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Specimen collection in peritoneal dialysis

José Elías García-Sánchez, M Inmaculada García-García, Fernando García-Garrote, Isabel Sánchez-Romero
Intra-abdominal infections represent a large and wide group of diseases which include intra- and retro-peritoneal infections. Some of them could be defined as uncomplicated, where the infectious process is limited to the organ or tissue of origin (appendicitis, diverticulitis, cholecystitis…). Complications occur when the infection spreads to the peritoneum, triggering localised peritonitis and abdominal abscesses. Most intra-abdominal infections are due to perforation or inflammation of the intestinal wall...
April 2013: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Eriko Kojima, Tsutomu Inoue, Keita Sueyoshi, Takahiko Sato, Masahiro Tsuda, Tomohiro Kikuta, Yusuke Watanabe, Hiroshi Takane, Tsuneo Takenaka, Hiromichi Suzuki
We previously reported that peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is a major cause of PD catheter removal. Another major cause is disease of the gastrointestinal tract, including neoplasm and perforation. In the present study, we reviewed the records of patients who underwent catheter removal at our hospital for reasons other than peritoneal infection--and for gastrointestinal disease in particular. Data were collected from the records of patients who received continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) therapy between 2004 and 2010 at the Department of Nephrology, Saitama Medical University...
2011: Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis
Ji-Hyung Cho, Jun-Young Do, Eun-Joo Oh, Hye-Myung Ryu, So-Young Park, San-Ok Kim, Seung-Hyea Hyun, Hye-Jin Seo, Gun-Hyun Kim, Ji-Young Choi, Chan-Duck Kim, Sun-Hee Park, Yong-Lim Kim
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether ex vivo mesothelial cells found in peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluents were representative of the in vivo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in peritoneal membrane. METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups: Group C (control), no PD; Group D, infused with 4.25% Dianeal and Group P, infused with 4.25% Physioneal. PD infusions (25 mL) were given twice daily for 8 weeks. The in vivo study included morphometric analyses performed on the peritoneal membranes of tissue specimens obtained at the end of the study...
May 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Joanne L Carter, Catherine E Lane, Stanley L Fan, Edmund J Lamb
BACKGROUND: Measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an important assessment in peritoneal dialysis patients. In clinical practice, it is commonly measured by calculating the mean of the urinary clearance of urea and creatinine (GFR(UrCl)) but this process is time consuming and unreliable. We wished to compare several estimates of GFR including residual GFR estimated from cystatin C (GFR(CysC)) using a published equation (Hoek), GFR(UrCl) and (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance, in peritoneal dialysis patients...
November 2011: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Qiongqiong Yang, Ruixi Li, Zhewen Zhong, Haiping Mao, Jinjin Fan, Jianxiong Lin, Xiao Yang, Xueqin Wang, Zhibin Li, Xueqing Yu
BACKGROUND: Current clinical assessments of residual renal function (RRF) for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients usually require 24 h of urine collection, which is sometimes difficult for patients and contributes to random errors. Objective. Our study aims to investigate whether serum cystatin C (CysC) can serve as a better marker of RRF than serum creatinine (Cr) in CAPD and to develop a formula to estimate RRF with CysC levels. METHODS: One hundred and sixty CAPD patients from a single dialysis unit were randomly divided into modeling (n(1) = 120) and validation (n(2) = 40) groups...
October 2011: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Weiguo Sui, Yong Dai, Yue Zhang, Jiejing Chen, Huaying Liu, He Huang
BACKGROUNDS: Uremia is a term used to loosely describe the illness accompanying renal failure, in particular the nitrogenous waste products associated with the failure of this organ. At present, the diagnosis of uremia could be implemented by clinical symptoms, laboratory examinations, or image analysis. To develop alternative methods and potential new biomarkers for diagnosis, we employed a novel platform called ClinProt to investigate serum peptidome of uremia. METHODS: The first-morning serum samples from 30 patients, including 10 non-dialysis (ND), 10 peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 10 hemodialysis (HD) patients, were collected and screened to describe their variability of the serum peptidome...
2010: Renal Failure
O K Azap, F Timurkaynak, S Sezer, U Cağir, G Yapar, H Arslan, N Ozdemir
Peritonitis is a common clinical problem that occurs in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by peritoneal dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of blood culture systems for the diagnosis of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis among 26 samples of peritoneal fluid obtained from patients with the suspicion of CAPD peritonitis. Significant growth was detected in 12 (70.5%) of 17 bacteria-positive samples. The most striking finding was that 8 (66.6%) of these 12 results were obtained only from blood culture bottles...
March 2006: Transplantation Proceedings
Christopher J von Ruhland, Geoffrey R Newman, Nicholas Topley, John D Williams
OBJECTIVE: A peritoneal biopsy registry was established to examine morphological and functional changes to the peritoneum during peritoneal dialysis (PD). During the early stages of this study, it became clear that surgical trauma to the peritoneum at the time of biopsy could cause a variety of changes to the surface. We examined the effects of surgical trauma in a rat biopsy model. DESIGN: Rat peritoneum was subjected to a variety of traumas that might occur at biopsy and compared with peritoneal biopsies that had been collected, using the suture method described here, from PD patients...
September 2003: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Jeffrey S Berns, Jerome I Tokars
Antimicrobial use, in concert with patient-to-patient transmission of resistant strains, has caused a rapid increase in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in recent years. This increase is a particular threat to dialysis patients, who often have been in the forefront of the epidemic of resistance. In this report, which was written in collaboration between the American Society of Nephrology and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and has been endorsed by the Executive Council of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, we review and summarize existing clinical practice guidelines and recommendations concerning the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of certain bacterial infections in dialysis patients and present four strategies to limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance in dialysis patients...
