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Alyssa M Piccolomini, Shavonn R Whiten, Michelle L Flenniken, Kevin M O'Neill, Robert K D Peterson
Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yudi T Pinilla, Stefanie C P Lopes, Vanderson S Sampaio, Francys S Andrade, Gisely C Melo, Alessandra S Orfanó, Nágila F C Secundino, Maria G V B Guerra, Marcus V G Lacerda, Kevin C Kobylinski, Karin S Escobedo-Vargas, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Craig A Stoops, G Christian Baldeviano, Joel Tarning, Gissella M Vasquez, Paulo F P Pimenta, Wuelton M Monteiro
BACKGROUND: The mosquito resistance to the insecticides threatens malaria control efforts, potentially becoming a major public health issue. Alternative methods like ivermectin (IVM) administration to humans has been suggested as a possible vector control to reduce Plasmodium transmission. Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi are competent vectors for Plasmodium vivax, and they have been responsible for various malaria outbreaks in the coast of Brazil and the Amazon Region of South America...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mateusz M Plucinski, Baltazar Candrinho, Geraldo Chambe, João Muchanga, Olinda Muguande, Graça Matsinhe, Guidion Mathe, Eric Rogier, Timothy Doyle, Rose Zulliger, James Colborn, Abu Saifodine, Patrick Lammie, Jeffrey W Priest
BACKGROUND: Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its impact on the three other main species of human malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which share the same vectors in many co-endemic areas, is not as well characterized. The recent development of multiplex antibody detection provides the opportunity for simultaneous evaluation of the impact of control measures on the burden of multiple diseases...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marisa Skaljac, Phillipp Kirfel, Jens Grotmann, Andreas Vilcinskas
BACKGROUND: Aphids are agricultural pests that damage crops by direct feeding and by vectoring important plant viruses. Bacterial symbionts can influence aphid biology, e.g. by providing essential nutrients or facilitating adaptations to biotic and abiotic stress. RESULTS: We investigated the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) and its commonly associated secondary bacterial symbiont Serratia symbiotica to study the effect of this symbiont on host fitness and susceptibility to the insecticides imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos methyl, methomyl, cyantraniliprole and spirotetramat...
February 14, 2018: Pest Management Science
Amala Infant Joice Joseph, Sivakumar Thiripuranthagan
Recombination of e-/h+ pair, the major issue of any titania based photocatalytic material, is addressed here by doping non-metals such as C, N, B, F into the lattice of nano TiO2. The as-synthesised catalysts were characterized by using various instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Nanosize of titania was confirmed by both XRD and TEM studies...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Yuan Chen, Yabing Li, Mingyuan Zhou, Qiuzhi Rui, Zezhou Cai, Xiang Zhang, Yuan Chen, Dehua Chen
Expression of insecticidal protein in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is lower in cotton reproduction organs, especially during boll development period. The current study investigated the effects of nitrogen fertilization under nitrogen deficit on boll development and Bt toxin content in boll shell, which is the first target of boll worm harm. The protein synthesis and degradation in this process was also studied to uncover the underlying mechanism. Five nitrogen levels (under nitrogen deficiency) were imposed on two cultivars, Sikang3 (hybrid) and Sikang1 (conventional), at the Yangzhou University Farm, Yangzhou, China during 2015 to 2016 cotton growth seasons...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
David Weetman, Craig S Wilding, Daniel E Neafsey, Pie Müller, Eric Ochomo, Alison T Isaacs, Keith Steen, Emily J Rippon, John C Morgan, Henry D Mawejje, Daniel J Rigden, Loyce M Okedi, Martin J Donnelly
Metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is widespread in Anopheles mosquitoes and is a major threat to malaria control. DNA markers would aid predictive monitoring of resistance, but few mutations have been discovered outside of insecticide-targeted genes. Isofemale family pools from a wild Ugandan Anopheles gambiae population, from an area where operational pyrethroid failure is suspected, were genotyped using a candidate-gene enriched SNP array. Resistance-associated SNPs were detected in three genes from detoxification superfamilies, in addition to the insecticide target site (the Voltage Gated Sodium Channel gene, Vgsc)...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dolors Bosch, Marcela A Rodríguez, Laura Depalo, Jesús Avilla
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest on pome fruit and walnut orchards worldwide. Its resistance to available insecticides has been widely reported. Chlorantraniliprole is an anthranilic diamide that was introduced in European countries in 2008-2009 and acts by activating the insect's ryanodine receptors. The aims of this study were to determine the baseline susceptibility of European populations of C. pomonella to chlorantraniliprole, to establish the discriminant concentrations (DC) to check the possible development of resistance, and to know the role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the possible susceptibility decrease of field populations to the insecticide...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sanjay Basnet, Shripat T Kamble
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has resurged as one of the most troublesome household pests affecting people across the globe. Bed bug infestations have increased in recent years primarily due to the evolution of insecticide resistance and the insect's ability to hitchhike with travelers. vATPases are one of the most evolutionarily conserved holoenzymes in eukaryotes, which are mainly involved in proton transport across the plasma membranes and intracellular organelles. RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a promising tool for insect control...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Ningthoujam Samarendra Singh, Irani Mukherjee, Shaon Kumar Das, E Varghese
Clothianidin is a widely used insecticide under Indian subtropical condition. The objective of this study was to generate residue data which aims to understand leaching potential of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2- nitroguanidine] through packed soil column. The maximum amount of clothianidin was recovered at 0-5 cm soil depth in both Manipur (67.15%) and Delhi soil (52.0%) under continuous flow condition. Manipur and Delhi soil concentrated maximum residue with or without farm yard manure (FYM) in 0-20 cm soil depth...
