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Jason P van de Merwe, Peta A Neale, Steven D Melvin, Frederic D L Leusch
Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay...
March 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Héla Toumi, Moncef Boumaiza, Maurice Millet, Claudemir Marcos Radetski, Baba Issa Camara, Vincent Felten, Jean-François Masfaraud, Jean-François Férard
We studied the combined acute effect (i.e., after 48 h) of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) on Daphnia magna. Two approaches were used to examine the potential interaction effects of eight mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion: (i) calculation of mixture toxicity index (MTI) and safety factor index (SFI) and (ii) response surface methodology coupled with isobole-based statistical model (using generalized linear model). According to the calculation of MTI and SFI, one tested mixture was found additive while the two other tested mixtures were found no additive (MTI) or antagonistic (SFI), but these differences between index responses are only due to differences in terminology related to these two indexes...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
John Vontas, Linda Grigoraki, John Morgan, Dimitra Tsakireli, Godwin Fuseini, Luis Segura, Julie Niemczura de Carvalho, Raul Nguema, David Weetman, Michel A Slotman, Janet Hemingway
Since 2004, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets (LLINs) have reduced the malaria parasite prevalence in children on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, from 45% to 12%. After target site-based (knockdown resistance; kdr ) pyrethroid resistance was detected in 2004 in Anopheles coluzzii (formerly known as the M form of the Anopheles gambiae complex), the carbamate bendiocarb was introduced. Subsequent analysis showed that kdr alone was not operationally significant, so pyrethroid-based IRS was successfully reintroduced in 2012...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sumaira Saleem, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari
Azadirachta indica L. is a multipurpose medicinal tree of family Meliaceae. It occurs in tropical and semitropical regions of the world. Different parts of this miraculous tree are used to treat pyrexia, headache, ulcer, respiratory disorders, cancer, diabetes, leprosy, malaria, dengue, chicken pox, and dermal complications. The tree is popular for its pharmacological attributes such as hypolipidemic, antifertility, microbicidal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antipyretic, hypoglycemic, insecticidal, nematicidal, antiulcer, antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antileishmaniasis properties...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Perrine Branchet, Emmanuelle Cadot, Hélène Fenet, David Sebag, Benjamin Ngounou Ngatcha, Valérie Borrell-Estupina, Jules Remy Ndam Ngoupayou, Ives Kengne, Jean-Jacques Braun, Catherine Gonzalez
Urban agriculture is crucial to local populations, but the risk of it contaminating water has rarely been documented. The aim of this study was to assess pesticide contamination of surface waters from the Méfou watershed (Yaoundé, Cameroon) by 32 selected herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides (mainly polar) according to their local application, using both grab sampling and polar organic compounds integrative samplers (POCIS). Three sampling campaigns were conducted in the March/April and October/November 2015 and June/July 2016 rainy seasons in urban and peri-urban areas...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaolin Zhu, Shaomin Zhou, Jing Guo, Xiyue Zhao, Guanghua Yang, Zhiqiang Cai
Paichongding (IPP) is a neonicotinoid chiral insecticide with independent intellectual property in China. IPP application can increase crop yield, and also lead to insecticide residue and pollution in soils, which will affect microbial population and community composition in soils. In this study, four different types of soils were employed to inquire into the impact of IPP on eukaryal community and species-group through pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons. Fungal population differed in different soils at different days after IPP treatment (DAT)...
April 18, 2018: AMB Express
Yiou Pan, Fayi Tian, Xiang Wei, Yongqiang Wu, Xiwu Gao, Jinghui Xi, Qingli Shang
Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes that conjugate a variety of small lipophilic molecules with UDP sugars and alter them into more water-soluble metabolites. Therefore, glucosidation plays a major role in the inactivation and excretion of a great variety of both endogenous and exogenous compounds. In this study, two inhibitors of UGT enzymes, sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil, significantly increased the toxicity of thiamethoxam against the resistant strain of Aphis gossypii , which indicates that UGTs are involved in thiamethoxam resistance in the cotton aphid...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Terry L Erwin, Charlotte Aldebron
Thoasia Liebke, 1939 and Straneotia Mateu, 1961 of the Cryptobatida group, subtribe Agrina, Lebiini, living in the Neotropics are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Occurrences of known species ranges are limited to the northern and western Amazon Basin and Guyana Shield. The following species are described as new: Thoasia surinamensis Erwin & Aldebron, sp. n. , Suriname, Thoasia pterosmaragdos Aldebron & Erwin, sp. n. , French Guiana, Thoasia manu Erwin & Aldebron, sp. n. , Ecuador, Perú; Straneotia cylindroceps Erwin & Aldebron, sp...
