experience gastroparesis, how gastroparesis impacts on their lives, and how they adapt to living with gastroparesis. BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is a neurogastroenterological disorder associated with increased psychological distress and reduced quality of life. Research shows that gastroparesis poses a significant burden across many facets of life, however less is known about how individuals cope and adapt to living with the condition...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066953/diabetic-and-idiopathic-gastroparesis-is-associated-with-loss-of-cd206-positive-macrophages-in-the-gastric-antrum
#4
M Grover, C E Bernard, P J Pasricha, H P Parkman, S J Gibbons, J Tonascia, K L Koch, R W McCallum, I Sarosiek, W L Hasler, L A B Nguyen, T L Abell, W J Snape, M L Kendrick, T A Kellogg, T J McKenzie, F A Hamilton, G Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have increasingly highlighted the role of macrophages in the development of delayed gastric emptying. However, their role in the pathophysiology of human gastroparesis is unclear. Our aim was to determine changes in macrophages and other cell types in the gastric antrum muscularis propria of patients with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. METHODS: Full thickness gastric antrum biopsies were obtained from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (11 diabetic, 6 idiopathic) and 5 controls...
January 9, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050922/abdominal-paracentesis-drainage-improves-tolerance-of-enteral-nutrition-in-acute-pancreatitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Liang Hongyin, Huang Zhu, Wang Tao, Lin Ning, Liu Weihui, Cui Jianfeng, Yan Hongtao, Tang Lijun
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine whether abdominal paracentesis drainage (APD) could improve the administration of enteral nutrition (EN) in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Between January 2015 and April 2016, a total of 161 acute pancreatitis patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the APD group or the non-APD group. Several indexes associated with the administration of EN, including the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI), the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events, and the clinical outcomes, were recorded...
January 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050780/clinical-characteristics-comorbidities-and-hospital-outcomes-in-hospitalizations-with-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-a-nationwide-analysis
#6
Sanjay Bhandari, Thangam Venkatesan
BACKGROUND: Data on cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) are limited to studies from tertiary care centers. There is a paucity of information about CVS on a national scale. AIM: To study the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized with CVS using a nationwide database. METHODS: We identified all hospitalizations associated with a primary diagnosis of CVS in 2010 and 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample with an age category of 18-55 years...
January 3, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050040/endoscopic-pyloromyotomy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-refractory-diabetic-gastroparesis
#7
João Santos-Antunes, Margarida Marques, Pedro Pereira, Susana Rodrigues, Rui Gaspa, José Barbosa, Eduardo Lima da Costa, António Pereira, José Costa Maia, Guilherme Macedo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035532/ghrelin-and-motilin-control-systems-in-gi-physiology-and-therapeutics
#8
Gareth J Sanger, John Broad, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
Ghrelin and motilin are released from gastrointestinal endocrine cells during hunger, to act through G protein-coupled receptors that have closely related amino acid sequences. The actions of ghrelin are more complex than motilin because ghrelin also exists outside the GI tract, it is processed to des-acyl ghrelin which has activity, ghrelin can exist in truncated forms and retain activity, the ghrelin receptor can have constitutive activity and is subject to biased agonism and finally additional ghrelin-like and des-acyl ghrelin receptors are proposed...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999021/development-of-operationalized-intravenous-to-oral-antibiotic-switch-criteria
#9
H Akhloufi, M Hulscher, D C Melles, J M Prins, H van der Sijs, A Verbon
OBJECTIVES: Despite huge overlap in suggested criteria for a safe intravenous (iv)-to-oral antibiotic switch, there is considerable variation in their operationalization. The objective of this study was to develop a set of measurable conditions that should be met in adult hospitalized patients for a safe iv-to-oral switch. METHODS: A RAND-modified Delphi procedure was performed to develop a set of operationalized iv-to-oral switch criteria. Switch criteria and their accompanying suggested measurable conditions were extracted from the literature and appraised by a multidisciplinary expert panel during two questionnaire rounds with a face-to-face meeting between these two rounds...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986106/poems-for-gastroparesis
#10
EDITORIAL
Michael Camilleri, Lawrence A Szarka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941374/delayed-gastric-emptying-in-advanced-parkinson-disease-correlation-with-therapeutic-doses
#11
Alberto Bestetti, Antonella Capozza, Marco Lacerenza, Luigi Manfredi, Francesca Mancini
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal dysfunction is often described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and gastrointestinal symptoms are usually attributed to gastroparesis. The consequent delayed gastric emptying (GE) may be an important pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying some of the response fluctuations that develop after long-term levodopa (L-dopa) therapy.The aim of this prospective study was to assess GE time by a liquid meal scintigraphy, in PD patients, and to correlate them with demographic, clinical, and therapeutic data...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916055/-pathogenesis-of-gastroparesis
#12
G Bai, H H Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914942/is-there-a-role-for-ghrelin-in-central-dopaminergic-systems-focus-on-nigrostriatal-and-mesocorticolimbic-pathways
#13
REVIEW
Alicia Stievenard, Mathieu Méquinion, Zane B Andrews, Alain Destée, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Odile Viltart, Christel C Vanbesien-Mailliot
