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Gastroparesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161307/repeat-polymorphisms-in-the-homo-sapiens-heme-oxygenase-1-gene-in-diabetic-and-idiopathic-gastroparesis
#1
Simon J Gibbons, Madhusudan Grover, Kyoung Moo Choi, Akhilesh Wadhwa, Adeel Zubair, Laura A Wilson, Yanhong Wu, Thomas L Abell, William L Hasler, Kenneth L Koch, Richard W McCallum, Linda A B Nguyen, Henry P Parkman, Irene Sarosiek, William J Snape, James Tonascia, Frank A Hamilton, Pankaj J Pasricha, Gianrico Farrugia
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. AIM: Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157021/gastroparesis-pharmacotherapy-and-cardiac-risk
#2
Per M Hellström, Ahmad Al-Saffar
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is characterized by abnormal gastric motility and delayed emptying with symptoms of early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Pharmacological discovery has been lagging because potential drugs often are associated with abnormalities of electrical conduction of the myocardium due to interaction with cardiac ion channels leading to limited pharmaceutical options for development of new drugs. OBJECTIVE: Addresses the safety of drugs for gastroparesis in terms of cardiotoxicity related to the clinical use of prokinetics and antiemetics...
November 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153755/a-longitudinal-study-on-patients-with-diabetes-and-symptoms-of-gastroparesis-associations-with-impaired-quality-of-life-and-increased-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms
#3
Tonje Teigland, Marjolein M Iversen, Dag A Sangnes, Georg Dimcevski, Eirik Søfteland
AIMS: To examine patient reported outcomes (PRO) in patients previously assessed for diabetic gastroparesis, and to investigate how symptoms of gastroparesis evolve over time. In addition, to further evaluate outcomes in those with versus without diabetic gastroparesis at baseline. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with diabetes and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, diagnosed with or without diabetic gastroparesis in 2011-2013, were included in this follow-up study. PRO were measured with the Patient assessment of upper gastrointestinal symptom severity index (PAGI-SYM), 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), Patient assessment of upper gastrointestinal disorders-quality of life (PAGI-QOL) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#4
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142478/chronic-opioids-in-gastroparesis-relationship-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-healthcare-utilization-and-employment
#5
Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
AIM: To examine the relationship of chronic scheduled opioid use on symptoms, healthcare utilization and employment in gastroparesis (Gp) patients. METHODS: Patients referred to our tertiary care academic center from May 2016 to July 2017, with established diagnosis or symptoms suggestive of Gp filled out the Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms, abdominal pain and demographics questionnaires, and underwent gastric emptying and blood tests. They were asked about taking pain medicines and the types, doses, and duration...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139561/the-novel-potent-and-highly-selective-5-ht4-receptor-agonist-yh12852-significantly-improves-both-upper-and-lower-gastrointestinal-motility
#6
Eun Jeong Jeong, Soo Yong Chung, Han Na Hong, Se-Woong Oh, Jae Young Sim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 5-HT4 receptor agonists have been shown to be effective to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, a lack of selectivity against off-targets has been a limiting factor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The binding affinity and selectivity of YH12852 for human 5-HT4(a) receptor in CHO-K1 cells were evaluated using radioligand binding assays, and agonistic activity was assessed using a beta-lactamase reporter system. Contractile activity and propulsive motility were measured in isolated guinea pig distal colon...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133755/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-diabetic-gastroparesis
#7
Ju Huang
BACKGROUND: Whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential correlation between H. pylori infection and DGP. METHODS: In this study, 163 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 175 nondiabetic patients who were treated in our department were divided into DGP, simple diabetes, non-DGP (NDG), and normal groups based on their conditions. The H. pylori infection rate in each group was calculated...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111279/glycosylated-hemoglobin-level-may-predict-the-severity-of-gastroparesis-in-diabetic-patients
#8
Manhal Izzy, Mindy Lee, Krysta Johns-Keating, Faraj Kargoli, Steven Beckoff, Kwang Chun, Aaron Tokayer
AIM: To investigate the association between glycemic control represented by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and the value of 4-h gastric retention on nuclear scan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of diabetic patients who had 4-h nuclear gastric emptying study, with documented 4-h retention value, between January 1st, 2002 and July 30th, 2014 and had HbA1C level close to the time of the study. We divided our cohort into patients with good glycemic control (HbA1C <7, group A), fair control (7-9, group B), and poor control (>9, group C)...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111115/aprepitant-has-mixed-effects-on-nausea-and-reduces-other-symptoms-in-patients-with-gastroparesis-and-related-disorders
#9
Pankaj J Pasricha, Katherine P Yates, Irene Sarosiek, Richard W McCallum, Thomas L Abell, Kenneth L Koch, Linda Anh B Nguyen, William J Snape, William L Hasler, John O Clarke, Sameer Dhalla, Ellen M Stein, Linda A Lee, Laura A Miriel, Mark L Van Natta, Madhusudan Grover, Gianrico Farrugia, James Tonascia, Frank A Hamilton, Henry P Parkman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few effective treatments for nausea and other symptoms in patients with gastroparesis and related syndromes. We performed a randomized trial of the ability of the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant to reduce symptoms in patients with chronic nausea and vomiting caused by gastroparesis or gastroparesis-like syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a 4-week multicenter, double-masked trial of 126 patients with at least moderate symptoms of chronic nausea and vomiting of presumed gastric origin for a minimum of 6 months...
