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Egypt plagues

Iman F Abou-El-Naga
Schistosomiasis is a snail-transmitted infectious disease caused by a long lasting infection with a blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma. S. haematobium and S. mansoni are the species endemic in Egypt. The country has been plagued and seriously suffered from schistosomiasis over the past 5000 years. Great strides had been done in controlling the disease since 1922. The history, epidemiology and the different control approaches were reviewed. Currently, Egypt is preparing towards schistosomiasis elimination by 2020...
May 2018: Acta Tropica
Xavier Didelot, Lilith K Whittles, Ian Hall
Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Lutz G Gürtler, Josef Eberle
Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Veronica Rodriguez, Eric Laurent Maranda, Jacqueline Cortizo, Aleksandra Augustynowicz, Lauren Duffey Crow, Joaquin J Jimenez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Maliya Alia Malek, Idir Bitam, Michel Drancourt
We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks that resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75%) and Egypt (20%), resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbors and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. By contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976 was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Iman F Abou-El-Naga
Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies...
November 2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Wael M Lotfy
Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded...
July 2015: Journal of Advanced Research
Ahmad A Othman, Rasha H Soliman
Schistosomiasis has plagued the Egyptian population since the antiquity. The disease is still a public health problem in Egypt, despite the tendency of being overlooked. In the first part of this review, the past and current trends of schistosomiasis in Egypt are reviewed, including history, epidemiology, morbidity, therapy, and control of the disease. Most of these aspects are more or less relevant to other schistosome-endemic regions all over the world. As only one drug is currently available for individual treatment and preventive mass chemotherapy, the quest for complementary measures is urgently warranted...
August 2015: Acta Tropica
Rob Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Weiyang Chen, Ilze Vermaak, Alvaro Viljoen
The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains...
May 10, 2013: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mamdouh M El-Bahnasawy, M Sayed Ahmed Gabr, Magda A Abdel-Fattah, Wafaa A Ibrahim Gaber, Tosson A Morsy
Many employees return home with fever with or without other accompanying symptoms. Fever can be a manifestation of a minor, self-limited process or can herald a progressive, life-threatening illness. The assessment of this group is often hampered by the clinician's lack of familiarity with the types of infections that the patient may have encountered while traveling. The evaluation of such patients should focus on: What infections are possible given where the patient has lived or traveled and the time when exposures may have occurred? Which of these infections is more probable given the patient's clinical findings and potential exposures? Which of these infections is treatable or transmissible or both? On the other hand, the outbreak of plague at the Libyan-Egyptian borders and the high density rodents and their ecto-parasitic fleas in many Egyptian governorates should be embarked a control program to rodents and fleas and to raise the awareness of the concerned authorizes...
August 2012: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Sergio Sabbatani, Roberto Manfredi, Sirio Fiorino
The Islamic Empire started its tumultuous and rapid expansion from the year 622 A.D. (the year of Mohammed's Egira). This rapid growth coincided with the epidemic spread of the bubonic plague in the Middle East. Although a first epidemic event had been documented in the year 570 A.D. (pre-Islamic phase), in the Arabic peninsula, classically according to M.W. Dols five severe episodes of plague sub-epidemics are considered in the middle-eastern geographic area: the first occurred in 627 and 628 A.D., the fifth in 716 A...
September 2012: Le Infezioni in Medicina
James A Okeno, Jeffrey D Wolt, Manjit K Misra, Lulu Rodriguez
High relative poverty levels in Africa are attributed to the continent's under performing agriculture. Drought, low-yielding crop varieties, pests and diseases, poor soils, low fertilizer use, limited irrigation and lack of modern technologies are among the problems that plague African agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) crops may possess attributes that can help overcome some of these constraints, but have yet to be fully embraced in the mix of technology solutions for African agriculture. Cognizant of this, South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt are steadily growing GM crops on a commercial scale...
January 25, 2013: New Biotechnology
J H Wassili, Cyril Baradaeus
Egypt, whose soil germinated the first civilization, monotheism, refined ethics and culture of sharing the abundance of extracted natural resources among its populace became the crucible proliferating de-novo genotypes of organic and moral maladies. The enigma is these mutations are synchronized by several factors, namely; failing medical health, if there is any, abundant filth, cultural bankruptcy, over population, dogmatic militarism, societal deprivation and characterization, etc. These domineering ingredients fossilized Egypt as of 1952 coup in an irrevocable national apoptosis, together with the crippled social justice and imbalanced distribution of wealth among Egyptians, rates of bacterial and viral evolution to second generation resistant to known medical interventions are expected to exponentially accelerate...
October 2012: Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets
Jean-François Hutin
Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank...
January 2012: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
Andrew Lawler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2011: Science
Costas Tsiamis
The aim of the present study is to collect the epidemic outbreaks and the epidemic waves of the bubonic plague of the Byzantine Empire during the first pandemic (541-751 AD). Human activities, such as trade and military movements have been speculated as underlying factors for the causation of the pandemic. Historical data combined with geographical spreading of the plague, allows an alternative speculation of suspicious enzootic areas in the Middle East. We conclude that the possible existence of enzootic areas in that region might have been responsible for the causation of the numerous outbreaks of the bubonic plague in the Eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire during the 6th-8th century period...
December 2010: Vesalius: Acta Internationales Historiae Medicinae
Catherine Kelly
This article investigates how French and British army medical officers in Egypt at the turn of the 19th century were affected by campaign experiences. Their encounters with ophthalmia, plague, and other diseases influenced the practice of medicine in later campaigns and fostered the development of the idea amongst military practitioners that military diseases required specialised knowledge. Practitioners' campaign writings are used to demonstrate how British army doctors approached the investigation of the "new" diseases they encountered...
2010: Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Bulletin Canadien D'histoire de la Médecine
Sergio Sabbatani, Sirio Fiorino
In ancient times the term pestilence referred not only to infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, but also to several different epidemics. We explore the relations between references in the Bible and recent scientific evidence concerning some infectious diseases, especially the so-called Plague of the Philistines and leprosy. In addition, some considerations regarding possible connections among likely infectious epidemic diseases and the Ten Plagues of Egypt are reported. Evidence suggesting the presence of the rat in the Nile Valley in the II millennium BC is shown; a possible role of the rat in the plague spreading already in this historical period should be confirmed by these data...
September 2010: Le Infezioni in Medicina
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 1924: British Medical Journal (1857-1980)
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