November 2002: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Yoshitaka Ishibashi, Tokuichiro Sugimoto, Yasuko Ichikawa, Akira Akatsuka, Toshio Miyata, Masaomi Nangaku, Hitoshi Tagawa, Kiyoshi Kurokawa
BACKGROUND: It is known that peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) are denuded in patients undergoing long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); the mechanism of damage is not well known. A high quantity of glucose loaded onto PMCs in these patients may generate toxic radicals during the mitochondrial metabolism, leading to mitochondrial DNA damage that accumulates due to the incomplete repair system of this DNA. OBJECTIVE: To study damage to the PMCs of long-term CAPD patients, and to examine whether glucose overload accelerates this damage in vitro...
January 2002: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
K Sriram, G Abraham
A prospective study was done to determine whether zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) loss occurs in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis through their dialysate effluent. Fifty pairs of aliquots of dialysis fluid were collected from 29 patients. Each paired set of specimens consisted of the dialysate fluid before instillation into the peritoneal cavity and a specimen of the spent effluent after dialysis for comparison. Zn and Se concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry...
November 2000: Nutrition
U Kannapadi, J Bernardini, B Piraino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1999: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
J Scancar, R Milacic, M Benedik, P Bukovec
Critical parameters which influence the direct determination of trace elements in spent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) fluids by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were investigated. Samples were collected after CAPD fluid exchange in 5.0 ml polyethylene cups and stored at -20 degrees C. Daily spent CAPD fluids were frozen immediately, while nightly spent CAPD fluids were frozen 2-3 h after the morning exchange. Before analysis samples were equilibrated to room temperature and analysed within 8 h...
May 1999: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
A M Yinnon, D Gabay, D Raveh, Y Schlesinger, I Slotki, D Attias, B Rudensky
BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is a common complication in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Empirical treatment is based on the organisms that are most frequently isolated and their susceptibilities. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and then compare peritoneal fluid culture results from adult and pediatric patients on CAPD, with respect to micro-organisms and antimicrobial susceptibilities. DESIGN: Three-year retrospective review of peritoneal fluid cultures from adults and children on CAPD...
January 1999: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
J A Diaz-Buxo, B P Youngblood, A M Torres
AIM: To evaluate the effect of PD Plus on weekly Kt/Vurea and creatinine clearance (Kcr) among patients undergoing CAPD/CCPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis/continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis). METHODS: The kinetic studies of 92 CAPD and 18 CCPD patients who transferred to PD Plus were analyzed. All patients underwent CAPD/CCPD and PD Plus for a minimum of 3 months. Standard collection methods were used and kinetic indices calculated with the Pack PD Kinetic Modeling program...
1998: American Journal of Nephrology
J H Shin, S K Lee, S P Suh, D W Ryang, N H Kim, M G Rinaldi, D A Sutton
We report a fatal case a fungal peritonitis caused by the yeast-like dematiaceous mould Hormonema dematioides in a 45-year-old woman. The woman had a 13-year history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and had been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure. H. dematioides was repeatedly isolated from the dialysate culture specimens collected on days 3, 9, 16, and 20 of her hospital stay. Preliminary culture reports on day 7 of the growth of a yeast-like fungus, a probable Candida species, prompted the administration of fluconazole (FLU)...
July 1998: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
K Suzuki, M Ishizaki, Y Shishido
We wished to investigate lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes in the dialysate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients under noninfected conditions. Twenty-seven continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients (20 males, 7 females; mean age 53 years; average duration of CAPD 29 months) were studied. Overnight dialysate and blood samples were collected. LDH activities, isoenzymes, glucose, creatinine of both specimens, and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) of the dialysate were determined. Serum and dialysate LDH was 470 +/- 163 and 10 +/- 4 U/L, respectively...
1997: Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis
J Strauss, G Zilleruelo, C Abitbol, B Montane, V Pardo
Varying components of the syndrome of human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy (HIVN) have been described, the most pertinent including proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome, progressive azotemia, normal blood pressure, enlarged and hyperechoic kidneys, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and no response to treatment regimens. The diagnosis of HIVN requires identification of excessive proteinuria or albuminuria, determined by a total protein excretion on a timed urine collection or a high protein/creatinine ratio in a random specimen...
April 1993: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
M Akmal, S Sawelson, F Karubian, M Gadallah
Hemoccult test was performed on stool specimens of 249 patients; 64 with advanced renal failure prior to dialysis (CRF), 144 on maintenance hemodialysis (HD), and 41 receiving chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD. Each patient collected spontaneously evacuated stool specimens on three different days. None of the patients had overt gastrointestinal bleeding prior to participation in the study. The patients were not taking aspirin, or any other ulcerogenic medication, nor receiving iron supplements at the time of study...
September 1994: Clinical Nephrology
B M Males, J J Walshe, D Amsterdam
Total leukocyte count, microscopy, and conventional bacteriologic culture (10-ml sediment) of dialysis effluent were assessed for their ability to detect peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis. A total of 73 patients were surveyed over a 17-month period. Laboratory findings included an examination of 1,774 dialysate samples and culture results from blood, wounds, indwelling catheters, and other specimens. Of 90 peritonitis events, 72 were culture positive. Gram-stained films were positive in no more than 14% of the dialysates collected during periods of clinical peritonitis...
December 1987: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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