October 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110425/therapeutic-response-to-domperidone-in-gastroparesis-a%C3%A2-prospective-study-using-the-gcsi-daily-diary
#10
J Heckert, H P Parkman
Common symptoms of gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and upper abdominal pain. Domperidone is used for treatment of gastroparesis. Daily symptom scoring may help document efficacy. AIM: To determine the effectiveness of domperidone for gastroparesis symptoms using the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index-daily diary (GCSI-DD) and to determine which symptoms improve and when with domperidone treatment. METHODS: Symptomatic patients with diabetic or idiopathic gastroparesis were enrolled...
November 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098550/enteric-glial-dysfunction-evoked-by-apolipoprotein-e-deficiency-contributes-to-delayed-gastric-emptying
#11
Seiichiro Fukuhara, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Soraya Nishimura, Masaya Nakamura, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Hitoshi Tsugawa, Sawako Miyoshi, Hideki Mori, Satoshi Kawase, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Takanori Kanai, Hidekazu Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is the main cause of gastroparesis accompanying decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric ganglia of the stomach. Decreased nNOS expression in the stomach also results from defects in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which is secreted by astrocytes and has neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. However, the roles of ApoE and enteric glial cells on gastric motility are uncertain. In this study, ApoE and enteric glial cell alterations in gastroparesis were investigated...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094779/reactive-oxygen-species-overproduction-and-map-kinase-phosphatase-1-degradation-are-associated-with-gastroparesis-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-male-diabetic-rat-model
#12
R Smiley, P Naik, R McCallum, M Showkat Ali
BACKGROUND: Diabetic gastroparesis in human and animal models suggest different developmental causes in females vs males. Previously, we demonstrated that although male and female diabetic gastroparetic rats exhibited similarity in disease pathology, molecular mechanisms were different: slow gastric emptying in male diabetic gastroparetic rats was not associated with the level of expression and dimerization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase α in gastric tissues, as was demonstrated in females...
November 2, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079987/exploring-the-diabetic-gastroparesis-patient-experience-patient-exit-interviews
#13
Claire M Ervin, David S Reasner, Jennifer T Hanlon, Sheri E Fehnel
INTRODUCTION: To improve understanding of the diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) patient experience and inform the patient-reported outcome measurement strategy for future trials in DGP, qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in a phase 2 clinical trial of a novel DGP treatment. METHODS: Trial participants were invited to participate in interviews at both the pretreatment visit (PTV) and the end-of-treatment visit (EOTV). The interviews were conducted by experienced qualitative researchers and followed a semistructured interview guide...
October 27, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072023/-prospects-and-progress-on-the-mechanisms-of-acupuncture-underlying-improvement-in-diabetic-gastroparesis
#14
Yan Gao, Gang Lu, Ya-Yuan Wang, Li Chen, Rui Chen, Feng-Xia Liang
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is an important complication of diabetes, and seriously impacts the patient's quality of life. In the present paper, the authors summarize national and international research on the mechanism of acupuncture therapy in improving DGP and the pathogenesis of DGP over the past 10 years. The authors illustrate the mechanism of acupuncture underlying the improvement in DGP as follows:1) the effect on autonomic nerves and neurons of the central nervous system; 2) promoting restoration of the enteric nervous system; 3) the effect on Cajal interstitial cells; 4) improving gastrointestinal hormone disorder; 5) improving hyperglycemic state; 6) the effect on gastric smooth muscle...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072012/-effect-of-electroacupuncture-intervention-on-gastrointestinal-motility-and-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-its-receptor-proteins-in-gastric-antrum-in-diabetic-gastroparesis-rats
#15
Jian-Wen Yang, Yan Peng, Hai-Jiao Chen, Cheng-Cheng Zhang, Wei-Wei Liu, Li Liu, Mi Liu, Ya-Ping Lin
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention of "Zusanli"(ST 36), etc. on gastrointestinal motility and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1 R) proteins in the gastric antrum in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) rats, so as to study its mechanism underlying improvement of DGP. METHODS: Fifty SD rats, half male and half female, were randomly allocated to control, model, EA acupoint, EA non-acupoint and medication (metoclopramide) groups (n=10 rats/group)...
