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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#1
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost two centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to non-target species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228312/susceptibility-of-lobesia-botrana-lepidoptera-tortricidae-to-chlorantraniliprole-in-the-emilia-romagna-region-of-northeast-italy
#2
Stefano Pasquini, Marie Odile Haxaire-Lutun, Jean-Luc Rison, Wilbert G Flier, Luis A Teixeira
The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is regarded as the most important insect pest of wine grapes in Europe. If not properly controlled, it can cause significant direct and indirect yield losses due to secondary infections of grape berries by Botrytis cinerea. For these reasons, it is important to preserve the activity of insecticides used against this pest, as the number of insecticidal mode of actions available to control Lepidoptera species on wine grapes in Europe is limited...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228258/reply-to-the-article-in-defense-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-the-safest-and-most-successful-microbial-insecticide-available-to-humanity-a-response-to-efsa
#3
Maria Teresa da Silva Felicio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228197/efficacy-of-13-commercial-household-aerosol-insecticides-against-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae-from-morelos-mexico
#4
Pablo A Kuri-Morales, Fabián Correa-Morales, Cassandra González-Acosta, Miguel Moreno-Garcia, Eduardo Dávalos-Becerril, José Ismael Benitez-Alva, Jorge Peralta-Rodriguez, Victor Salazar-Bueyes, Jesús F González-Roldán
In Mexico, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses. Control programs include community participation using personal protection such as household aerosol insecticides. In both, urban or rural areas, the use of aerosol insecticides is a common practice to avoiding mosquito biting. Thus, information on the efficacy of commercial products must be available. This study reports the efficacy of 13 household aerosol insecticides against Ae. aegypti from an endemic dengue area in Mexico...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228021/inheritance-mode-and-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-imidacloprid-in-the-house-fly-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae-from-china
#5
Zhuo Ma, Jing Li, Yi Zhang, Chao Shan, Xiwu Gao
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS) with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224357/investigation-of-the-nucleophilic-attack-of-dichlorvos-by-reduced-sulfur-species-using-1h-nmr
#6
Saumil Christian, Padmanava Pradhan, Urs Jans
The mechanism of the reaction of dichlorvos through hydrolysis reactions and through the reaction with polysulfide (Sn2-) and thiophenolate (PhS-) were investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The study confirmed product identities of an organophosphorus insecticide reacting with reduced sulfur species using 1H NMR in oxygen sensitive solutions. The experiments of dichlorvos with polysulfide led to the detection of a previously undetected product. The thiophenolate experiments were further advanced to investigate second-order rate kinetics using an internal standard...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224253/phytochemical-composition-and-biological-activities-of-dyssodia-tagetiflora-lag
#7
Ana María García-Bores, Amira Arciniegas-Arciniegas, Alma Reyna Campos, Carlos Céspedes-Acuña, Betsaida Avila-Suárez, Julio Alarcón-Enos, Saul Flores-Maya, Adriana Montserrat Espinosa-González, Alfonso Romo de Vivar-Romo, Carlos Pérez Plasencia, José Guillermo Avila-Acevedo
While plants of the genus Dyssodia are used by man to a certain extent, few phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been performed with species of this genus. D. tagetiflora is an endemic plant of Mexico and has been used as fodder. The aim of this research was to isolate and identify the main bioactive components and evaluate the insecticidal, antioxidant, genotoxic and cytoprotective activities of D. tagetiflora. The isolated substances included an essential oil composed of six monoterpenes, and extracts containing two flavonols, three flavonol-glycosides and four thiophenes...
