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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107583/chronic-hepatitis-c-and-chronic-kidney-disease-advances-limitations-and-unchartered-territories
#1
Manuel Mendizabal, K Rajender Reddy
Over the past few years, treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have evolved dramatically. The current approved interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been shown to be safe and effective with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90% in most patients. Unique issues yet remain such as the challenges in patients with impaired renal function or decompensated cirrhosis. Patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of HCV infection compared with the general population...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105842/absolute-quantification-of-h5-subtype-avian-influenza-viruses-using-droplet-digital-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#2
Yi Hu, Peng Xu, Jing Luo, Hongxuan He, Wenbin Du
Human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 viruses can cause severe diseases with high mortality rate and continues to pose a significant threat to global public health. Rapid diagnosis is needed for identifying the types of influenza viruses for making timely treatment decisions. Here, we demonstrate absolute quantification of H5-subtype influenza viruses by digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dLAMP) on our recently developed cross-interface emulsification (XiE) method. Our results show that XiE-based dLAMP is highly specific and displays comparable sensitivity to real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR)...
January 3, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105127/clinical-study-on-cluster-care-to-prevent-multi-drug-resistant-infection-in-icu-patients-with-severe-encephalopathy
#3
Liu Qiong, Zhu Hui
The value of clinical cluster nursing in the prevention of multi-drug resistant (MDR) infection in patients with severe encephalopathy in ICU was evaluated. ICU patients (n=129) diagnosed with severe encephalopathy between 2012 and 2014 were selected as the study group, while 106 cases of ICU patients diagnosed with severe encephalopathy between 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively selected as the control group. Control group patients were offered conventional integrated nursing care, while the study group patients were offered cluster nursing care...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104729/neurologic-outcomes-after-early-surgery-for-infective-endocarditis-in-patients-with-combined-cerebral-septic-embolism
#4
Do Yeon Kim, Hwan Wook Kim, Keon Hyon Jo
OBJECTIVES: This study followed the results of any development of neurologic outcomes according to the presence or absence of cerebral stroke in infective endocarditis patients after early cardiac surgery. We also analysed the neurologic outcomes regardless of cerebral microbleeds in cerebral embolic patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 55 patients with left-sided infective endocarditis who underwent early surgery and hospitalization between May 2010 and May 2015...
January 18, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104513/a-multi-center-study-of-bacterial-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-the-role-of-acute-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#5
Prakash Satwani, Jason L Freedman, Sonali Chaudhury, Zhezhen Jin, Anya Levinson, Marc D Foca, Jennifer Krajewski, Indira Sahdev, Mala Kiran Talekar, Aliza Gardenswartz, Justin Silverman, Meghan Hayes, Christopher C Dvorak
Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by enteric organisms are associated with a particularly high mortality rate in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AlloHCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study aiming to analyze the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistance and impact of BSI on transplant related mortality (TRM) in children following alloHCT. During the study period from 2004 to 2014, 395 children (mean age 9.4 years) with at least one BSI were included. The incidences of resistant gram-negative rods (GNR) were 20...
January 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104505/hospitalizations-for-communicable-diseases-in-a-developing-country-prevalence-and-trend-monastir-tunisia-2002-2013
#6
Manel Ben Fredj, Asma Sriha Belguith, Hela Abroug, Wafa Dhouib, Sana El Mhamdi, Arwa Ben Salah, Inès Bouanene, Amal Amara, Sana Bhiri, Mounira Sahtout, C Loussaief, Mohamed Soussi Soltani
BACKGROUND: In spite of the epidemiological transition, communicable diseases (CD) remains a public health problem and represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the crude and standardized prevalence rate of hospitalizations for CD (HCD) in Monastir, and at assessing trends of HCD by age and gender at the University Hospital of Monastir during a period of 12 years (2002-2013). METHODS: We have included all hospitalizations for CD from 2002 to 2013 at University hospital departments...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104437/pharmacological-intervention-for-dengue-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
Jenn-Haung Lai, Yi-Ling Lin, Shie-Liang Hsieh
Dengue virus (DENV) infection has a considerable health impact in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Escalation of infection rates greatly increases morbidity and mortality, most commonly from deaths due to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Although the development of an effective, long-lasting vaccine has been a major aim for control and prevention of DENV infection, the currently licensed vaccine has limitations and is less than satisfactory. Thus, there remains an important need to identify effective and tolerable medications for treatment of DENV-infected patients both in the early phase, to prevent progression to fatal outcomes, and to minimize deaths after patients develop severe complications...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104384/retrospective-analysis-of-15-cases-of-penicillium-marneffei-infection-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-patients
#8
REVIEW
Yinyin Li, Zhongyuan Lin, Xiang Shi, Lijun Mo, Wenchao Li, Wuning Mo, Zheng Yang
Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) causes systemic opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, particularly in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and more rarely in HIV-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 15 patients infected with P. marneffei. The patients were divided into two groups: HIV-negative (n = 4) and HIV-positive (n = 11). Of the cases studied, three (75%) of the HIV-negative and six (55%) of the HIV-positive group had an accompanying lung infection...