August 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071981/-effect-of-point-moxibustion-and-electroacupuncture-on-the-expression-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-mrna-and-angiotensin-2-mrna-in-gastric-antrum-in-diabetic-gastroparesis-rats
#16
Li Liu, Xue-Fen Wu, Xue-Na Zheng, Xin Guo, Zeng-Hui Yue, Mi Liu, Yan Peng, Jian-Ling Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of point-moxibustion and electroacupuncture(EA) on gastrointestinal motility, and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) mRNA and angiotensin 2(AT Ⅱ) mRNA in gastric antrum in diabetic gastroparesis(DGP) rats, so as to reveal the different effect between point-moxibustion and EA, and explore the mechanism underlying improvement of DGP. METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal, model, point-moxibustion and EA groups, 10 rats in each group...
June 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067158/proof-of-concept-short-term-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-drug-refractory-gastroparesis
#17
Emma Paulon, Despoina Nastou, Francesca Jaboli, Juana Marin, Eric Liebler, Owen Epstein
BACKGROUND: Gastric electric stimulation (GES) is a treatment approach to refractory gastroparesis, possibly acting centrally via afferent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Non-invasive VNS (nVNS) is a potential alternative to GES that could eliminate the safety risks of or identify likely responders to implantable neurostimulators. OBJECTIVE: This open-label proof-of-concept study assessed the effects of nVNS in patients with severe drug-refractory gastroparesis. METHODS: Patients used the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI) to grade symptoms in diaries daily for 2 weeks before treatment (baseline) and during ≥3 weeks of nVNS therapy...
October 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060329/design-and-application-of-a-novel-gastric-pacemaker
#18
Saeed Alighaleh, Timothy R Angeli, Shameer Sathar, Gregory O'Grady, Leo K Cheng, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel
Omnipresent bioelectrical events known as slow waves are responsible for coordinating motility in the gastrointestinal tract. Functional motility diseases, such as gastroparesis, are associated with slow wave dysrhythmias. Electrical stimulation is a potential therapy to correct abnormal slow wave patterns. We present the design and application of a new gastric pacemaker. Real-time changes to the stimulation parameters such as period, amplitude and pulse width were applied using a graphical user interface, which communicated with the microcontroller to deliver the stimulus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059982/ambulatory-gastric-mucosal-slow-wave-recording-for-chronic-experimental-studies
#19
Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Timothy Angeli, Abigail Stocker, Lindsay McElmurray, Gregory O'Grady, Thomas Abell, Leo K Cheng
Dysrhythmic bioelectric slow wave activity have been implicated in major functional motility disorders such as gastroparesis and chronic unexplained nausea and vomiting, but its correlation to symptoms is still unclear. For patients with severe gastroparesis, high-frequency gastric stimulation is offered as a therapy in some centers. Temporary gastric electrical stimulation has also been proposed an approach to screen patients who would benefit from the implantation of a permanent stimulator. In this study we introduced novel methods for recording slow wave activity from the gastric mucosa during the entire temporary stimulation phase of 5 days, in 3 patients...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052298/idiopathic-gastroparesis-is-associated-with-specific-transcriptional-changes-in-the-gastric-muscularis-externa
#20
B P Herring, A M Hoggatt, A Gupta, S Griffith, A Nakeeb, J N Choi, M T Idrees, T Nowak, D L Morris, J M Wo
BACKGROUND: The molecular changes that occur in the stomach that are associated with idiopathic gastroparesis are poorly described. The aim of this study was to use quantitative analysis of mRNA expression to identify changes in mRNAs encoding proteins required for the normal motility functions of the stomach. METHODS: Full-thickness stomach biopsy samples were collected from non-diabetic control subjects who exhibited no symptoms of gastroparesis and from patients with idiopathic gastroparesis...
October 20, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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