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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241005/sand-fly-population-dynamics-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-among-soldiers-in-an-atlantic-forest-remnant-in-northeastern-brazil
#1
Filipe Dantas-Torres, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva Sales, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Fernando José da Silva, Luciana Aguiar Figueredo, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Maria Sandra Andrade, Sinval P Brandão-Filho
Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a horse stable...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239355/modification-of-flight-and-locomotion-performances-respiratory-metabolism-and-transcriptome-expression-in-the-lady-beetle-harmonia-axyridis-through-sublethal-pesticide-exposure
#2
Da Xiao, Xiaoling Tan, Wenjuan Wang, Fan Zhang, Nicolas Desneux, Su Wang
Biological control is usually used in combination with chemical control for practical agricultural applications. Thus, the influence of insecticides on the natural predators used for biological control should be investigated for integrated pest management. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis is an effective predator on aphids and coccids. Beta-cypermethrin is a broad-spectrum insecticide used worldwide for controlling insect pests. H. axyridis is becoming increasingly threatened by this insecticide. Here, we investigated the effect of a sublethal dose of beta-cypermethrin on flight, locomotion, respiration, and detoxification system of H...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239059/contact-and-repellant-activities-of-zerumbone-and-its-analogues-from-the-essential-oil-of-zingiber-zerumbet-l-smith-against-lasioderma-serricorne
#3
Yan Wu, Shan-Shan Guo, Dong-Ye Huang, Cheng-Fang Wang, Jian-Yu Wei, Zhi-Hua Li, Jian-Sheng Sun, Jia-Feng Bai, Zhao-Fu Tian, Ping-Juan Wang, Shu-Shan Du
The contact toxicity and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were zerumbone (40.2%), α-caryophyllene (8.6%), humulene epoxide II (7.3%), camphene (5.9%) and fenchene (4.7%). Zerumbone and its analogues totally are accounting for 60.3% of the essential oil...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238854/use-of-a-probabilistic-pbpk-pd-model-to-calculate-data-derived-extrapolation-factors-for-chlorpyrifos
#4
Torka S Poet, Charles Timchalk, Michael J Bartels, Jordan N Smith, Robin McDougal, Daland R Juberg, Paul S Price
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model combined with Monte Carlo analysis of inter-individual variation was used to assess the effects of the insecticide, chlorpyrifos and its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon in humans. The PBPK/PD model has previously been validated and used to describe physiological changes in typical individuals as they grow from birth to adulthood. This model was updated to include physiological and metabolic changes that occur with pregnancy. The model was then used to assess the impact of inter-individual variability in physiology and biochemistry on predictions of internal dose metrics and quantitatively assess the impact of major sources of parameter uncertainty and biological diversity on the pharmacodynamics of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase inhibition...
February 23, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238081/dna-methyltransferases-contribute-to-the-fungal-development-stress-tolerance-and-virulence-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#5
Yulong Wang, Tiantian Wang, Lintao Qiao, Jianyu Zhu, Jinrui Fan, Tingting Zhang, Zhang-Xun Wang, Wanzhen Li, Anhui Chen, Bo Huang
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in mammals, plants, and fungi and depends on multiple genetic pathways involving de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases (DNMTases). Metarhizium robertsii, a model system for investigating insect-fungus interactions, has been used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. However, little is known concerning the molecular basis for DNA methylation. Here, we report on the roles of two DNMTases (MrRID and MrDIM-2) by characterizing ΔMrRID, ΔMrDIM-2, and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 mutants...
February 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237806/chemical-composition-and-insecticidal-property-of-myrsine-stolonifera-koidz-walker-family-myrsinaceae-on-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#6
Xue Gui Wang, Qian Li, Su Rong Jiang, Pei Li, Ji Zhi Yang
Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M...