2018: ZooKeys
Rosilawati Rasli, Han Lim Lee, Nazni Wasi Ahmad, Siti Futri Farahininajua Fikri, Roziah Ali, Khairul Asuad Muhamed, Azahari Abdul Hadi, Qi-Yong Liu, Feng Xia Meng
This study is intended to provide a comprehensive characterization of the resistance mechanisms in the permethrin-selected (IMR-PSS) and laboratory susceptible (IMR-LS) Aedes aegypti strain from Malaysia. Both IMR-PSS and IMR-LS provide a standard model for use in assessing the pyrethroid resistance in field-collected strains collected from three dengue hotspots: the Taman Seri Bayu (TSB), the Flat Camar (FC), and the Taman Dahlia (TD). Two established methods for determining the resistance mechanisms of the pyrethroid are the quantification of detoxification enzymes via enzyme microassay and the nucleotide sequencing of the domain 2 region from segment 1 to 6 via classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification-were employed...
April 18, 2018: Insects
Parfait H Awono-Ambene, Josiane Etang, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio, Cyrille Ndo, Wolfgang Ekoko Eyisap, Michael C Piameu, Elysée S Mandeng, Ranaise L Mbakop, Jean Claude Toto, Salomon Patchoke, Abraham P Mnzava, Tessa B Knox, Martin Donnelly, Etienne Fondjo, Jude D Bigoga
BACKGROUND: Following the recent discovery of the role of Anopheles rufipes Gough, 1910 in human malaria transmission in the northern savannah of Cameroon, we report here additional information on its feeding and resting habits and its susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin. METHODS: From 2011 to 2015, mosquito samples were collected in 38 locations across Garoua, Mayo Oulo and Pitoa health districts in North Cameroon. Adult anophelines collected using outdoor clay pots, window exit traps and indoor spray catches were checked for feeding status, blood meal origin and Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein...
April 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Benjamin D Jaffe, Christelle Guédot, Peter J Landolt
Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major pest of pome fruits worldwide. Fruit is damaged by larval feeding, and numbers of larvae are directly related to the numbers of females in the preceding generation. In Pacific Northwest, apple orchards, C. pomonella are generally managed with insecticides and mating disruption. However, additional control methods are needed when these treatments fail or are undesirable. Using a three-component kairomone lure that attracts both sexes, we mass-trapped C...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dominic D Reisig, Anders S Huseth, Jack S Bacheler, Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Lewis Braswell, Hannah J Burrack, Kathy Flanders, Jeremy K Greene, D Ames Herbert, Alana Jacobson, Silvana V Paula-Moraes, Phillip Roberts, Sally V Taylor
Evidence of practical resistance of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bt cotton in the United States is debatable, supported with occasional reports of boll damage in the field. Our objective was to provide both empirical and long-term observational evidence of practical resistance by linking both in-season and end-of-season measurements of H. zea damage to pyramided Bt cotton bolls and to provide Cry1Ac diet-based bioassay data in support of these damage estimates. In-season boll damage from H...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ana L Llandres, Raki Almohamad, Thierry Brévault, Alain Renou, Idrissa Téréta, Janine Jean, François-Regis Goebel
Enhancing cotton pest management using plant natural defenses has been described as a promising way to improve the management of crop pests. We here reviewed different studies on cotton growing systems to illustrate how an ancient technique called plant training, which includes plant topping and pruning, may contribute to this goal. Based on examples from cotton crops, we show how trained plants could be promoted to a state of enhanced defense that causes faster and more robust activation of their defense responses...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yu Zhang, Beth Lorsbach, Scott Castetter, William T Lambert, Jeremy Kister, Nick X Wang, Carla Klittich, Joshua Roth, Thomas C Sparks, Mike R Loso
The relentless need for the discovery and development of new agrochemicals continues due to driving forces such as loss of existing products through the development of resistance, the necessity for products with more favorable environmental and toxicological profiles, shifting pest spectra, and the changing agricultural needs and practices of the farming community. These new challenges underscore the demand for novel, high quality starting points to accelerate the discovery of new agrochemicals that address market challenges...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