The gastro-intestinal peptide ghrelin has been assigned many functions. These include appetite regulation, energy metabolism, glucose homeostasis, intestinal motility, anxiety, memory or neuroprotection. In the last decade, this pleiotropic peptide has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in gastroparesis for diabetes and in cachexia for cancer. Ghrelin and its receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, play an important role in motivation and reward. Ghrelin finely modulates the mesencephalic dopaminergic signaling and is thus currently studied in pathological conditions including dopamine-related disorders...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896652/the-long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-pyloroplasty-combined-with-gastric-electrical-stimulation-therapy-in-gastroparesis
#14
Brian R Davis, Irene Sarosiek, Mohammad Bashashati, Ben Alvarado, Richard W McCallum
INTRODUCTION: Gastroparesis is delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction. Symptomatic improvement can be 50-60% with gastric electrical stimulation. To address delayed gastric emptying, pyloroplasty was added. This study examines the long-term efficacy and safety of simultaneous gastric electrical stimulator implantation and pyloroplasty. METHODS: In this prospective single-arm trial conducted from 2012 to 2015, 27 [23 females; mean age 43 (22-63)] gastroparesis patients who underwent simultaneous gastric electrical stimulator implantation with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty were studied...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888862/functional-and-motor-gastrointestinal-disorders
#15
Fermín Mearin, Enrique Rey, Agustín Balboa
This article discusses the most interesting presentations at Digestive Disease Week, held in San Diego, in the field of functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders. One of the most important contributions was undoubtedly the presentation of the new Rome IV diagnostic criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders. We therefore devote some space in this article to explaining these new criteria in the most common functional disorders. In fact, there has already been discussion of data comparing Rome IV and Rome III criteria in the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, confirming that the new criteria are somewhat more restrictive...
September 2016: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882650/a-qualitative-assessment-of-west-virginia-pharmacist-activities-and-attitude-in-diabetes-management
#16
Aymen Shatnawi, David A Latif
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The role of pharmacists in chronic disease state management has been shown to significantly improve patient health outcomes and reduce overall health care costs. The current study is designed to assess the roles and attitudes of West Virginia (WV) pharmacists toward diabetes, evaluate services provided, address pharmacist clinical understanding and training, and demonstrate the challenges that limit pharmacists ability to deliver an efficient disease state management...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869566/gastrointestinal-comorbidities-which-complicate-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Margherita Mascolo, Bashir Geer, Joshua Feuerstein, Philip S Mehler
Patients with anorexia nervosa often voice a multitude of symptoms in regards to their gastrointestinal tract. These complaints can complicate the treatment of their eating disorder as they distract attention from the important goal of weight restoration. Moreover, the restricting of certain food groups also makes the task of weight restoration substantially more difficult, or may result in binging. Therefore a working knowledge of common gastrointestinal comorbidities, such as celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastroparesis, is useful when treating a patient who has anorexia nervosa...
November 21, 2016: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820956/the-association-between-fasting-c-peptide-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-of-gastroparesis-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#18
Yun Huang, Honghong Zhang, Minxia Zhang, Wenya Li, Jinhua Wang, Ji Hu
Background/Aims: The relationship between c-peptide levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients is not clear. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between fasting C-peptide and GI symptoms of gastroparesis in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: We recruited 333 type 2 diabetic patients into the present study. All the patients filled out questionnaires of gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) to evaluate GI symptoms...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807571/pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-invading-the-duodenum-and-presenting-as-idiopathic-gastroparesis-with-nausea-and-vomiting
#19
Brent T Cengia, Paula S Stuart, Kenneth L Koch
A 65-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Prior esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed retained food and delayed gastric emptying, but abdominal computed tomography was normal. The working diagnosis was idiopathic gastroparesis. Subsequently, an electrogastrogram test showed normal 3-cycle-per-minute activity, although it was suggestive of obstructive gastroparesis. Repeat esophagogastrodudenoscopy showed obstruction at the postbulbar duodenum. Repeat abdominal computed tomography revealed a 2...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796517/gastric-motility-and-emptying-assessment-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-after-lung-transplantation-correlation-with-gastric-emptying-scintigraphy
#20
Nobuyuki Hayakawa, Yuji Nakamoto, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Aki Kido, Takayoshi Ishimori, Koji Fujimoto, Tetsu Yamada, Masaaki Sato, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date, Kaori Togashi
PURPOSE: Gastroparesis is a frequent gastrointestinal complication after lung transplantation. Although gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) is the standard technique to evaluate gastroparesis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also assess gastric motility and emptying. This study compared the results obtained by these two modalities. METHODS: Twenty-two lung transplant recipients underwent MRI and GES after ingesting a small pancake as a test meal. Parameters assessed on MRI included antral peristaltic wave velocity and frequency, and the ratios of gastric content volume at 15 and 35 min...
October 31, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
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