December 10, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223796/species-specific-rna-a-to-i-editing-of-mosquito-rdl-modulates-gaba-potency-and-influences-agonistic-potentiating-and-antagonistic-actions-of-ivermectin
#8
Jennina Taylor-Wells, Anish Senan, Isabel Bermudez, Andrew K Jones
The insect GABA receptor, RDL, is the target of several classes of pesticides. The peptide sequences of RDL are generally highly conserved between diverse insects. However, RNA A-to-I editing can effectively alter amino acid residues of RDL in a species specific manner, which can affect the potency of GABA and possibly insecticides. We report here that RNA A-to-I editing alters the gene products of Rdl in three mosquito disease vectors, recoding five amino acid residues in RDL of Aedes aegypti and six residues in RDLs of Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens, which is the highest extent of editing in RDL observed to date...
December 6, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222706/acute-toxicity-of-fresh-and-aged-residues-of-pesticides-to-the-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-and-to-the-hlb-bacteria-vector-diaphorina-citri
#9
V H Beloti, G R Alves, R A Moral, C G B Demétrio, P T Yamamoto
One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system...
December 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220519/aggregation-patterns-sampling-plan-and-economic-injury-levels-for-the-new-citrus-pest-delottococcus-aberiae-hemiptera-pseudococcidae
#10
J Pérez-Rodríguez, V Martínez-Blay, A Soto, J Selfa, C Monzó, A Urbaneja, A Tena
Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is the latest exotic mealybug species introduced in citrus in the Mediterranean basin. It causes severe distortion and size reduction on developing fruits. Due to its first interaction with citrus, D. aberiae economic thresholds are still unknown for this crop and the current Integrated Pest Management programs have been disrupted. The objectives of this study were to determine the aggregation patterns of D. aberiae in citrus, develop an efficient sampling plan to assess its population density, and calculate its Economic and Economic Environmental Injury Levels (EIL and EEIL, respectively)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220517/determining-the-effectiveness-of-three-gene-pyramids-against-aphis-glycines-hemiptera-aphididae-biotypes
#11
A J Varenhorst, S R Pritchard, M E O'Neal, E W Hodgson, A K Singh
Since the discovery of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States, the primary management tactic has been foliar insecticides. Alternative management options such as host plant resistance to A. glycines have been developed and their effectiveness proved. However, the use of host plant resistance was complicated by the discovery of multiple, virulent biotypes of A. glycines in the United States that are capable of overcoming single Rag genes, Rag1 and Rag2, as well as a two-gene pyramid of Rag1+Rag2...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220516/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-four-insecticides-on-the-aphidophagous-coccinellid-adalia-bipunctata-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#12
Laura Depalo, Alberto Lanzoni, Antonio Masetti, Edison Pasqualini, Giovanni Burgio
Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220500/toxicities-of-selected-essential-oils-silicone-oils-and-paraffin-oil-against-the-common-bed-bug-hemiptera-cimicidae
#13
Chen Zha, Changlu Wang, Andrew Li
The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220481/blended-refuge-and-insect-resistance-management-for-insecticidal-corn
#14
David W Onstad, Andre L B Crespo, Zaiqi Pan, Philip R Crain, Stephen D Thompson, Clinton D Pilcher, Amit Sethi
In this review, we evaluate the intentional mixing or blending of insecticidal seed with refuge seed for managing resistance by insects to insecticidal corn (Zea mays). We first describe the pest biology and farming practices that will contribute to weighing trade-offs between using block refuges and blended refuges. Case studies are presented to demonstrate how the trade-offs will differ in different systems. We compare biological aspects of several abstract models to guide the reader through the history of modeling, which has played a key role in the promotion or denigration of blending in various scientific debates about insect resistance management for insecticidal crops...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217407/can-we-predict-intermediate-syndrome-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Chanika Alahakoon, Tharaka Lagath Dassanayake, Indika Bandara Gawarammana, Vajira Senaka Weerasinghe
INTRODUCTION: Ingestion of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) is a common method of deliberate self harm in the developing world. Deaths mainly follow as a result of the respiratory failure associated with both cholinergic crisis and the intermediate syndrome. Even though death can be prevented by early mechanical ventilation of these patients, limited studies are available regarding the prediction of intermediate syndrome and subsequent respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review articles that are published with regard to possible prediction of intermediate syndrome using clinical, biochemical and electrophysiological parameters...