January 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103964/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-related-mortality-in-brazil
#9
Francisco R Martins-Melo, Alberto N Ramos, Carlos H Alencar, Mauricélia S Lima, Jorg Heukelbach
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis...
January 20, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103735/comparison-of-transtibial-amputations-in-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-end-stage-renal-disease
#10
Dane K Wukich, Junho Ahn, Katherine M Raspovic, Frank A Gottschalk, Javier La Fontaine, Larry A Lavery
BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this retrospective study was to report on a consecutive series of 102 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who underwent transtibial amputation (TTA) for chronic infections and nonreconstructable lower extremity deformities. A secondary aim was to compare the outcomes of TTA patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (ESRD) to patients without ESRD, and to identify risk factors for mortality after TTA. METHODS: This cohort involved a consecutive series of patients who were treated by a single surgeon...
January 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103536/evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-use-of-tracheostomy-in-critically-ill-patients
#11
Néstor Raimondi, Macarena R Vial, José Calleja, Agamenón Quintero, Albán Cortés, Edgar Celis, Clara Pacheco, Sebastián Ugarte, José M Añón, Gonzalo Hernández, Erick Vidal, Guillermo Chiappero, Fernando Ríos, Fernando Castilleja, Alfredo Matos, Enith Rodriguez, Paulo Antoniazzi, José Mario Teles, Carmelo Dueñas, Jorge Sinclair, Lorenzo Martínez, Ingrid von der Osten, José Vergara, Edgar Jiménez, Max Arroyo, Camilo Rodríguez, Javier Torres, Sebastián Fernandez-Bussy, Joseph L Nates
OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based guidelines for tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients and identify areas needing further research. METHODS: A taskforce composed of representatives of 10 member countries of the Pan-American and Iberic Federation of Societies of Critical and Intensive Therapy Medicine and of the Latin American Critical Care Trial Investigators Network developed recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103204/transthoracic-ultrasonography-for-the-immunocompromised-patient-a-pilot-project-that-introduces-transthoracic-ultrasonography-for-the-follow-up-of-hematological-patients-in-romania
#12
Ioana Frinc, Petru Ilies, Florin Zaharie, Delia Dima, Alina Tanase, Ljubomir Petrov, Alexandru Irimie, Cristian Berce, Cosmin Lisencu, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Anca Bojan
In the last decade, there is significant progress in clinical hematology with the discovery of targeted molecules and thus the achievement of both hematologic and molecular responses. Nevertheless, chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice for many types of hematological malignancies. Aggressive chemotherapy leads to immunosuppression, accompanied by a high rate of infections and an increased rate of treatment-related mortality. Invasive fungal infections, as well as more common bacterial and viral infections are frequent in immunocompromised patients as they are difficult to diagnose and treat...
January 18, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102927/complex-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-in-the-setting-of-active-infection-and-contamination-a-systematic-review-of-hernia-and-fistula-recurrence-rates
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan D Hodgkinson, Yasuko Maeda, Cosimo A Leo, Janindra Warusavitarne, Carolynne J Vaizey
INTRODUCTION: Minimal evidence exists to guide the surgeon on the risk of complications when performing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) in the presence of active infection, contamination or enterocutaneous fistula. This study aims to establish the outcomes of contaminated complex AWR. METHODS: Analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Pubmed databases was performed. Studies reporting exclusively on single-staged repair of contaminated complex AWR were included...
January 19, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101836/a-review-of-clinical-outcomes-associated-with-two-meropenem-dosing-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Kyle John Wilby, Ziad Ghantous Nasr, Shereen Elazzazy, Tim T Y Lau, Anas Hamad
Meropenem is a carbapenem antibiotic that exhibits time-dependent bactericidal activity, traditionally dosed intravenously at 1 g every 8 h. In order to maximize its pharmacodynamic activity and reduce costs, an alternative regimen employed by many institutions is 500 mg every 6 h. The objective of this review was to summarize and evaluate published literature comparing clinical outcomes associated with these two meropenem dosing regimens. The literature was searched up to October 2016 using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases...