February 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237311/residues-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-surface-soil-and-raw-foods-from-rural-areas-of-the-republic-of-tajikistan
#7
Mace G Barron, Zebunisso J Ashurova, Mukhamadcho A Kukaniev, Hakbarqul K Avloev, Karim K Khaidarov, Jamshed N Jamshedov, Oygul S Rahmatullova, Sunbula S Atolikshoeva, Sakina S Mamadshova, Oksana Manzenyuk
The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235989/bacillus-thuringiensis-a-successful-insecticide-with-new-environmental-features-and-tidings
#8
REVIEW
Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani, Elena Valijanian, Reza Sharafi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known as the most successful microbial insecticide against different orders of insect pests in agriculture and medicine. Moreover, Bt toxin genes also have been efficiently used to enhance resistance to insect pests in genetically modified crops. In light of the scientific advantages of new molecular biology technologies, recently, some other new potentials of Bt have been explored. These new environmental features include the toxicity against nematodes, mites, and ticks, antagonistic effects against plant and animal pathogenic bacteria and fungi, plant growth-promoting activities (PGPR), bioremediation of different heavy metals and other pollutants, biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, production of polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolymer, and anticancer activities (due to parasporins)...
February 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230789/fungal-ribotoxins-a-review-of-potential-biotechnological-applications
#9
REVIEW
Miriam Olombrada, Rodrigo Lázaro-Gorines, Juan C López-Rodríguez, Álvaro Martínez-Del-Pozo, Mercedes Oñaderra, Moisés Maestro-López, Javier Lacadena, José G Gavilanes, Lucía García-Ortega
Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230074/lack-of-resistance-development-in-bemisia-tabaci-to-isaria-fumosorosea-after-multiple-generations-of-selection
#10
Tianni Gao, Zhaolei Wang, Yü Huang, Nemat O Keyhani, Zhen Huang
The emergence of insecticide resistant insect pests is of significant concern worldwide. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important agricultural pest and has shown incredible resilience developing resistance to a number of chemical pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Isaria fumosorosea offer an attractive alternative to chemical pesticides for insect control, and this fungus has been shown to be an effective pathogen of B. tabaci. Little is known concerning the potential for the development of resistance to I...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229382/enhanced-degradation-of-spiro-insecticides-and-their-leacher-enol-derivatives-in-soil-by-solarization-and-biosolarization-techniques
#11
José Fenoll, Isabel Garrido, Nuria Vela, Caridad Ros, Simón Navarro
The leaching potential of three insecticides (spirodiclofen, spiromesifen, and spirotetramat) was assessed using disturbed soil columns. Small quantities of spirodiclofen and spiromesifen were detected in leachate fraction, while spirotetramat residues were not found in the leachates. In addition, the transformation products (enol derivatives) are relatively more mobile than the parent compounds and may leach into groundwater. Moreover, the use of disinfection soil techniques (solarization and biosolarization) to enhance their degradation rates in soil was investigated...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223048/vegetative-insecticidal-protein-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-blb459-and-its-efficiency-against-lepidoptera
#12
Hanen Boukedi, Saoussen Ben Khedher, Rania Hadhri, Samir Jaoua, Slim Tounsi, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati
Bacillus thuringiensis strain BLB459 supernatant showed a promising activity against Lepidopteran pests with extremely damages in the larvae midgut. Investigations of the genes that encode secreted toxin demonstrated that this strain harbored a vip3-type gene named vip3(459). Based on its original nucleotide and amino acid sequences, this gene was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified and tested against different insects and interestingly the novel toxin demonstrated a remarkable activity against the stored products pest Ephestia kuehniella and the polyphagous insects Spodoptera littoralis and Agrotis segetum...
February 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222769/plasticity-of-host-selection-by-malaria-vectors-of-papua-new-guinea
#13
John B Keven, Lisa Reimer, Michelle Katusele, Gussy Koimbu, Rebecca Vinit, Naomi Vincent, Edward Thomsen, David R Foran, Peter A Zimmerman, Edward D Walker
BACKGROUND: Host selection is an important determinant of vectorial capacity because malaria transmission increases when mosquitoes feed more on humans than non-humans. Host selection also affects the outcome of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN). Despite the recent nationwide implementation of LLIN-based malaria control program in Papua New Guinea (PNG), little is known about the host selection of the local Anopheles vectors. This study investigated the host selection of Anopheles vectors in PNG...
