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R Rebecca Love, Aaron M Steele, Mamadou B Coulibaly, Sékou F Traore, Scott J Emrich, Michael C Fontaine, Nora J Besansky
The molecular mechanisms and genetic architecture that facilitate adaptive radiation of lineages remain elusive. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions, due to their recombination-reducing effect, are proposed instruments of ecotypic differentiation. Here we study an ecologically diversifying lineage of An. gambiae, known as the Bamako chromosomal form based on its unique complement of three chromosomal inversions, to explore the impact of these inversions on ecotypic differentiation. We used pooled and individual genome sequencing of Bamako, typical (non-Bamako) An...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Katja Knauer
BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005-2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the authorization procedure...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Takashi Suzuki, Joseph H Osei, Akihiro Sasaki, Michelle Adimazoya, Maxwell Appawu, Daniel Boakye, Nobuo Ohta, Samuel Dadzie
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the emerging diseases that can mostly only be controlled by vector control since there is no vaccine for the disease. Although, Dengue has not been reported in Ghana, movement of people from neighbouring countries where the disease has been reported can facilitate transmission of the disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried on the University of Ghana campus to determine the risk of transmission of viral haemorrhagic fevers and the insecticide susceptibility status of Ae...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Xuehua Shao, Duo Lai, Ling Zhang, Hanhong Xu
Azadirachtin is one of the most effective botanical insecticides and has been widely used in pest control. Toxicological reports show that azadirachtin can induce apoptosis in various insect cell lines. However, studies of azadirachtin-induced autophagy in cultured insect cells are lacking. This study reports that azadirachtin A significantly inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death in Spodoptera litura cultured cell line (SL-1 cell). Characteristic autophagolysosome and Atg8-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation were observed by electron microscopy and western blotting, indicating that azadirachtin triggered autophagy in SL-1 cell...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
María A Latorre, María L Romito, Alejandro Larriera, Gisela L Poletta, Pablo A Siroski
Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Madeleine Berger, Alin Mirel Puinean, Emma Randall, Christoph T Zimmer, Wellington M Silva, Pablo Bielza, Linda M Field, David Hughes, Ian Mellor, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Herbert A A Siqueira, Martin S Williamson, Chris Bass
Many genes increase coding capacity by alternate exon usage. The gene encoding the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit, target of the bio-insecticide spinosad, is one example of this and expands protein diversity via alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons. Here we show that spinosad resistance in the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta is associated with aberrant regulation of splicing of Taα6 resulting in a novel form of insecticide resistance mediated by exon skipping. Sequencing of the α6 subunit cDNA from spinosad selected and unselected strains of T...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Chan Yeu Pu, Mohamed Rizwan Haroon Al Rasheed, Marin Sekosan, Vibhu Sharma
A 61-year-old man was evaluated for a 2 month history of cough and dyspnea without relevant exposures other than pyrethrin containing insecticidal sprays he used while grooming dogs almost daily. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of the chest demonstrated a Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. Pulmonary function testing revealed an isolated mildly reduced diffusion capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results confirmed the presence of foamy histiocytes, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells consistent with ongoing exposure...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Katharine M Case, Natalia M Vega, Ramesh C Gupta, Michelle A Lasher, Terry D Canerdy
Dogs are easily infested with fleas, ticks, and other ectoparasites serving as vectors for transmitting bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. Therefore, the use of ectoparasiticides is inevitable and important. The present investigation was undertaken with two specific objectives: one, to evaluate the safety of fipronil and cyphenothrin in dogs after topical application of Parastar(®) Plus, and two, to determine the transferable residue of these insecticides from dogs to humans. Six healthy, adult dogs (medium length hair, weighing between 20...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Yong Yang, Hua Gu, Xiaofeng Yu, Li Zhan, Jiancai Chen, Yun Luo, Yunyi Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Jianmin Jiang, Lingling Mei
Emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus (emetic B. cereus) is the third member of B. cereus group whose toxins are encoded by megaplasmids, beside anthrax and insecticidal toxins of B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis respectively. 18 emetic isolates collected from food poisoning events, clinical and non-random food samples in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed by plasmid screening, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), as well as toxic gene identification to investigate their genotypic diversity...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Qiang Zhang, Xuan Wu, Zhiping Liu
The contact and fumigant toxicity as well as repellent activity of 10 plant essential oils were evaluated against Paederus fuscipes Curtis adults. Essential oils were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results showed that wintergreen oil exhibited optimal contact and fumigant toxicity but had no significant repellent activity against P. fuscipes The LC50 values of fumigant toxicity of wintergreen oil were 2.680 and 1.591 µL/L air after 1 and 8 h of exposure, respectively...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
A Carratalá, R Moreno-González, V M León
The occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and legacy and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air were characterized around the Mar Menor lagoon using both active and passive sampling devices. The seasonal distribution of these pollutants was determined at 6 points using passive samplers. Passive sampler sampling rates were estimated for all detected analytes using an active sampler, considering preferentially winter data, due to probable losses in active sampling during summer (high temperatures and solar irradiation)...
