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Huang Shuijin, Chen Qiong, Qin Wenjing, Sun Yang, Qin Houguo, John Trumble
Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most damaging rice pests in China. Insecticides play a major role in its management. We describe how we monitored the resistance of C. suppressalis to four insecticides in seven field populations from Jiangxi, Hubei, and Hunan Provinces, China, in 2014-2016. The topical application method for resistance monitoring was suitable for triazophos, monosultap, and abamectin. The conventional rice seedling dipping method proved ineffective for testing chlorantraniliprole so the new artificial diet incorporation method was substituted...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Guodong Zhu, Yin Luo, Ming Xue, Haipeng Zhao, Xia Sun, Xinhui Wang, John Trumble
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang, the Chinese chive root maggot, is a devastating pest of agricultural plants causing significant losses in vegetable crops, edible mushrooms, and humus. To determine the effects of feeding on different host plants and diets on the life parameters of B. odoriphaga and its tolerance to stressful conditions, we analyzed the life-table data of B. odoriphaga reared on Chinese chive (Allium hookeri), Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum), garlic (Allium sativum), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), and humus and assayed its tolerance to heat and insecticides...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
D G P Oliveira, A K Bonini, L F A Alves, Jeb Owen
Control of the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer, 1797 [Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae]) is usually conducted with chemical insecticides, which have limited efficacy as well as environmental and health risks. Diatomaceous earth (DE) is safe and effective in controlling many insects including lesser mealworm. However, little is known of DE efficacy against this pest. Thus, an assessment of DE was conducted for the first time in commercial broiler houses in Brazil, with the aim of developing a strategy for the use of DE in the control of this insect...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ipek Süntar, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Davide Barreca, Nicolas Fischer, Thomas Efferth
Medicinal plants have always had great value for the human population due to their valuable constituents and potential bioactivities. The objective of this review is to present an updated overview of an important medicinal plant genus Nepeta L., from the family Lamiaceae, revealing its traditional utilization, biological activity, phytoconstituents, and mechanisms of action. For this purpose, a literature survey was carried out by using SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science followed by a revision of the bibliographies of the related articles...
October 18, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Simon Snoeck, Robert Greenhalgh, Luc Tirry, Richard M Clark, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
Synergists can counteract metabolic insecticide resistance by inhibiting detoxification enzymes or transporters. They are used in commercial formulations of insecticides, but are also frequently used in the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. However, the effect of synergists on genome-wide transcription in arthropods is poorly understood. In this study we used Illumina RNA-sequencing to investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses in an acaricide resistant strain of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae upon exposure to synergists such as S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), diethyl maleate (DEM), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gennaro Di Prisco, Marco Iannaccone, Flora Ianniello, Rosalba Ferrara, Emilio Caprio, Francesco Pennacchio, Rosanna Capparelli
Clothianidin is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide, which is a potent agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in insects. This neurotoxic compound has a negative impact on insect immunity, as it down-regulates the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Given the evolutionary conserved role of NF-κB in the modulation of the immune response in the animal kingdom, here we want to assess any effect of Clothianidin on vertebrate defense barriers. In presence of this neonicotinoid insecticide, a pro-inflammatory challenge with LPS on the human monocytic cell line THP-1 results both in a reduced production of the cytokine TNF-α and in a down-regulation of a reporter gene under control of NF-κB promoter...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lee-Jin Bong, Wu-Chun Tu, Kok-Boon Neoh, Chin-Gi Huang, Rou-Xing Ting
The phenomenon of high egg reproduction when mortality risk rises is common in mosquitoes. However, the phenomenon may vary between insecticide susceptible and field-collected strains, due to the latter's decreased energy allocation in reproduction in the presence of insecticide resistance. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chlorpyrifos (CP) and temephos (TP) exposure on the oviposition and survival of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) using a susceptible strain (KHsm) and two field strains (KHly and TNnorth)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Teng-Fei Shi, Yu-Fei Wang, Fang Liu, Lei Qi, Lin-Sheng Yu
Neonicotinoid insecticides are now the most widely used insecticides in the world. Previous studies have indicated that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impair learning, memory capacity, foraging, and immunocompetence in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Despite these, few studies have been carried out on the molecular effects of neonicotinoids. In this study, we focus on the second-generation neonicotinoid thiamethoxam, which is currently widely used in agriculture to protect crops...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shimat V Joseph
Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious pest of cruciferous crops in the central coast of California. Management of B. hilaris primarily involves the use of broad spectrum insecticides, such as pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, when the pest invades a crop field. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are known for their efficacy on nymphal stages of B. hilaris, but little is known about their transovarial effects. Thus, the major objective of this study was to determine the transovarial effects of IGRs such as novaluron, diflubenzuron, and azadirachtin, when adults are exposed to direct topical spraying and dried residues...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Erik J Wenninger, Amy Carroll, Jennifer Dahan, Alexander V Karasev, Michael Thornton, Jeff Miller, Philip Nolte, Nora Olsen, William Price
Zebra chip disease (ZC) is an emerging disease of potato in which tubers are produced with striped necrotic patterns that make them unmarketable. ZC is associated with the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso), which is transmitted by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc; Hemiptera: Triozidae). First found in Idaho during 2011, ZC now contributes to increased production costs each season via additional insecticide sprays. To clarify the extent and severity of the threat of ZC in Idaho, we sampled potato psyllids in commercial potato fields across the state over four growing seasons (2012-2015)...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Benshui Shu, Jingjing Zhang, Veeran Sethuraman, Gaofeng Cui, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
As an important botanical pesticide, azadirachtin demonstrates broad insecticidal activity against many agricultural pests. The results of a previous study indicated the toxicity and apoptosis induction of azadirachtin in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. However, the lack of genomic data has hindered a deeper investigation of apoptosis in Sf9 cells at a molecular level. In the present study, the complete transcriptome data for Sf9 cell line was accomplished using Illumina sequencing technology, and 97 putative apoptosis-related genes were identified through BLAST and KEGG orthologue annotations...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rajkumar Guchhait, Ankit Chatterjee, Shreyasi Gupta, Manashi Debnath, Dilip Mukherjee, Kousik Pramanick
Mercury is one of the key pollutants responsible for the degradation of natural aquatic ecosystems. Among the different forms of mercury that exist in the environment, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is the dominant pollutant for freshwater environments as it is used as an ingredient in antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives, insecticides, batteries and in metallurgical and photographic operations. Pollutant may exert their action on organisms or populations by affecting their normal endocrine function as well as reproduction...