February 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222727/developing-global-maps-of-insecticide-resistance-risk-to-improve-vector-control
#14
Michael Coleman, Janet Hemingway, Katherine Ann Gleave, Antoinette Wiebe, Peter W Gething, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Significant reductions in malaria transmission have been achieved over the last 15 years with elimination occurring in a small number of countries, however, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens these gains. Insecticide resistance has decreased the observed mortality to the most commonly used insecticide class, the pyrethroids, and the number of alternative classes approved for use in public health is limited. Disease prevention and elimination relies on operational control of Anopheles malaria vectors, which requires the deployment of effective insecticides...
February 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222203/defense-related-proteins-involved-in-sugarcane-responses-to-biotic-stress
#15
Thais P Souza, Renata O Dias, Marcio C Silva-Filho
Sugarcane is one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. However, pathogen infection and herbivore attack cause constant losses in yield. Plants respond to pathogen infection by inducing the expression of several protein types, such as glucanases, chitinases, thaumatins, peptidase inhibitors, defensins, catalases and glycoproteins. Proteins induced by pathogenesis are directly or indirectly involved in plant defense, leading to pathogen death or inducing other plant defense responses. Several of these proteins are induced in sugarcane by different pathogens or insects and have antifungal or insecticidal activity...
February 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222162/optimal-combinations-of-control-strategies-and-cost-effective-analysis-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-disease-transmission
#16
Santanu Biswas, Abhishek Subramanian, Ibrahim M ELMojtaba, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222094/housing-improvements-and-malaria-risk-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis-of-survey-data
#17
Lucy S Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J Tatem, Steve W Lindsay, Peter W Gething
BACKGROUND: Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219821/neurotoxic-responses-in-brain-tissues-of-rainbow-trout-exposed-to-imidacloprid-pesticide-assessment-of-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-activity-oxidative-stress-and-acetylcholinesterase-activity
#18
Ahmet Topal, Gonca Alak, Mustafa Ozkaraca, Aslı Cilingir Yeltekin, Selim Comaklı, Gurdal Acıl, Mine Kokturk, Muhammed Atamanalp
The extensive use of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, causes undesirable toxicity in non-targeted organisms including fish in aquatic environments. We investigated neurotoxic responses by observing 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) activity, oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout brain tissue after 21 days of imidacloprid exposure at levels of (5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L). The obtained results indicated that 8-OHdG activity did not change in fish exposed to 5 mg/L of imidacloprid, but 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L of imidacloprid significantly increased 8-OHdG activity compared to the control (p < 0...
February 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219387/geographical-distributions-of-african-malaria-vector-sibling-species-and-evidence-for-insecticide-resistance
#19
Antoinette Wiebe, Joshua Longbottom, Katherine Gleave, Freya M Shearer, Marianne E Sinka, N Claire Massey, Ewan Cameron, Samir Bhatt, Peter W Gething, Janet Hemingway, David L Smith, Michael Coleman, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Many of the mosquito species responsible for malaria transmission belong to a sibling complex; a taxonomic group of morphologically identical, closely related species. Sibling species often differ in several important factors that have the potential to impact malaria control, including their geographical distribution, resistance to insecticides, biting and resting locations, and host preference. The aim of this study was to define the geographical distributions of dominant malaria vector sibling species in Africa so these distributions can be coupled with data on key factors such as insecticide resistance to aid more focussed, species-selective vector control...
February 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217113/antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-cyclic-lipopeptides-and-hydrogen-cyanide-produced-by-plant-beneficial-pseudomonas-strains-cha0-cmr12a-and-pcl1391-contribute-to-insect-killing
#20
Pascale Flury, Pilar Vesga, Maria Péchy-Tarr, Nora Aellen, Francesca Dennert, Nicolas Hofer, Karent P Kupferschmied, Peter Kupferschmied, Zane Metla, Zongwang Ma, Sandra Siegfried, Sandra de Weert, Guido Bloemberg, Monica Höfte, Christoph J Keel, Monika Maurhofer
Particular groups of plant-beneficial fluorescent pseudomonads are not only root colonizers that provide plant disease suppression, but in addition are able to infect and kill insect larvae. The mechanisms by which the bacteria manage to infest this alternative host, to overcome its immune system, and to ultimately kill the insect are still largely unknown. However, the investigation of the few virulence factors discovered so far, points to a highly multifactorial nature of insecticidal activity. Antimicrobial compounds produced by fluorescent pseudomonads are effective weapons against a vast diversity of organisms such as fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, and protozoa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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