January 18, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101785/acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancy-a-multicentre-retrospective-study-from-the-infection-working-party-of-jiangsu-society-of-hematology
#15
X Wang, L Zhang, A Sun, X Yang, W Sang, Y Jiang, J Cheng, J Wang, M Zhou, B Chen, J Ouyang
Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) bacteraemia in patients with haematological malignancies is fatal but rarely reported. We explored the clinical characteristics, drug resistances and prognostic factors in these patients. This multicentre, retrospective study was conducted at the department of haematology wards of 18 tertiary hospitals in China from January 2014 to June 2015. The total clinical isolates from every source were collected from patients with haematological malignancy. Haematological malignancy patients diagnosed with Ab bacteraemia were analysed...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100598/molecular-and-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-characterization-of-clinically-significant-melanized-fungi-in-india
#16
Ashutosh Singh, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar, Jagdish Chander, Geetika Khanna, Pradip Roy, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
Melanized or black fungi are a heterogeneous group of fungi causing cutaneous to systemic diseases with high mortality. These fungi are rarely reported as agent of human infections primarily due to difficulties in their classical identification. In this study we examined using molecular methods and MALDI-TOF MS the diversity of melanized fungi (MF) isolated from patients in 19 medical centers in India. Overall, during a 4-year period, 718 (5.3%) clinical specimens yielded MF. Of these, 72 (10%) isolates had clinical significance and were identified primarily by sequencing the ITS and LSU regions...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099558/the-mortality-rate-after-hospital-discharge-in-patients-with-myelomeningocele-decreased-after-implementation-of-mandatory-flour-fortification-with-folic-acid
#17
Renato Manganelli Salomão, Tatiana Protzenko Cervante, José Francisco Manganelli Salomão, Soniza Vieira Alves Leon
Objective: To evaluate the mandatory folic acid fortification of flour on mortality rates after the hospital discharge of children born with myelomeningocele, the most affected age group and the most frequent cause of death. Methods: A retrospective study of 383 children born with myelomeningocele from January 1990 to December 2013 in a high-fetal-risk reference hospital. Results: A total of 39 patients died (10.1%),of which 23 (6%) died after discharge...
January 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099456/burden-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-progression-a-5-year-longitudinal-follow-up-study
#18
Vincent Cottin, Aurélie Schmidt, Laura Catella, Fanny Porte, Céline Fernandez-Montoya, Katell Le Lay, Stève Bénard
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with an unpredictable course. An observational study was set up using the French hospital discharge database to describe the reasons, outcomes and costs of hospitalisations related to this disease. Patients newly hospitalised for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ICD-10 code: J84.1) in 2008 were identified and followed for 5 years. As J84.1 includes other fibrotic pulmonary diseases, an algorithm excluding age<50 years and presence of a differential diagnosis in the following year was defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099438/age-related-patterns-of-disease-and-mortality-in-hospitalised-adults-in-malawi
#19
Theresa J Allain, Stephen Aston, Gugulethu Mapurisa, Thokozani N Ganiza, Ndaziona P Banda, Servace Sakala, Andrew Gonani, Robert S Heyderman, Ingrid Peterson
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is widely recognised as the next major challenge to global health. However, in many LMICs, infectious diseases are still prevalent resulting in a "double burden" of disease. With increased life expectancy and longevity with HIV, older adults may particularly be at risk of this double burden. Here we describe the relative contributions of infections and NCDs to hospital admissions and mortality, according to age, in Malawi's largest hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099434/mlst-based-population-genetic-analysis-in-a-global-context-reveals-clonality-amongst-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-vni-isolates-from-hiv-patients-in-southeastern-brazil
#20
Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Leonardo Andrade-Silva, Fernanda M Fonseca, Thatiana B Ferreira, Delio J Mora, Juliana Andrade-Silva, Aziza Khan, Aiken Dao, Eduardo C Reis, Margarete T G Almeida, Andre Maltos, Virmondes R Junior, Luciana Trilles, Volker Rickerts, Ariya Chindamporn, Jane E Sykes, Massimo Cogliati, Kirsten Nielsen, Teun Boekhout, Matthew Fisher, June Kwon-Chung, David M Engelthaler, Marcia Lazéra, Wieland Meyer, Mario L Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal infection in immunocompromised individuals, especially those infected with HIV. In Brazil, despite the free availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the public health system, the mortality rate due to Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is still high. To obtain a more detailed picture of the population genetic structure of this species in southeast Brazil, we studied 108 clinical isolates from 101 patients and 35 environmental isolates. Among the patients, 59% had a fatal outcome mainly in HIV-positive male patients...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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