February 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
S Macfadyen, C Paull, L M Boykin, P De Barro, M N Maruthi, M Otim, A Kalyebi, D G Vassão, P Sseruwagi, W T Tay, H Delatte, Z Seguni, J Colvin, C A Omongo
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest species complex that causes widespread damage to cassava, a staple food crop for millions of households in East Africa. Species in the complex cause direct feeding damage to cassava and are the vectors of multiple plant viruses. Whilst significant work has gone into developing virus-resistant cassava cultivars, there has been little research effort aimed at understanding the ecology of these insect vectors. Here we assess critically the knowledge base relating to factors that may lead to high population densities of sub-Saharan African (SSA) B...
February 13, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Eman Zahran, Engy Risha, Walaa Awadin, Dušan Palić
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most common insecticides found in freshwater ecosystems, and has been detected in agricultural and fishery products worldwide. This study focused on comprehensive panel of hematological, immunotoxic and pathology changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during and after exposure to CPF at 15 μg/L (0.043 μM) (1/10 LC50, group CPF1), or 75 μg/L (0.21 μM) (1/2 LC50, group CPF2) for 14 days, followed by 2 weeks recovery. Different endpoints were used to determine effects of CPF on fish health: hematological parameters; antioxidant levels in liver and gills; innate immune parameters; expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes at mRNA level in anterior kidney and spleen; and histopathological assessment of gills, liver, and kidney tissues...
February 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shaogang Chu, Margaret R Baker, Gladys Leong, Robert J Letcher, Qing X Li
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds can bind covalently to many types of proteins and form protein adducts. These protein adducts can indicate the exposure to and neurotoxicity of OPs. In the present work, we studied adduction of tubulin with the OP insecticide profenofos in vitro and optimized the method for detection of adducted peptides. Porcine tubulin was incubated with profenofos and was then digested with trypsin, followed by mass spectrometric identification of the profenofos-modified tubulin and binding sites...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, Ahmed Abdeen
Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is extensively used in agriculture and veterinary applications. However, FPN is also a potent environmental toxicant to animals and humans. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the protective role of rosuvastatin (ROSU) and vitamin E (Vit E) against FPN-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats. Seven groups with eight rats each were used for this purpose; these groups included the control vehicle group that received corn oil, the Vit E group (1000 mg/kg, orally), the ROSU group (10 mg/kg, orally), the FPN group (20 mg/kg, orally), the FPN-ROSU group, the FPN-Vit E group, and the FPN-Vit E-ROSU group...
February 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Frederick S Walters, Gerson Graser, Andrea Burns, Alan Raybould
Many studies have been conducted to investigate synergism among insecticidal proteins; however, a consensus on minimal data requirements and interpretation is lacking. While some have concluded that all additive predictive-type models should be abandoned, we advocate that additivity models can remain useful as assessment tools and that an appropriately designed interaction study will never systematically underestimate the existence of synergism, irrespective of which additivity model (or none at all) may be used...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Gabriela de Azambuja Garcia, Mariana Rocha David, Ademir de Jesus Martins, Rafael Maciel de Freitas, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt Linss, Simone Costa Araújo, José Bento Pereira Lima, Denise Valle
BACKGROUND: In the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling Aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. However, increasing insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations might hinder insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. It will be important to understand the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance by assessing its frequency and the mechanisms by which it occurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The insecticide resistance status of four Brazilian Ae...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Giovanni M Ferri, Chiara M Guastadisegno, Graziana Intranuovo, Domenica Cavone, Francesco Birtolo, Valerio Cecinati, Brigida Pappalardi, Patrizia Corsi, Luigi Vimercati, Nicola Santoro
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that parental occupations, pesticide use, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphism are involved in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (CAL). In total, 116 cases of CAL and 162 controls were recruited and submitted to blood drawing to assess the presence of genetic polymorphisms. Parental occupations, pesticides exposure, and other potential determinants were investigated. Increased risk for CAL was associated with prenatal maternal use of insecticides/rodenticides (odds ratio [OR]=1...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Sean C Hackett, Michael B Bonsall
Ecological decision problems frequently require the optimization of a sequence of actions over time where actions may have both immediate and downstream effects. Dynamic programming can solve such problems only if the problem dimensionality is sufficiently low. Approximate dynamic programming (ADP) provides a suite of methods applicable to problems of arbitrary complexity at the expense of guaranteed optimality. The most easily generalised method is the lookahead policy: a brute-force algorithm which identifies reasonable actions by constructing and solving a series of temporally truncated approximations of the full problem over a defined planning horizon...
February 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Armando A Durant-Archibold, Ana I Santana, Mahabir P Gupta
ETHNOPHARMACOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
XingYu Liu, QiuPing Zhang, ShiBao Li, Ping Mi, DongYan Chen, Xin Zhao, XiZeng Feng
Synthetic organic insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, neonicotinoids and other types, have the potential to alter the ecosystems and many are harmful to humans. This study examines the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of three synthetic organic insecticides, including deltamethrin (DM), acephate (AP), and thiamethoxam (TM), using embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Results showed that DM exposure led to embryo development delay and a significant increase in embryo mortality at 24 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf)...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
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