October 13, 2016: Chemosphere
F H Matsubara, G O Meissner, V Herzig, H C Justa, B C L Dias, D Trevisan-Silva, L H Gremski, W Gremski, A Senff-Ribeiro, O M Chaim, G F King, S S Veiga
Loxosceles intermedia venom comprises a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins and low molecular mass peptides that act synergistically to immobilize envenomed prey. Analysis of a venom-gland transcriptome from L. intermedia revealed that knottins, also known as inhibitor cystine knot peptides, are the most abundant class of toxins expressed in this species. Knottin peptides contain a particular arrangement of intramolecular disulphide bonds, and these peptides typically act upon ion channels or receptors in the insect nervous system, triggering paralysis or other lethal effects...
October 15, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
Saif Ullah, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad
Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi
Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Junheon Kim, Miyeon Jang, Eunsik Shin, Jeongmin Kim, Si Hyeock Lee, Chung Gyoo Park
Fumigant and contact toxicities of 22 plant essential oils (EOs) from 14 families and their constituents against the adult spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii were examined. Analyses by GC, GC-MS, and NMR led to the identification of 2, 16, 13, 4, 6, 9, and 10 compounds from Gaultheria fragrantissima, Croton anistatum, Illicium verum, Liquidamabar orientalis, Cinnamomum cassia, Rosa damasena, and Santalum album, respectively. In fumigant toxicity test, G. fragrantissima, C. anistatum, and I. verum exhibited 100, 93...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jin-Bo Han, Guo-Qing Li, Pin-Jun Wan, Tao-Tao Zhu, Qing-Wei Meng
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a family of multifunctional enzymes that are involved in detoxification of poisonous compounds. In the present paper, the Leptinotarsa decemlineata genome and transcriptome dataset were mined and 30 GST genes were identified. These GSTs belonged to cytosolic (29 genes) and microsomal (1 gene) classes. Among them 3 GSTs (LdGSTe2, LdGSTs4, and LdGSTo3) possessed splice variants. Of the 29 cytosolic LdGSTs, 3, 10, 5, 4, 4, and 1 members were classified as delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, theta, and zeta subclasses respectively, along with 2 unclassified genes...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Jun-Hyung Tak, Murray B Isman
Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Letícia B Smith, Shinji Kasai, Jeffrey G Scott
Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of important human disease viruses, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes, especially during disease outbreaks. Herein, we review the status of pyrethroid resistance in A. aegypti and A. albopictus, mechanisms of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance alleles and provide suggestions for future research. The widespread use of pyrethroids has given rise to many populations with varying levels of resistance worldwide, albeit with substantial geographical variation...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Thomas C Sparks, Donald R Hahn, Negar V Garizi
Natural products (NPs) have a long history as a source of, and inspiration for, novel agrochemcials. Many of the existing herbicides, fungicides and insecticides have their origins in a wide range of NPs from a variety of sources. Due to the changing needs of agriculture, shifts in pest spectrum, development of resistance and evolving regulatory requirements, the need for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. As such, NPs continue to be an important source of models and templates for the development of new agrochemicals, demonstrated by the fact that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means...
October 14, 2016: Pest Management Science
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