Haruka Endo, Shiho Tanaka, Satomi Adegawa, Fumika Ichino, Hiroko Tabunoki, Shingo Kikuta, Ryoichi Sato
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins used widely for pest control. They are lethal to a restricted range of insects via specific interactions with insect receptors such as the ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily members C2 (ABCC2) and C3 (ABCC3). It is unclear how these different receptors contribute to insect susceptibility to Cry1A toxins. Here, we investigated the differences between the silkworm (Bombyx mori) ABCC2 (BmABCC2_S) and ABCC3 (BmABCC3) receptors in mediating Cry toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tong Liu, Xiaolian Zhang, Xiuguo Wang, Dan Chen, Yiqiang Li, Fenglong Wang
Dinotefuran, as the latest generation of neonicotinoid insecticide, has broad application prospects around the world. However, dinotefuran is easily metabolized and the two main metabolites are 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea (UF) and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidium dihydrogen (DN). In the present study, the risks of UF and DN in soil on typical non-target species earthworm were investigated. In the same time, the degradation in soil and accumulation in earthworms of UF and DN were monitored...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
Paula Moyano, María Teresa Frejo, María José Anadon, José Manuel García, María Jesús Díaz, Margarita Lobo, Emma Sola, Jimena García, Javier Del Pino
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate insecticide described to induce cognitive disorders, both after acute and repeated administration. However, the mechanisms through which it induces these effects are unknown. CPF has been reported to produce basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal cell death, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. Neuronal cell death was partially mediated by oxidative stress generation, P75NTR and α7 -nAChRs gene expression alteration triggered through acetylcholinesterase (AChE) variants disruption, suggesting other mechanisms are involved...
April 14, 2018: Toxicology
Sara E Scanga, Bilal Hasanspahič, Edin Zvorničanin, Jasmina Samardžić Koženjić, Andrew K Rahme, Jessica H Shinn-Thomas
Erythritol, a non-nutritive polyol, is the main component of the artificial sweetener Truvia®. Recent research has indicated that erythritol may have potential as an organic insecticide, given its harmful effects on several insects but apparent safety for mammals. However, for erythritol to have practical use as an insecticide in agricultural settings, it must have neutral to positive effects on crop plants and other non-target organisms. We examined the dose-dependent effects of erythritol (0, 5, 50, 500, 1000, and 2000 mM) on corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling growth and seed germination...
2018: PloS One
Fernando G Iturburu, María F Simoniello, Sandra Medici, Ana M Panzeri, Mirta L Menone
Neonicotinoids are one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. DNA damage is considered an early biological effect which could lead to reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate DNA damage and bases oxidation as a mechanism of genotoxicity, on the freshwater fish Australoheros facetus acutely exposed to imidacloprid (IMI). The Comet assay with the nuclease ENDO III enzyme was performed for detecting pyrimidine bases oxidation using blood samples. Micronucleus and other nuclear abnormalities frequencies were also quantified...
April 16, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Chengcheng Fei, Yanfei Chen, Zhiyan Jiang, Dingxin Jiang
Owing to thioether diverse physicochemical properties by non-covalent interactions with bio-macromolecules, thioether derivatives containing heterocyclic moiety are known for their interesting insecticidal bioactivities and attracting considerable attention as neuroactive insecticides. Here we synthesis a series of novel thioether bridged N-phenylpyrazole derivatives incorporating various (hetero)aromatic substituents into 4-position of the pyrazole ring. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies resulted in compounds 6d and 7d with the most potent insecticidal activity among the series containing various substituted benzene substituents (LC50  = 13...
April 12, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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