October 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ingrid Chen, Huong Ngo Thi Thanh, Andrew Lover, Phung Thi Thao, Tang Viet Luu, Hoang Nghia Thang, Ngo Duc Thang, Josselyn Neukom, Adam Bennett
BACKGROUND: Vietnam has successfully reduced malaria incidence by more than 90% over the past 10 years, and is now preparing for malaria elimination. However, the remaining malaria burden resides in individuals that are hardest to reach, in highly remote areas, where many malaria cases are treated through the informal private sector and are not reported to public health systems. This qualitative study aimed to contextualize and characterize the role of private providers, care-seeking behaviour of individuals at high risk of malaria, as well as risk factors that should be addressed through malaria elimination programmes in Vietnam...
October 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
Karina Lucas Silva-Brandão, Renato Jun Horikoshi, Daniel Bernardi, Celso Omoto, Antonio Figueira, Marcelo Mendes Brandão
BACKGROUND: Our main purpose was to evaluate the expression of plastic and evolved genes involved in ecological speciation in the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW); and to demonstrate how host plants might influence lineage differentiation in this polyphagous insect. FAW is an important pest of several crops worldwide, and it is differentiated into host plant-related strains, corn (CS) and rice strains (RS). RNA-Seq and transcriptome characterization were applied to evaluate unbiased genetic expression differences in larvae from the two strains, fed on primary (corn) and alternative (rice) host plants...
October 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
T S Kalinina, V V Kononchuk, L F Gulyaeva
The insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is a nonmutagenic xenobiotic compound able to exert estrogen-like effects resulting in activation of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) followed by changed expression of its downstream target genes. In addition, studies performed over recent years suggest that DDT may also influence expression of microRNAs. However, an impact of DDT on expression of ER, microRNAs, and related target genes has not been fully elucidated. Here, using real-time PCR, we assessed changes in expression of key genes involved in hormonal carcinogenesis as well as potentially related regulatory oncogenic/tumor suppressor microRNAs and their target genes in the uterus and ovaries of female Wistar rats during single and chronic multiple-dose DDT exposure...
October 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Elizeu S Farias, Eliete M P Silva, Milena G Teixeira, Jhulyana S Ferreira, Elson S Alvarenga, Marcelo C Picanço
In this study, the insecticide potential of eight phthalides derived from furan-2(5H)-one was evaluated against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae. The potency of the most active phthalides and the susceptibility of six different T. absoluta populations to these compounds were determined. The toxicity of these molecules to two non-target species (Solenopsis saevissima Smith and Tetragonisca angustula Latreille) was also evaluated. Two phthalides (3 and 4) presented insecticide potential against T...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Essam Abdel-Saalam Shaalan, Deon Vahid Canyon
Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of disease and threaten the health of millions of people annually. While synthetic insecticides have been relied on to combat these diseases, insecticide resistance and environmental concerns have directed attention towards novel and more targeted mosquitocides derived from botanicals. Research on the activity of botanical derivatives has focused on mosquito larvae and adults with little attention given to their potential as oviposition deterrents against gravid female mosquitoes...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fiaz Alam, Qazi Najam Us Saqib
Zanthoxylum armatum fruits are used traditionally as a spice in various food preparations. The aim of this study was analysis of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, and anti-leishmanial activity. The crude extract showed 86 ± 10% antifungal activity (Agar tube dilution method) against Trichophyton longifusis while n-hexane, chloroform, and aqueous-methanol fractions inhibited this pathogen by 90 ± 7, 85 ± 10 and 70 ± 9% respectively. The n-hexane and aqueous-methanol fraction also, respectively, showed 40 ± 10 and 87 ± 9% inhibition of Microsporum canis...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Wen Zhi Wang, Ben Peng Yang, Xiao Yan Feng, Zheng Ying Cao, Cui Lian Feng, Jun Gang Wang, Guo Ru Xiong, Lin Bo Shen, Jun Zeng, Ting Ting Zhao, Shu Zhen Zhang
Genetically modified crops which had been commercial applied extensively majorly are the insect resistance and herbicide tolerance events. In this study, the Bt insecticidal gene Cry1Ab, the glyphosate-tolerant gene EPSPS, and the selection marker gene PMI were combined into a single transferred DNA fragment and introduced into sugarcane by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Thirty-three resistant plantlets were obtained after selection using a PMI/mannose selection system. Thirty of these resistant plantlets were PCR positive for the three target genes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anna Shcherbacheva, Heikki Haario, Gerry Killeen
The efficiency of spatial repellents and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) is a key research topic in malaria control. Insecticidal nets reduce the mosquito-human contact rate and simultaneously decrease mosquito populations. However, LLINs demonstrate dissimilar efficiency against different species of malaria mosquitoes. Various factors have been proposed as an explanation, including differences in insecticide-induced mortality, flight characteristics, or persistence of attack. Here we present a discrete agent-based approach that enables the efficiency of LLINs, baited traps and Insecticide Residual Sprays (IRS) to be examined...
October 11, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
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