December 4, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214339/genes-involved-in-beauveria-bassiana-infection-to-galleria-mellonella
#16
Anhui Chen, Yulong Wang, Ying Shao, Qiumei Zhou, Shanglong Chen, Yonghua Wu, Hongwei Chen, Enqi Liu
The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a natural pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. Many genes involved in fungal insecticide infection have been identified but few have been further explored. In this study, we constructed three transcriptomes of B. bassiana at 24, 48 and 72 h post infection of insect pests (BbI) or control (BbC). There were 3148, 3613 and 4922 genes differentially expressed at 24, 48 and 72 h post BbI/BbC infection, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213327/green-route-to-synthesis-of-valuable-chemical-6-hydroxynicotine-from-nicotine-in-tobacco-wastes-using-genetically-engineered-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-s33
#17
Wenjun Yu, Rongshui Wang, Huili Li, Jiyu Liang, Yuanyuan Wang, Haiyan Huang, Huijun Xie, Shuning Wang
Background: Tobacco is widely planted as an important nonfood economic crop throughout the world, and large amounts of tobacco wastes are generated during the tobacco manufacturing process. Tobacco and its wastes contain high nicotine content. This issue has become a major concern for health and environments due to its toxicity and complex physiological effects. The microbial transformation of nicotine into valuable functionalized pyridine compounds is a promising way to utilize tobacco and its wastes as a potential biomass resource...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212553/household-knowledge-and-practices-concerning-malaria-and-indoor-residual-spraying-in-an-endemic-area-earmarked-for-malaria-elimination-in-iran
#18
Abdoulhossain Madani, Moussa Soleimani-Ahmadi, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Seyed Aghil Jaberhashemi, Mehdi Zare, Teamur Aghamolaei
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) is a key intervention for reducing the burden of malaria infection. Effectiveness and success of this strategy are to a considerable extent dependent on knowledge and practice of the target community regarding the IRS. Iran has entered the malaria elimination phase, and IRS has been considered as the main strategy for malaria vector control. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the household knowledge and practices about malaria and IRS in Bashagard County, one of the malaria-endemic areas in the southeast of Iran...
December 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211847/changes-in-neuronal-signaling-and-cell-stress-response-pathways-are-associated-with-a-multigenic-response-of-drosophila-melanogaster-to-ddt-selection
#19
Keon Mook Seong, Brad S Coates, Weilin Sun, John M Clark, Barry R Pittendrigh
The adaptation of insect populations to insecticidal control is a continual threat to human health and sustainable agricultural practices, but many complex genomic mechanisms involved in this adaption remain poorly understood. This study applied a systems approach to investigate the interconnections between structural and functional variance in response to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) within the Drosophila melanogaster strain 91-R. Directional selection in six selective sweeps coincided with constitutive gene expression differences in DDT resistant flies, including the most highly up-regulated transcript, Unc-115b, which plays a central role in axon guidance, and the most highly down-regulated transcript, the angiopoietin-like CG31832, which is involved in directing vascular branching and dendrite outgrowth but likely under trans-regulatory control...
December 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211465/gene-co-expression-networks-drive-and-predict-reproductive-effects-in-daphnia-in-response-to-environmental-disturbances
#20
J Asselman, M E Pfrender, J A Lopez, J R Shaw, Kac De Schamphelaere
Increasing effects of anthropogenic stressors and those of natural origin on aquatic ecosystems have intensified the need for predictive and functional models of their effects. Here, we use gene expression patterns in combination with weighted gene co-expression networks and generalized additive models to predict effects on reproduction in the aquatic microcrustacean Daphnia. We developed models to predict effects on reproduction upon exposure to different cyanobacteria, different insecticides and binary mixtures of cyanobacteria and insecticides...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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